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President of Yale College 







Two CoDies Received 

JUN 27 »906 

_--Oopy right Entry 
CLASS iA XXc. No. 

Copyright, 1884, 
By G. & C. MERRIAM & CO. 

Copyright, 1906, 

Web. Prac. Diet. 

Electrotyped by H. O. Houghton and Company, 



The purpose of this volume is to supply, in as compact a form as "fe consistent with clearness, 
the orthography, pronunciation, and meaning of all English words wliich are liliely to be en- 
countered by the general reader or the student. Words of an exclusively technical or scientific 
nature are in general omitted, — both to reserve space for the adequate treatment of words in 
general use, and because the limited class of persons who desire information of this kind would in 
any case refer to encyclopedias or glossaries devoted to an especial field. 

Although the book is small, it will be found to contain a more copious vocabulary and fuller 
definitions of the essential words, than many dictionaries of greater bulk. The illustrations, which 
have been proftisely used wherever they could aid the imderstanding of the subject, will be found 
in many cases to afford a clearer explanation than could be given by the use of words. 

Arrangement of Words. — The great condensation of the book is due in part to the exclusion 
of definitions of derived words, which are in fact self-explanatory as soon as the root-word is 
thoroughly defined. For instance, under the vocabulary word Blame (p. 38), Blamable is de- 
fined, but not Blamableness or Blamably ; Blameless, but not Blamelessly or Blameless- 
ness ; Blameworthy, but not Mameworthiness : the words, however, are given ; also their 
pronunciation is invariably indicated by accents, or by respelling when necessary ; so also is the 
part of speech, by the conventional signs uniformly employed. — But the principal saving of space 
is due to the system of referring words, formed upon a common prefix, to the first of these words 
which occurs alphabetically ; explaining there the prefix fully and once for all. For example, 
the inseparable prefix In-, having a negative force, is fully accounted for in its regular alphabet- 
ical place ; its euphonic changes (into i- before gn- ; il- before I- ; im- before m and p ; and ir- 
before r-) are described ; and then reference is made to the five vocabulary words under which, 
8ucti formatives are grouped : viz. : — 

Ignoble, covering 13 words, and occupying | of a column. 

niandable, covering 20 words, and occupying | of a column. 

Immaculate, covering 132 words, and occupying 3 columns. 

Inability, covering 415 words, and occupying lOJ- columns. 

Irrational, covering 34 words, and occupying 1| columns. 

Total 614 words, occupying 14| columns. 

In the Unabridged Dictionary the corresponding words, as ascertained by measurement, fill 147" 
of its much ampler columns ; and — by reason of the strictly alphabetical arrangement of that 
work — extend over 65 pages ( words of different derivation being of course intermingled with 
them), as against 7 J pages of Wis volume. 

Another similar economy, which has effected the saving of much space, is illustrated by the 
following entry (p. 32) : — 

Be-, prefix, has sometimes an intensive force, as besprinkle. Prefixed to nouns or adjectives, it often has 
the meaning to make, and transforms them into verbs : thus Bedim, Befool, mean to make dim, to make a 
fool of. Sometimes it has the meaning of by, as Beside. For words beginning ■with Be- not foim.d in this vo- 
cabulary, see the original word : thus, for Bedaub, Bedim, etc., see Daub, Dim, etc. 

A like saving has been effected in the case of many of these prolific prefixes. Thus, Se-, with 
its form Red-, having been accounted for (p. 335), the generality of words sb constructed aro: 



disposed of by the note : " It may be prefixed to almost any verb and many substantives, the word 
so formed being usually self-explanatory." Still, when a diEEerence in either pronunciation or 
meaning has taken place, both forms are given and defined : for instance, Rec^ollect' and Re- 
collect' are combined in a single paragraph (p. 337), as being of identical derivation ; but their 
widely divergent meanings are adequately defined ; while their primitive meaning is left to be 
sought under Collect. 

System of Grouping. — A saving similar to that made by associating words having the same 
prefix has been accomplished by consolidating into one paragraph words derived from the same 
root, provided they have the same initial letter. Thus, under the noim Air (p. 10) are given, 
first, the direct derivatives, the verb, To Air, the noun Airing, adjective Airy, adverb Airily, 
noun Airiness ; then follow, alphabetically, the derived compounds — viz. : Alr'batll, -bed, 
-bladder, etc., — of which there are 16 ; and the result is that 21 words are adequately accounted 
for in 42 lines, although a space equal to 5 of these lines is given to an illustration showing the 
construction of an Air-pump ; whereas the corresponding words occupy just 200 lines of the broader 
columns of the Unabridged. Again, under Water (p. 499), this book covers 49 words in 190 lines, 
or about 2 Columns, including 6 illustrations ; while in the Unabridged the word and its deriva- 
tions fill 7| columns, or 837 lines. — It must be explained, however, that, while words of identical 
etymology have been thus systematically grouped, great care has been taken to indicate the dif- 
ference between words having the same spelling and pronunciation, but a different etymology. 
Thus, on page 399, there are 4 separate paragraphs headed Sound, both the meaning and origin 
of these words and their derivations being totally distinct. There are also 3 entirely different 
words, Smack (p. 392), yet of the same pronunciation. This point is dwelt upon because, in many 
elaborate dictionaries, words from totally different sources and of dissimilar meanings have been 
grouped as if they were of identical origin — which is hopelessly confusing to a student of the 
language. — It should, however, be understood that only words having the same initial letter are 
thus associated ; but reference is made to cognate words, if they begin with a different prefix or 
oompound, so as to show their common origin, however widely they may be separated alphabeti- 
cally. For instance, the paragraph Stand (p. 410) includes 20 words and phrases which fall al- 
phabetically under stand- ; and these fill but 55 lines, or about two thirds of a column. To trace 
out the significance of this group of allied words, the student should examine each of them, 
with its derivatives. For example, in the case of Stand, its derivatives Understand, Under- 
standing, etc., are grouped among the 67 words associated under the leading word Under; as 
are Withstand, etc., under With. By this system many pages have been saved in the aggregate. 
While words have been thus grouped in accordance with their etymologies, the etymologies 
themselves have necessarily been omitted, in order to secure the extreme brevity of the work. 
Those who desire the etymologies will find them given, with a fullness not sought in much 
"bulkier works, in the slightly larger Condensed Dictionary of the English Language, of which the 
present volume is an abridgment. 

Pronunciation. — The marks indicating pronunciation have been made as few and as simple as 
is consistent with clearness and precision. The leading word of each paragraph is respelled pho- 
netically ; but subsequent words within the paragraph are respelled only in instances where the 
pronunciation changes, or where for any reason it might be doubtful.* — An unmarked vowel, 
followed by a consonant in the same syllable, is short (as am, end, in, odd, sun) : an unmarked 
vowel forming a syllable by itself, or ending a syllable, is long, or has its name sound (as a, be, 
■di-al, no, fu-el, by) ; but a, not under the accent, forming or ending a syllable, has a brief sound 
of a in. far, or in some cases a brief sound of long a in fate. Vowel sounds which are not thus ex- 
plained by their position, also the sounds of such consonants as have more than one sound, are 
marked in accordance with the key-line at the foot of each two adjoining pages. The diacritical 
marks there employed are self-explanatory, with the exception of that which designates the nasal 
sound illustrated in the key-line by the French word 6on&on. This n indicates that the preceding 
vowel is nasal, but care should be taken that the back part of the tongue is not pressed against 
the palate as is done in producing the English ng. For example, in making the French sound 

* Where alternative pronunciations are given for the leading word, the choice between them is understood 
to apply to the subsequent words in the paragraph, unless these are otherwise marked. For instance, in the 
paragraph Retroact (p. 348), the pronunciation of the first two syllables of all words in the paragraph may 
he either re^tro- or rSt^ro-. 


ON we may proceed as if about to say ong (as in song), but stop before the souud ng is produced* 
Similarly the other French nasal vowels can be produced. 

For the sake of brevity, the second part of a compoimd word in the body of a paragraph is nofc 
respelled, if its true pronunciation is given in its alphabetical place in the vocabulary : thus, in 
the paragraph Sheep (p. 379), the compounds Sheep-walk, Sheep's-eye, are presumed to require 
no respelling, since the few persons unaware of the pronunciation of the second word in the com- 
pound can seek it in its own place in the vocabulary. But in cases where there is a deviation, 
from the soimd of the original word, this is indicated by respelling, — as in House^^ife, under the 
vocabulary word House (p. 183). — In the large class of verbs and verbal adjectives spelled alike 
and terminating in -ate (as Degenerate, Dltlicate, Elaborate), the attempt has not been made 
to mark the different quantity of the a in the final syllable, which is always given its long sound, 
as found in the verb ; but, in fact, it has a less prolonged sound in the adjectives, derived adverbs, 
and abstract nouns — approximating or falling into that of short e. 

The editor's thanks are due to Mr. Zenas W. Bliss, of The Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass., for 
many valuable suggestions and criticisms made while the book was passing through the press 
under his critical eye. 

The Api>endi2E' — After the conclusion of the vocabulary, there is given an Appendix, which 
contains : — 

I. A Pronouncing Vocabulary of Biblical, Classical, Mythological, Historical, and Geographical 
Proper Names. 

II. Abbreviations used in Writing and Printing. 

III. Arbitrary Signs used in Writing and Printing. 

IV. Metric System of Weights and Measures. 

Most of these sections require no explanation. But of the one devoted to proper names — in- 
cluding those which occur in Biblical, Classical, Egyptian, Hindoo, Modern, and Norse history 
and literature — the editor may explain that, after much inquiry, he was unable to find that such 
a collection had ever been made. Accordingly, starting upon the foimdation of the Classical and 
Biblical vocabularies of Webster's Unabridged, and gathering from a variety of sources the names 
which occur in other literatures, he formed the consolidated Pronouncing Vocahulary of Proper 
Names (pp. 521-620). In this, the origin and pronunciation of all proper names which the reader 
is likely to encounter are indicated by the same system of marking employed in the body of the 


■a adiective. 

■abbr abbreviated. 

•abl ablative. 

ace accusative. 

adv adverb. 

Agric Agriculture. 

Alg Algebra. 

Am., Aiiier America, American. 

Anat Anatomjr. 

Antiq Antiquities. 

.oor aorist. 

<ippl applied to. 

Arch Architecture. 

Arith Arithmetic. 

Astrol Astrology. 

Astron Astronomy. 

Bib Biblical. 

Bot Botany. 

Cm-p Carpentry. 

Cf. Confer (compare). 

Ctiem Chemistry. 

Civ Civil. 

CoUoq. , coll Colloquial, colloqui- 

Com Commerce, Com- 

camp compound, com- 
■<:ompar comparative. 

Conch Conchology. 

■conj conjunction. 

contr contracted, contrac- 

corresp. corresponding to. 

corrupt corrupted, corrup- 

dat dative. 

dial dialect. 

-dim diminutive. 

disting distinguished,as dis- 
tinguished from. 

M English, East. 

Eccl Ecclesiastical. 

JEccl. Mist Ecclesiastical His- 

e. g exempli gratia (for 


JSlec Electricity. 

I!ng England, English. 

Engin Engineering. 

Entom Entomology. 

equiv equivalent. 

esp especially. 

^tym etymology. 

/". feminine. 

Eig Figurative, figura- 

Fort Fortification. 

fr from. 

freq frequentative. 

Jut future. 

Galv Galvanism. 

gen generally, genitive. 

Geog Geograpny. 

Geol Geology. 

Geom Geometry. 

Gram Grammar. 

Her Heraldry. 

Hist History. 

Hort Horticulture. 

Ichth Ichthyology. 

i.e id est (that is). 

imp imperfect. 

incep)t inceptive. 

inf. infinitive. 

intens intensive. 

interj interjection. 

Join Joinery. 

lit literally. 

m, masculine. 

Much Machinery. 

Mar Maritime. 

3Iath Mathematics. 

Mech Mechanics. 

Med Medicine. 

Metal Metallurgy. 

Metaph Metaphysics. 

Meteor Meteorology. 

Mil Military. 

Min Mineralogy. 

Mvs Music. 

Myth Mythology. 

iV. New, North. 

n noun. 

Nat. Hist Natural History. 

Naut Nautical. 

neut neuter. 

Numis Numismatics. 

O Old. 

Obs Obsolete. 

Onomat Onomatopoetic, 

named from its 


Opt Optics. 

orig original, originally. 

Omith Ornithology. 

p participle. 

p. a participial adjective, 

Faint Painting. 

Paleon Paleontology. 

pass passive. 

Fatkol Pathology. 

perh perhaps. 

pers person. 

vert pertaining. 

Philos Philosophy. 

Photog Photography. 

Phren Phrenology. 

Physiol Physiology. 

pi plural. 

Poet Poetry, poetical. 

Pol Polish. 

Polit. Econ Political Economy 

p.p participle past. 

p. pr participle present. 

pref. prefix. 

prep preposition. 

pret preterit. 

Print Printing. 

priv privative. 

prob probably. 

pron pronunciation, pro- 
nounced ; pronoun 

prop properly. 

Pros Prosody. 

Prov Provincial. 

q. V quodvide(v,'hich.see) 

Rhet Rhetoric. 

Rom Roman. 

R. Cath Roman CathoUc. 

RR Railroads. 

Russ Russ. 

S Saxon, South. 

Scot ■. Scotland, Scottish. 

Script. ., Scripture, scriptural 

Sculp Sculpture. 

sing singular. 

s.rt..'. from the same rootas 

siiperl. superlative. 

Surg Surgery. , 

Surv Purveying. 

term termination. 

ITieol Theology. 

Trans Translation. 

Ty23og Typography. 

J7. S .' United States. 

V verb. 

vb. n verbal noun. 

v.i verb intransitive. 

v.t verb transitive. 

W Welsh, West. 

Zool Zoology. 

= egualto, thesameaa 




A. An adjective, commonly called the indefinite arti- 
cle, and signifying one or any, but less emphati- 
cally: it is a contraction of the Anglo-Saxon an, one, 
and is used before words beginning with a consonant 
sound. See An. —A 1, a-wun. An underwriter's 
registry mark for seaworthy vessels of the first or 
highest class, inferior grades being indicated by A 2, 
A2i, etc.; first-rate; prime. 

Abacfc, a-bak'', adv. {Naut.) Backward, as of sails 
caught in reverse by a change of wind. — Taken 
aback. Taken by surprise, unexpectedly baffled. 

Abacas, ab''a-kus, n. A calculating-frame with sliding 
counters, for compu- 


Towards the stern 

ting. {Arch.) The up- 
per plate upon the cap- 
ital of a column, sup- 
porting the architrave. 
— Ab'acist, -sist, w. 
One who computes by 
an abacus. 

Abaft, a-baff, prep. {Naut.) 
from ; back of. 

Abalienate, ab-aKyen-at, v. t. {Law.) To transfer 
the title of. 

Abandon, a-ban'dun, v. t. [abandoned ('-ban^'dund), 
-DONING.] To give up wholly and finally; to relin- 
quish, forsake, forego. — Aban'doned, -dund, p. a. 
Given up entirely, as to a vice ; depraved ; repro- 
bate. — Aban'donee', -dun-e', n. {Law.) One to 
whom a thing is abandoned. — Aban''doner, n. One 
who, etc. — Aban^'donment, n. Act of, or state of 
being, etc. ; desertion. — Abandon, a-baN-dSN'', n. 
Complete_absorption in some object or emotion. 

Abase, a-bas', v. t. [abased (-basf), abasing.] To 
bring low, as to the ground; to cast down, degrade. 
— Abase'ment, n. Act of, or state of being, etc. 

Abash, a-bash', v. t. [abashed (-bashf), abashing.] 
To strike with sudden shame or fear ; to confuse, 
confound. — Abash'' ment, n. Confusion from shame. 

Abate, a-baf, v. t. To bring down or reduce to a 
lower state, number, degree, etc.; to diminish; les- 
sen. {Law.) To cause to fail, as a writ; to destroy, 
as a nuisance.— v. i. To decrease, become less in 
strength, subside; to fail, as a writ.. — Abate^ment, n. 
Act of abating ; deduction ; mitigation ; discount. 
— Abat'able, a. — Abat'er, -or, -er, n. 

Abatis, Abattis, ab'a-tis, or ab-a-te'', n. {Fort.) A row 
of sharpened branches of trees turned outward for 

Abattoir, ab-at-war', n. A slaughter-house. 

Abbot, ab'but, n. The head of a society of monks ; 
governor of an abbey. — Ab''bacy, -st, n. The con- 
dition or privileges of, etc. — Ab'bess, n. The gov- 
erness of a nunnery.— Ab'^bey, -bt, n. ; pi. Ab'beys. 
A residence of monks or nuns; monastery; a church 
attached to a monastery. — Abbi, ab'ba, n. Orig. an 
abbot ; now an ecclesiastic without charge, devoted 
to teaching, literature, etc. 


Abbreviate, ab-bre'vt-at, v. t. To make shorter ; to 
reduce by contraction or omission; to abridge.— 
Abbre'via'tlon, n. Act of abbreviating ; the form 
to which a word or phrase is reduced by contraction 
or omission. ( J/ws.) A dash through the stem of a 
note, dividing it into quavers, semi-quavers, etc. — 
Abbre'viator, -ter, n. One who, etc. — Abbre'via- 
tory, a. Abbreviating ; shortening. — Abbre'via- 
ture, -chur, n. An abridgment ; compend. 

Abdicate, ab'dt-kat, v. t. To give up right or elaira 
to ; to withdraw from ; to relinquish, as sovereign 
authority. — Abdica'tion, n. Act of, etc. — Ab'- 
dicative, -tiv, a. Causing, or implying abdication. 

Abdomen, ab-do'men, w. {Anat.) The belly. {Entoni.y 
The posterior of the sections' into which the body is 
divided.— Abdom'inal, a. Pert, to, etc. — n. Fish» 
like salmon, etc., with ventral fins back of the pec- 
toral. —Abdom'inous, -nus, a. Having a big belly. 

Abduce, ab-dus' [abduced (-dust''), -ducing]. Ab- 
duct, -dukf, V. t. To take away by stealth or by- 
unlawful force. — Abduc'tion, n. Act of, etc.; a car- 
rying away, esp. of a person, by fraud, stealth, or 
force. —Abduc'tor, n. One who, etc. {Anat.) A 
muscle which draws a part from the median line of 
the body. — AbdU''cent, -sent, a. Separating; draw- 
ing back. , ^ . ^ , 

Abeam, a-bem'', ac/w. {Naut.) On the beam ; at right 
angles to the keel. 

Abecedarian, a'be-se-da''rY-an, n. One who teacher 
or who learns the A, B, C, or letters of the alphabet. 

Abed, a-bed'', adv. In bed ; on the bed. 

Aberrance, ab-er^'ans, n. Deviation from rectitude.. 

— Aber'''rant, a. Straying from right; exceptional; 
abnormal. — Aberra'tion, n. Act of wandering, esp- 
from truth or moral rectitude, or from the natural 
state. {Med.) Partial alienation of mind. {Astron.y 
A small periodical change of position in a heavenly 

Abet, a-bet'', v. t. To encourage, aid, further ; — 

' used chiefly in a bad sense. {Law.) To encourage 
to commit a crime. — Abet''ment, n. Act of abetting^ 
support. — Abet''ter, -tor, -er, n. One who, etc. ; an 
accomplice ; accessary. 

Abeyance, a-ba''ans, n. State of suspension, or tem- 
porary extinction with the expectation of revival. 

Abhor, ab-h6r'', v. t. [abhorred (-h6rd'), -horring. 

— To regard with horror ; to dislike or hate ex- 
tremely ; to detest. — Abhorrence, -h5r''rens, n. 
Great hatred. — Abhor'rent, a. Detesting; contrary; 
repugnant; — with to. — Abhorrer, -h6r''er, n. One 
who, etc. 

Abide, a-bid', v. i. [abode (-bed''), abiding.] To con- 
tinue in a place; to dwell; to continue firm or stable. 

— V. t. To endure or bear; to await firmly. — Abid''- 
er, n. One who abides. — Abode'', n. Place of resi- 
dence; dwelling. 

Abietin, -tinOj a-bi''e-tin, M. {Chem.) A resinous sub- 
stance obtained from turpentine. 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; end, eve, term ; Tn, ice ; 5dd, tone, 6r ; 
sQn, cQbe, full ; moon, foot ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, tiien, boNboN, chair, get. 



Abigail, ab''T-gal, n. A lady's waiting-maid. 
Ability, a-bil'T-tl, n. Power to act, whether physical, 

moral, intellectual, conventional, or legal ; might ; 

talunt; efficiency. 
Abiogenesis, ab'l-o-jen''e-sis, Abiogeny, -oj'e-nY, n. 

Production of lite from inorganic matter. — Abiog'- 

enist, n. A believer in, etc. 
Abirritate, ab-ir'rl-tat, v. t. {Med.) To diminish the 

sensibility of; to debilitate. — Abir'nta'tive, -tiv, a. 

Wanting in irritation; debilitated. — Abir^rita'tion, 

n. Want of strength. 
Abject, ab'jekt, a. Sunk to a low condition ; mean; 

worthless; groveling. — n. One in a miserable state. 

— Abjec'tion, n. Meanness of spirit ; baseness. — 
Ab^'jectly, adv. — Ab'jectness, n. 

Abjudicate, ab-joo'di-kat, v. t. To give away in judg- 
ment. — Abjudica'tion, n. Act of, etc. 

Abjure, ab-joor'', v. 1. 1 abjured (-joord''), -jueing.] To 
renounce under oath, or with solemnity. — Abjur^er, 
n. One who, etc. — Abjura'tlon, n. Act of, etc.— 
Abjur''atory, a. Containing abiuration. 

Ablative, ab-'la-tiv, a. ( Gram.) Applied to the 6th 
case of Latin nouns, in which words signifying car- 
rying away or taking from, are used. 

Ablaut, ab'lcwt, n. A change of the root-vowel in a 
word, — esp. to denote change of tense in a^erb, of 
number in_a noun, etc.: us, yet, gat, got ; man, men. 

Ablaze, a^blaz', adv. In a blaze; highly excited. 

Able, a^'bl, a. [abler ; ablest.] Having ability of 
any kind ; possessing sufficient power, means, skill, 
etc., to accomplish some end; qualified; efficient; ef- 
fective. — Ably, a'blt, ady. — A'ble-bodied, -bod'id, 
a. Having a sound, strong bgdy ; robust. 

Ablepsy, ab^'^lep-sT, n. Want of sight; blindness. 

Ablution, ab-lu'^shun, n. Act of cleansing or wash- 
ing ; religious purification ; water used in cleans- 
ing. — Ab'luent, a. Cleansing ; purifying. — n. 
(Med.) A puriher of the blood; a detergent. 

Abnegate, ab'nc-gat, v. t. To deny and reject. — Ab- 
nega'tion, n. Denial and renunciation. — Abnega'- 
tor, -ter, n. One wh(5, etc. 

Abnormal, ab-n6r''mal, a. Contrary to rule, law, or 
system; irregular. — Abnormality, -nor'mity, n. 
State or quahty of being, etc.; irregularity; deform- 
ity. — Abnor'mably, -mally, adv. 

Aboard, a-bord', adv. In a vessel; on board. — prep. 
On boardof . 

Abode, a-bod''. See under Abide. 

Abolish, a^boKish, v. t. [abolished (-boKisht), -ish- 
ING.] To do away with utterly; to put an end to, 
destroy, make void, annul. — Abol'ishable, a. Ca- 
pable of being, etc. — AboKisher, n. One who, etc. 

— Abolishment, n. Act of, etc. — Abolition, 
-lish'un, n. Act of, or state of being, etc. ; a doing 
away with forever. — esp. of slavery.— Abolitionism, 
-lish''un-izm, n. The principles or measures of an 
abolitionist. — Aboli'tionist, n. One who favors 
abolition, — esp. of slavery. — Aboli'tionize, -iz, v. t. 
To imbue with the principles of the abolitionists. 

Abomasum, ab-o-ma'sum, -ma'^sus, n. The fourth 
stomach of a ruminant animal. 

Abominate, a-bom'T-nat, v. t. To turn from, as omi- 
nous of evil; to detest, abhor. — Abom'inable, -na-bl. 
a. Execrable: hateful; shocking. — Abom'inably, 
adv. — Abom'ina'tion, n. Act of abominating ; an 
object of disgust. 

Aboriginal, ab-o-rij'Y-nal, a. First original; primitive. 

— n. First or original inhabitant. — Aborig'^ines, 
-nez, n. pi. The original inhabitants of a country. 

Abort, a-b6rt'', v. i. To miscarry in birth. — Abor'- 
tion, n. Act of miscarrying ; an immature product 
of conception; anything which fails to come to ma- 
turity. — Abor'tive, -tiv, «. Immature; ineffectual; 
pert, to or causing abortion. — Abor'tively, adr. — 
Abor''tiveness, n. — Abor'ticide, -sTd, n. One wlio 
destroys, or the act of destroying, the life of a fetus 
before birth ; feticide. 

Abound, a-bownd', v. i. To be in great plenty ; to be 
prevalent ; to possess in abundance, — usually with 
in or with. — Abun'dance, n. Overflowing fullness; 
plenty; riches. -Abun'dant, a. Fully sufficient; 
exuberant ; ample. — Abun^dantly, adv. 

About, a-bowt', prep. Around ; surrounding ; near; 
concerning ; on the point of. — adv. Around ; here 
and there'5 nearly. 

Above, a-buv', prep. Higher in place than ; superior 
to. — adv. Overhead ; in a higher place ; before in 
order of place; higher in rank or power. — Above'- 
board, -bOrd, adv. Not concealed; openly.— Above'- 
ground. Alive ; not interred. 

Abracadabra, ab'ra-ka-dab'- .„„.p.T^iRR. 
ra, n. A cabalistic word, ^^ Wa n a t> a A 
formerly used as a charm, .„„.„. t^. „ 
arranged in the form of a '^,^//,*^^ ° , 
trians^le abkacada 

Abrade, a-brad', v. t. To '*'.^„V.*^/ ° 
rub or wear off. —Abra'- A„.„ 

dant, n. That which abeac 

abrades; esp. powder used 
in grinding and polishing. 
— Abra'sion, -zhun, n. A 
rubbing or scraping oif ; 
substance worn oil: by attrition. 

A B R A 

A B K 

A B 


by using fewer words ; to deprive, cut off ; —with 
of. {Math.) To reduce to a more simple expression. 

— Abridgement, n. A shortening or diminution ; 
restriction ; a work abridged or epitomized ; sum- 
mary; synopsis. 

Abroach, a-broch', adv. Broached ; letting out 
liquor ; in a state to be diffused. 

Abroad, a-brawd'', adv. At large ; unconfined; out 
of a house or other inclosure; in foreign countries. 

Abrogate, ab'ro-^at, v. t. To annul by an authori- 
tative act ; to abolish ; revoke ; repeal. — Abroga'- 
tion, n. Act of, etc. — Ab'rogative, -tiv, a. Tend- 
ing to, etc. 

Abrupt, ab-rupf, a. Broken ; steep ; sudden ; un- 
connected.— Abrupfly, ac/i'. — Abrup-'tion, n. A 
sudden breaking otf ; violent separation of bodies. 

— Abrupfness, n. Steepness ; suddenness ; great 

Abscess, abe'ses, n. A collection of pus or purulent 
matter in an accidental cavity of the body. 

Abscind, ab-sind', v. t. To cut off. — Abscission, 
-sizh'un, n. A cutting off. {Rhet.) A figure of 
speech, by which the speaker stops abruptly, as sup- 
posing the matter sufficiently understood. 

Absciss, ab'sis, n.; pi. Abscisses, ab'sis-ez. Ab- 
scissa, -sis'sa, »i. ; pi. Lat. Absciss.i^:, -sis'se, Eng. 
Abscis'sas, -saz. (Geom.) One ol tlie elements of 
reference by which a point, as of a curve, is referred 
to a system of fixed rectilineal coordinate axes. 

Abscond, ab-skond', v. i. To secrete one's self; to 
decamp ; — used esp. of persons, evading legal pro- 
cess. — Abscond'er, n. One who, etc. 

Absent, ab'sent, a. Withdrawn from, or not pre.sent 
in, a place: inattentive to what is passing. —Ab'- 
sence, n. A being absent; want; inattention to tilings 
present. — Ab'sently, «<;/«;. In an absent manner: 
with the thoughts elsewhere. —Absent', v. t. To 
take or withdraw to such a distance as to pi-event in- 
tercourse. — Absentee', n. One who absents himself 
from his country, office, post, duty, etc., esp. a land- 
holder who lives away from his estate. — Absentee'- 
ism, n. State or habit of an absentee. -Absenfer, 
n. One who absents himself. 

Absinthe, ab'sinth, n. A cordial of brandy tinc- 
tured with wormwood. 

Absolute, ab'so-lut, a. Freed from any limitation or 
condition; uncontrolled; arbitrary; unlimited; un- 
conditioned; finished; perfect: total; complete.— 
Ab'solutely, adv. In an absolute manner : posi- 
tively ; arbitrarily. — Ab'soluteness, n. -Quality of 
being absolute ; completeness; arbitrary power. — 
Ab'solutism, n. Absolute government or its prin- 
ciples.— Ab'solutist, n. An advocate of absolutism. 

— Ab'solutist'ic, a. Belonging to absolutism. 
Absolve, ab-solv', v. t. [absolved (-solvd'), -solv'- 

iNc;.] To set free or release from, as from obligation, 
debt, responsibility, penalty, etc. ; to exonerate, ac- 
quit. — Absolu'tion, n. (Civ. Law.) An acquittal. 
(Rom. Cath. Church.) A remission of sin. — Absol- 
utory, a. Absolving. — Absolv'er, w. One who, etc. 

— Absolv'able, a. Capable of being, etc. — Absolv'- 
atory, a. That absolves. 

Absorb, ab-sbrb', v. t. [absorbed (-s6rbd''), -sorb- 
iNQ.) To drink in, suck up, imbibe as a sponge. 

Sm, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; Snd, eve, tSrm ; In, Ice ; 5dd, tone, 6r ; 



swallow up, or overwhelm ; to engross whollv. — 
Absorb'able, a. Capable of being, etc.— Absorb'ent, 
a. Sucking up ; imbibing. — n. A sub.stance or a 
bodily organ which absorbs. — Absorp'tion, n. Act 
or process of being absorbed and made to disappear; 
engrossment or occupation of mind. — Absorp'tive, 
-tiv, a. Havijig power to absorb. — Absorptiv'ity, n. 

AbBtaJn, ab-stan', v. i. [abstained (-stand'^), -stain- 
ing.] To forbear, or refrain, voluntarily ; esp. 
from indulgence of passions or appetites. ~v.t. 1 o 
hinder; to withhold from. — Ab'stinence, n. The 
act or practice of abstaining. — Ab'stinent, a. Re- 
fraining from indulgence; temperate. 

Abstemious, ab-ste'ml-us, a. Sparing in the free use 
of food and strong drinks; temperate. — Abste'^mi- 
ously, adv. — Abste'miousDess. n. 

Absterge, ab-sterj', v. t. [absterged (-sterjd'), 
-STEKGING.] To make clean by wiping; to cleanse 
by lotions, etc. — Abster''geiit, a. Serving to cleanse; 
detergent. — Absterse'', -sters'', v. i. To cleanse by 
■wiping. — Abster'sion, -shun, n. Act of, etc. — 
Abster''sive, -siv, a. Having the quality of cleans- 

Abstract, ab-strakt', v. t. ■ To draw from or separate ; 
to epitomize or reduce; to purloin. — Ab'stract, a. 
Distinct from something else; separate; withdrawn 
from the concrete, or from particulars ; difficult ; 
abstruse; refined. —w. A summary, or epitome; an 
abridgment. — Abstracfed, p. a. Separated: absent 
in mind. —Abstractedly, Ab'stractly, arfv. By it- 
self; in a separate state. — Abstract'edness, n. State 
of being abstracted. — Abstrac'tion, n. Act of ab- 
stracting or separating, or state of being separated; 
act of considering separately what is united in a 
complex object; an abstract or theoretical notion; a 
purloining. — Abstract'^ive, a. Having the power 
of abstracting. — Ab'stractness, n. State of being 
abstract. _ 

Abstruse, ab-stroos', a. Midden ; hard to be under- 
stood. — Abstruse'ly, rtt/v. Not plainly; darkly.— 
Abstruse' ness. n. 

Absurd, ab-serd', a. Obviously inconsistent with 
reason or common sense ; foolish ; preposterous ; 
ridiculous. — Absurd^ity, n. Anything absurd. — 
Absurd 'ness, «. — Absurd'ly, adv. 

Abundance. See under Abound. 

Abuse, a-buz'', v. t. [abused (-buzdOi abusixg.] 
To make ill use of; to misuse: to treat rudely; to 
maltreat; to revile. — Abuse, a-bus', n. Ill use; a 
corrupt practice or custom ; rude language ; re- 
proach: insult. — Abu'sive, -siv, a. Employing or 
containing abuse: scurrilous; opprobrious ; nusap- 
plied. — Abu'sively, adv. — Abu'siveness, n. 

Abut, a-buf, v. i. To terminate or border; to be 
contiguous. — Abufment, n. That on which a thing 
abuts. iArch.) The solid support of a bridge, etc., at 
the end. — Abut'tal, n. The butting or boundary 
of land. 

Abyss, a-bis'', n. A bottomless gulf; hell, or the bot- 
tomless pit. — Abysmal, a-biz'mal, a. Bottomless; 
unending. — Abyssal, -bis'al, a. Belonging to, or 
resembling, an abyss. —Abys'sic, a. (,GeoV) Pert, 
to an abyss, esp. to strata wliich formed the bottom 
of a deep sea. 

Acacia, a-Ka'shT-a, n. (Bot.) A genus of leguminous 
trees and shrubs, usually with thorns and pinnate 

Acacio, a-ka'shY-o, n. A heavy wood of the same 
family with the red mahogany. 

Academy, a-kad'e-mT, n. A garden near Athens 
(named from Academus) where Plato taught; hence, 
Plato's school of philosophy ; a kind of higher 
school or seminary ; an institution for the promo- 
tion of art or science. — Academ'ic, -ical, a. Of or 
relating to a higher institution of learning. — Aca- 
dem'ic, n. A follower of Plato; a student in a col- 
lege, university, etc. — Academ^ics, n. (Met.) The 
Platonic philosophy. — Academ'ically, adv. — Ac'- 
ademi''cian, -mish''an, n. A member of an acad- 
emy, or learned society, esp., of the French Acad- 

Acaleph, ak-'a-lef, n. (Zool.) A radiate marine animal; 
a jelly-fish; a sea-nettle; — so called from its sting- 
ing power. 

Acuithus, a-kan''thu8, n. ; pi. Eng. Acanthuses, Lat. 

Acanthi. {Arch.) An 
ornament resembling 
the foliage or leaves of 
the acanthus, as in 
Corinthian capitals. 
(Bot.) A genus of 
iierbaceous prickly 
I)lants. — Acantbaceous, 
-tha'shus, a. Armed 
with prickles, as a plant. 

— Acan ' thocar'poua, 
-kar'pus, a. (Bot.) Acanthus. 
Having the fruit covered with spines. — Acan'tho- 
ceph-'alan, -sef 'a-lan, n. (Zo'61.) A .species of intes- 
tinal worm, having its proboscis armed with sjiines. 

— Acan^'thopod, n. (Zool.) A species of iiisi ct hav- 
ing spinv legs. — Acanthopodious, -po'df-us, a. 
(Bot.) Having spinous petioles. — Acanthop'teryg'- 
ious, -te-rij-'T-us, a. Thorny-finned, — applied to an 
order of fishes. 

Acatalectic, a-kat-a-lek'tik, a. (P7-os.) ISTot defective; 

— said of a verse \\itich has the complete number of 

Acataleptic, a-kat-a-lep'tik, a. Incapable of being 
certainly comprehended. 

Acauline, a-kaw'lin, Acau'lous, -lus, a. Having no 
stem, but flowers resting on tlie ground. 

Accede, ak-sed', v. i. To agree or assent; to become a 
party, by agreeing to terms of a treaty or conven- 
tion. — Access, ak-ses' or ak-'ses, n. A coming to ; 
near approach ; admittance ; the wav by which a 
thing may be approached; increase; addition. — Ac- 
ces'sory, -sary, a. Accompanying ; connected as a 
subordinate. — n. Something connected as a sub- 
ordinate. (Law.) One who is implicated in a felo- 
nious offense, though not present at its perpetration. 
[The spelling accessanj is generally preferred in the 
law sense.] — Accessorial, -so'rl-al, a. IPert. to an 
accessory. — Acces'sorily, adv. — Acces'soriness, n. 

— Acces'sible, a. Easy of access or approach. — 
Acces'sibil'ity, ?;. — Acces'sion, -sesh'un, n. Act of 
accedingand becoming joined; increase; tliat which 
is added. (Law.) A mode of acquiring property, 
by which the owner has a right to certain additions 
or improvements. Act of arriving at a throne, an 
office, or dignity. (Med.) The commencement of a 

Accelerate, ak-sel'er-at, v. t. To quicken the motion 
or action of-; to hasten, expedite. — Acceleration, 
-a'shun, n. A hastening. — Accel'erative, -tiv, Ac- 
ceKeratory, a. Quickening. — Accelerator, -ter, n. 
One who, or that which, etc. 

Accent, ak'sent, n. Superior force of voice upon 
one or more syllables of a word : a mark used in 
writing to indicate this stress; a peculiar modulation 
of the voice. (Miis.) A slight stress upon a tone to 
mark its position in the measure. (Math.) A mark 
upon a letter or number, to distinguish magnitudes 
of similar kind, but differing in value. — Accent, 
ak-senf, v. t. To express or note the accent of; to 
pronounce or mark with, etc. — Accent'ual, a. Re- 
lating to, etc. — Accent 'uate, v. t. To mark or pro- 
nounce with, etc.; to bring prominentl3' into notice; 
to make conspicuous. — Accentua'tion, n. Act of 
placing accents in writing, or of giving accent to 
them. (Eccl.) Pitch and modulation of the voice 
in reading parts of the liturgy. 

Accept, ak-sepf, v. t. To receive with a consenting 
mind ; to admit and agree to. (Com.) To receive as 
obligatory, and promise to pay. — Accepfable, a. 
Worthy, or sure of being accepted ; pleasing to a 
receiver ; agreeable ; welcome. — Accept'' ableness, 
-abil'ity, n. — Acceptably, adv. — Acceptance, 
n. Favorable reception. (Cbm.) An assent and 
enMgement to pay a bill of exchange when due; the 
bill itself when accepted. (Law.) An agreeing to 
the act or contract of anotlier. — Accepfant, n. 
One who accepts. — Accepta'^tion, n. Aleaning or 
sense. — Accept'er, n. A person who accepts, esp. 
one who accepts a bill of exchange. 

Access. See under Accede. 

Accident, ak'sT-dent, n. An unexpected event; cas- 
ualtj'; contingency, pi. (Gram.) Tlic properties 
and qualities of the parts of speech. (Log.) An unes- 
sential property or quality. — Accidental, a. Hap- 

sJin, cube, full ; moon, f66t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, tiien, boNbox, chair, get. 



peninj by chance, or unexpectedly ; casual ; non- 
essential ; fortuitous ; contingent ; incidental. — h. 
A casualty. (3/(«.) A sharp, flat, or natural, oc- 
curring not at the commencement of a piece of mu- 
sic as trie signature, but before a particular note. — 
Accident 'ally. adv. — Ac'cidence, n. A book con- 
taining the rudiments of grammar. 

Accipiter, ak-sip''l-ter, n. A rapacious bird, as an 
eagle, hawk, etc.— Accip'itrine, -trin, a. Pert.^o, etc. 

Acclaim, ak-klam', v. t. [acclaimed (-klamd'), 
-CLAIMIXG.] To meet with applause ; to salute. — 
Acclaim'', Acclama'tion, -ma'shun, n. A shout of 
assent or approbation. — Acclam^atory, a. Express- 
ing applause. 

Acclimate, ak-kli'mat, Accli'matize, v. t. [acclima- 
tized (-tizd), -Tizixo.] To habituate to a climate 
not native. — Accli'matable, a. Capable of being 
acclimated. — Acclima'tion, -cli'matiza'tion, n. 
Process of becoming, or state of being, etc. 

Acclivity, ak-kliv'I-tl, n. A slope, considered as 
ascending. — opp. to declivity; rising ground. — Ac- 
clivous, -kli'vus, a. Rising with a slope. 

Accommodate, ak-kom'mo-dat, v. t. To render fit, or 
correspondent; to adapt; to furnish with something 
needed; to reconcile. — Accorn'modating, a. Afford- 
ing accommodation ; helpful. — Accom'moda''tion, n. 
Act of fitting, or state of being fitted; whatever sup- 
plies a want; adjustment of differences; reconcilia- 
tion. (Com.) A loan of money. —Accommodation 
note. One given by the maker to accommodate the re- 
ceiver, who is to provide for it when due. — train. 
One which stops at minor or way stations, making 
less speed than express trains. 

Accompany, ak-kura'pa-nT, v. t. [accompanied 
(-kum''pa-nid), -nyixq.] To go with as companion 
or associate. (Mas.) To perform the accompajiiment. 
— Accom-'paniment, n. Something that accom- 
panies; an addition by way of ornament. (Mas.) A 
part performed byinstruments accompanying voices; 
also, the harmony of a figured bass. — Accom'panist, 
n. (Mas.) The performer who takes the accompany- 
ing part. 

Accomplice, ak-kom''plis, n. A co-operator or asso- 
ciate. (Law.) An associate in a crime. 

Accomplish, ak-kom'plish, v. t. [accomplished 
(-plisnt), -PLISHING.] To finish, complete, bring to 
pass, fulfill, realize. — Accom'plished, -plisht, p. a. 
Complete and perfected; esp., complete in acquire- 
ments. — Accom^plishment, n. Act of accomplish- 
ing ; acquirement ; attainment. 

Accompt, ak-kownf. See Account. 

Accord, ak-kQrd', n. Concurrence of opinion, will, 
or action; consent; harmony of sounds; concord; 
spontaneous motion. (Law.) An agreement be- 
tween parties in controversy, which bars a suit. — 
V. t. To make to correspond ; to harmonize ; to 
concede. — v. i. To be in accordance ; to agree. 
(Mus.) To agree in pitch and tone. — Accord'ance, 
n. Agreement. — Accord'ant, a. Corresponding ; 
consonant ; agreeable. — Accord'antly, adv. — Ac- 
cord'ing, p. a. In harmony with; suitable. — Ac- 
cord^ingly, adv. In accordance with. 

Accordion, ak-kor''dT-un, n. A small keyed -wind 
instrument, with me- 
tallic reeds. 

Accost, ak-kosf, v. t. 
To address ; to speak 
first to. — Accost'abla, 
o. Easy of access ; af- 

Accouchement, ak-koosh- Accordion. 

mox', n. Delivery in child-bed. — Accoucheur, ak- 
koo-sher'', n. A man who assists women in child- 
birth ; a man-midwife. — Accoucheuse, -shez', n. A 

Account, ak-kownf, n. A reckoning; a statement of 
debts and credits; a statement of reasons, causes, 
grounds, etc.; a relation or description; importance; 
reason; consideration; sake. — v. t. To reckon or 
compute; to hold in opinion; to estimate. — v. i. 
To render a relation of particulars; to constitute a 
reason; to render reasons or answer for. — Account- 
able, a. Liable to be called to account and to suffer 
punishment ; amenable ; responsible. — Account'- 
abil'ity, -ableness, n. State of being, etc. — Ac- 

count'ant, n. One who keeps, or is skilled in, ac- 
counts. — Account current. A statement showing 
the Dr. and Cr. sides of a business transaction. 
Accouple, ak-kup'l, v. t. To join together; to couple. 
Accouter, Accoutre, ak-koo'ter, v. t. [accouteked or 
-COUTKED (-koo'terd), -terijjg or -trino (-koo'- 
tring).] To furnish with dress, equipage, or equip- 
ments, esp. those of a soldier. — Accou'terments, 
-trements, n. pi. Dress ; equipage ; trappings ; esp. 
for militarv service. 
Accredit, ak-kred'it, v. t. To give trust or confidence 
to; to receive, as an envoy, and give him credit and 
I rank; to send with credentials; to procure credit 
I for. 

[ Accretion, ak-kre-'shun, n. An increase, esp. the in- 
crease of organic bodies by the internal accession of 
! parts; increase by accession externally; growing 
I together of parts naturally separate. — Accrescence, 
I -kres'ens, 71. Gradual growth. — Accres'cent, a. In- 
I creasing. — Accre'tive, -tiv, a. Growing by accre- 
tion. _ 
Accrue, ak-kroo', v. i. [accrued (-krobd''), -Ceuing.] 
To increase; to arise; to be added, as increase, profit, 
or damage. — Accru'ment, n. 
Accumulate, ak-ku'mu-lat, v. t. To heap up in a 
mass; to collect or bring together. — v.i. To grow 
to a great size, number, or quantity; to increase 
greatly. — Accu'mu-la'tion, n. Act of accumula- 
ting; state of being accumulated; that which is ac- 
cumulated ; mass ; heap. — Accu'mulative, -tiv, a. 
Causing accumulation ; cumulative. — Accu'mula- 
tor, -ter, n. One who, or that which, etc.; esp. pow- 
er, etc., in machinery. 
Accurate, ak'ku-rat, a. In careful conformity to 
truth, or to a standard, rule, or model; correct; pre- 
cise. — Ac'curately, ady. — Ac'curacy. -ra-sl, -rate- 
ness, -rat-nes, n. Precision resulting from care; cor- 
Accurse, ak-kers', v. t. [accursed (-kersf), accurs- 
IJJG.J To devote to destruction; to imprecate evil 
upon; to curse. —Accursed, p. p. a. (part. pron. 
ak-kersf, a. ak-kers'ed.) Doomed to destruction 
or misery; worthy of a curse; detestable; execrable. 
Accuse, ak-kuz", v. t. [accused (-kuzd'), -cusing.] 
To charge with a crime, offense, or fault; to arraign ; 
censure; impeach. —Accusation, -za'shun, n. Act of, 
etc. ; that of which one is, etc. — Accu'sative, a. Pro- 
ducing or containing, etc. (Gram.) Applied to the 
case of nouns, on which the action of a verb termi- 
nates or falls. — Accu'satively, adv. — Accu'satory, . 
a. Pert, to, or containing, etc. — Accus'er, n. 
Accustom, ak-kus'tum, v. t. [accustomed (-kus'- 
tumd), -TOMING.] To make familiar by use; to 
habituate or inure. — Accus'tomary, a. Usual; cus- 
tomary. — Accus'tomarily, adv. 
Ace, as, n. A single point on a card, die, etc.; the 
card or die so marked ; a very small degree; a trifle. 
Aceldama, a-seKda-ma, n. A field purchased with the 
bribe which Judas took ; hence called the field of 
Acephalous, a-sef 'a-lus, a. Without a head ; headless. 
(Bot.) Having the style spring from the base, instead 
of the apex. (Pros.) Deficient at the beginning, as 
aline of poetry. —Aceph'alan, ?j. (Zool.) A mol- 
Acerb, a-serb', a. Sour with bitterness. — Acerb'ity, 
-itude, n. Sourness of taste, with bitterness and 
astringency ; harshness of manners. 
Aceric, a-ser''ik, a. Pertaining to, or obtained from, 

the maple; as, aceric acid. 
Acescent, a-ses''ent, a. Turning sour; readily becom- 
ing tart or acid. — Aces'cence, -cency, n. 
Acetic, a-set'ik or-se'tik. a. (Chem.) Composed of 
four parts each of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. 
Aceticjicid is the pure acid of vinegar. — Acetate, 
as'e-tat, Ac'etite, -tit, ?i. A salt formed by acetic 
acid united with a base. — Ace'tous, -tus, a. Sour; 
causing acetification. — Acefify, v. t. or i. [aceti- 
fied (-iid), -FYING.] To turn into acid or vinegar. — 
Acefifica'tion, n. — Acetim'eter, n. An instrument 
for ascertaining the strength of vinegar, etc.— 
Acetylene, a-sgfl-len, m. (Chem.) A colorless gas, 
consisting of two atoms of carbon and two of hydro- 
gen, with a peculiar, tmpleasant odor. It is formed 
by the action of water on calcium carbide. 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; Snd, eve, term ; In, ice ; Qdd, tone, 6r ; 



Ache, ak, i-. i. [ached (akt>, achixg.] To have, or be 
in, continued pain; to be distressed. — n. Continued 
pain, opp. to sudden twinj^es or spasmodic pain. 

Achieve, a-chev', v. t. fAcniEVEU (-cbevd''), achiev- 
ing.] To carry on to a tiiial close ; to complete, ac- 
complish, realize. — Achiev'able, a. — Achiev'ance, 
n. — Achieve ''ment, n. Act of achievinfr : accom- 
plishment; a great or heroic deed: leat. {Her.) An 
escutcheon or ensign armorial. — Achiev'er, n. 

Achromatic, ak-ro-mat'ik, a. (Opt.) I'ree from color; 
not showing color, from the decompo-sition of light. 

— Achro'inatism, «. State of being achromatic. — 
Achro'inatiza''tion, n. Act of rendering, etc. ; dep- 
rivation of color. — Achro'inatopsy, 71. Inability 
to distinguish colors; color-blindiiess: Daltonism. 

Acicalar, a-sik'u-ler, a. Slender, like a needle; needle- 
shaped. — Acic^ularly, adv. — Acic'ulate, -ulated, 
a. Acicular. 

Acid, a.s'id, n. A sour substance. (CJtem.) A sub- 
stance having the properties of combining with 
alkalies and alkaline oxides, and of reddening 
most blue vegetable colors, and usually with a 
strong, sharp taste. — a. Sour, sharp, or biting to 
the taste ; tart. — Acid'ity, Ac'idness, 71. Quality 
of being, etc. — Acid'ify, v. t. [acidified (-fid), -fy- 
IXG.] To make acid; esp. to convert into an acid, by 
chemical combination. — Acid'ifi'able, a. — Acid'- 
ifica'tion, «. — Acidific, a. Producing acidity.— 
Acid'ifl'er, n. {Chem.) A principle necessary to 
produce acidity. — Acidim''eter, n. An instrument 
for ascertaining the strength of acids. — Acid^ulous, 
a. Slightly sour ; sub-acid ; sourish.— Acid'ulate, 
V. t. To make slightly acid. — Acid'ulent, a. Some- 
what acid; sour; cross. 

Acierage, a'ser-ej, »i. A process of coating a metal 
plate with iron by means of voltaic electricity; steel- 
ing. — A'cerate, v. t. To convert into steel. 

Aciniform, a-sin'I-form, a. formed like a cluster of 
grapes or a grape-stone; full of small kernels. 

Acknowledge. ak-noKej, ?>. t. [acknowledged (-ejd), 
-EDGING.] To own, avow, admit; to recognize; to 
own with gratitude; to own, etc., in a legal form; 
to concede, confess, allow. — Acknowledgment, n. 
Act of, etc.; .something given or done in return for 
a favor; a declaration of one's own act, to give it 
legal validity. 

Aclinic, a-klin'ik, a. Without inclination ; — said of 
the magnetic equator, on which the magnetic needle 
is horizontal. 

Acme, ak-'me, n. The highest point; crisis. 

Acolyte, ak''o-lIt, -lyth, -lith, n. A companion ; asso- 
ciate. (Ast)'on.) An attendant star. {Eccl. Hist.) 
An inferior church servant. 

Aconite, ak'o-nit, n. Wolf's-bane, a poison. 

Acorn, a'kern, n. The .seed or fruit of an oak. 

Acotyledon, a-kot'l-le'don, n. A plant having no seed- 
lobes, or cotyledons. — Acotyledonous, -lerKo-nus, a. 
Having either no seed-lobe^ or such as are indistinct. 

Acoustic, a-kow'stik or -koo'stik, a. Pert, to liear- 
ing, or to the doctrine of sounds. — Acou'stics, n. 
The science of sounds. — Acou'stically, adv. — 
Acoustician, -tijih''an, w. One versed in, etc. 

Acquaint, ak-kwanf, v. t. To make familiar; to com- 
municate notice to ; to apprise ; to inform. — Ac- 
quaint-'ance, w. State of being acquainted; familiar 
knowledge; a person or persons well known. — Ac- 
q^uaint'anceship, w. Familiarity ; fellowship ; in- 

Acquiesce, ak-wY-es'. ?'. r. [acquiesced f-wY-est'). 
-E.SCING (-es^ing).] To rest satisfied; to concur, as- 
sent, comply. — Acquies'cent, a. — Acquies'cence, 
-cency, n. Silent assent. 

Acquire, ak-kwir', v. t. [acquired C-kwird'), -quir- 
ing.] To gain, usually by one's own labor or exer- 
tions; to attain, earn, win. — Acquir''able, a. — Ac- 
quire''ment. Acquisition, -zish^un, n. Act of acquir- 
ing; thing acquired ; attainment; gain. — Acquisi- 
tive, -kwiz'T-tiv, a. Disposed to make acquisitions. 

— Ac^uis'itively, adv. — Acqtus'itiveness. w. State 
of being acquisitive. (Phren.) The organ supposed 
to give rise to this desire. [See Phrenology.] 

Acquit, ak-kwif, v. t. To set free; to release, esp. 
from an obligation, accusation, suspicion, etc.; to 
clear, absolve ; (reflemvehi) to bear or conduct one's 
seK. —Acquitment, n. Act of, or state of being, etc. 

I — Acfiuit'tal, n. (iajc.) Deliverance from a charge- 
by a jury or court.— Acquiftance, m. Acquitment; 
a writing wliich is evidence of a discharge; a receipt 
in full. 

Acre, a'ker, n. A piece of land containing icn square 
rods, or 4.';;,o60 square feet. — Acreage, a'ker-ej, n. 
A sum total of acres. — Acred, a'kerd, a. Possessing 
acres; landed. 

Acrid, ak'rid, a. Of a biting taste ; sharp ; harsh. — 
Ac'ridness, Acrid'ity, n. A sharp quality ; pun- 
gency. —Ac'rimony, Ac'ritude, n. Quality- of cor- 
roding or dissolving; sharpness: seveiity ; asperity, 
tartness. — Acrimo'nious. a. — Acrimo'iiiously, adv. 

Acritochromacy, ak'rl-to-kro'ma-sl, n. inability to 
distinguish between colors ; color-blindness : Dal- 

Acroamatic, ak'ro-a-mat'ik, Acroafic, a. Jleant 
onlj' to be heard; oral: abstruse. 

Acrobat, ak'ro-bat, w. One who practices higli vault- 
ing, rope-dancing, etc. — Acrobat'ic, a. 

Acrogen, ak'ro-jen, m. A kind ot cr.vptogamous plant, 
which increases by^rowth at the'extremity, — such 
as ferns, etc. — Acrogenous, a-kroj^'e-nus, a. 

Acronycal, a-kron'ik-ul, a. {Astron.) Kising at sun- 
set and setting at sunrise, as a star, — opp. to cos- 

Acropolis, a-krop'o-lis, n. The higher part of a Gre- 
cian cit}-; the citadel or castle; esp. tlie citadel of 

Across, a-kros', pi-ep. From side to side of; quite 
over; in a direction opposed to the length of. —adv. 
From side to side; crosswise, [a, on. and o-oss.j 

Acrostic, a-kros'tik, n. A composition, usually' in 
verse, in which the first or the last letter of every 
line, or of every word, read collectively, form a 
name or sentence. — a. Of or pert, to, etc. — Acros'- 
tically, adv. 

Acrotism, ak'ro-tizm, n. {Med.) A defect of pulsa- 

Act, V. i. To exert power: to he in action or motion ; 
to behave or conduct; to demean one's self. — v. t. 
To perform, esp. on the stage ; to feign ; to assume 
the office or character of. — 71. That which is done 
or doing; deed; a decree, edict, law, judgment, etc.; 
any instrument in writing to verily facts ; one of 
the principal divisions of a play ; a state of reality, 
or real existence, "as opposed to a possible existence; 
a state of preparation. — Acfing, p. a. Discharging 
the duties of another. — n. The performance of an 
assumed part. — Action, ak'shu.n, ??. Exertion of 
power, or the effect of power exerted; motion pro- 
duced; agency ; thing done ; a deed ; conduct ; de- 
meanor; series of events forming the subject of a 
play, poem, etc. (07-at.) Gesticulation. (Law.) A 
suit or process. (Com.) A share in the stock of a 
company. (Paint. Sf Scidp.) The position of the sev- 
eral parts of the body. (3iil.) An engagement be- 
tween troops. — Ac'tionable, a. (Law.) Liable to a 
suit. — Actionably, adv. — Ac'tionary, -tionist, n. 
(Com.) A stock holder in a company. — Act'ive, -iv, 
a. Having the power or quality of acting: eogaged 
inaction; energetic; busy; practical. ((Sirtm.) Ex- 
pressing action or transition of action from an ageiit 
to an oDJect. — Act'ively, adv. — Acfiveness, Ac- 
tiv'^ity, n. — Actor, akfer, n. One who acts; esp. on 
the stage. — Act^ress, n. A female actor — Act'ual, 
a. Existing in act; real: carried out. — opp. to poten- 
Hal, virtual, theoretical, etc.; existing at present.— 
Act'ually, adv. — Actuality, Act'^ualness, n. — 
Act'ualist, n. One who considers actually existing 
facts or conditions, — opp. to ideaJixf.— Acfualize, 
?). t. To make actual. — Acfualiza'tion, ?i. — Acf- 
uary, n. A. registrar; a manager of a joiut-stnck com- 
pany, esp. of an insurance company. — Acf^uate. v. 
t. To put into action; incite to action. — Actua- 
tion, n. » 

Actin'iform, a. Having a radiated form. 

Actinism, ak'tin-izm, n. A property in the solar rays 
which produces chemical changes, as in photog- 
ranhy. — Actin^ic, a. Of or pertrto, etc. — Actin'o- 
graph, -graf, n. An instrument for recording varia- 
tions in the actinic force of sunlight. — Actinom''- 
eter, n. An instrument for measuring the intensity 
of i^ctinic rays. 

Aculeate, a-kil'le-at, a. (Hot.) Having sharp points; 

siin, cube, full ; moon, idbt ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, tiien, boNboN, chair, get. 



Aculeate Stem 

pointed; — used of 
prickles fixed in the bark, 
opp. to thorns growing 
from the wood. 

Acttmen, a-ku'men, n. 
Quickness of perception 

or discernment : penetration of mind ; acuteness ; 
perspicuity. —Acu'inihate, v. t. To render sharp or 
keen. — v' i . To end in a sharp point. — a. Having 
a long, tapering point. — Acu'minous, a. Acumi- 
nate. — Acu''mina''tion, 7i. A sharpening ; termina- 
tion in, etc. 

Aeupression, ak''u-pres^h'un, Acupres'sure, -presh'er, 
n. {Stiiy.) Tlie arresting of hemorrhage from an 
arterv, etc.. by passing a needle tiiroughtne wounded 
vessel. —Acupuncture, -punk'chu!-, w. {Med.) The 
introduction of needles into the living tissues for 
'remedial purposes. 

Acute, a-kuti^, a. Sharp at the end ; pointed ; having 
nice discernment: shrewd; having quick sensibility; 
high or shrill. (Med.) Having sj'mptoms of sever- 
ity, and coming speedily to a crisis, — opp. to chronic. 
— Acute'ly, adc. — Acute'ness, ii. 

Adage, ud'ej, n. A saying which Jias obtained credit 
by long use; maxim:' proverb; aphorism. [F.J 

Adagio, a-da'jo, a. Qfiis.) Slow ; moving leisurely 
and gracefully. — n. A piece of slow music. [It. J 

Adamant, ad'a-mant, n. A stone imagined to be of 
impenetrable hardness ; — hence a diamond or other 
very hard .substance. 

Adam's-apple, ad'amz-ap-'pl, ??. A species of citron, 
also o£ banana: the projection formed by the thy- 
roid cartilage in tlie neck. 

Adapt, a-dapt'. v. t. To make fit or suitable ; to suit; 
adjust; attune. — Adapt'able, o. Capable of being 
adapted. — Adapta'tion, ??. Act of, or state of be- 
ing, etc. —Adapt'er, »?. One wlio adapts. (Chem.) 
A receiver with two necks : an adopter. 

Add, ad. i-. t. To join or unite, as one sum to another; 
to subjoin, annex.— Ad'dible, -dable, a.— Ad'ditive, 
-tiv, a. Addiblc— Ad'der, n. One who or that 
which adds : an adding machine, abacus^ — Addi- 
tion, -dish''un, n. Act of artdinff; thing added; in- 
crease; augmentation. {Maih.) The branch of arith- 
metic which treats of adding numbers. (Mus.) A 
dot beside a note sliowina: that its sound is to be 
lengthened one half. (Laiv.) A title annexed to a 
man's name. — Addi'tional. a. Added ; more. — 
Addi'tionally, adv. — Adden'dum, n. ,- pi. Adden'- 
DA, -da. A thing to be added; an appendix. 

Adder, ad'der, n. A venomous serpent. 

Addict, ad-dikf, v. t. To apply habitually; to ac- 
custom; to devote. 

Addle, ad'dl, «. Putrid; corrupt; producing nothing; 
barren. — v. t. To make addle, corrupt, or morbid. 

Address, ad-dres'', r. i. [addhessed (-drest''), ueess- 
ING.J To prepare or make ready; to direct words or 
discourse to; to apply to by speech, petition, etc.; to 
direct in writing, as a letter; to woo. (Com.) To 
consign to another, as agent or factor. — ii. A formal 
application, speech, discourse, etc. ; manner of speak- 
ing; skill; dexterity; tact; direction of a letter, or 
the name, title, and residence of the person ad- 
dressed. In plu., attention in the way of courtship. 

Adduce, ad-dus', v. t. [adduced (-dust'), -DucrsG.] 
To bring forward, quote. — Addu'cent, Adduc'tive, 
a. Bringing forward or together. — Adduc'tion, n. 
Act of, etc. 

Adept, a-dept', a. Well-skilled; completely versed; 
proficient, —n. One who is adept in any art. 

Adequate, ad'e-kwat, a. Equal, proportionate, or cor- 
respondent^ fully sufficient; requisite. 

Adhere, ad-her', v. i. [adhered (-herd'), -heeixg.] 
To stick fast or cleave; to become united; to be at- 
tached, abide by. — Adher'ence, n. Quality or state 
of adhering ; steady attachment. — Adher'ent, a. 
United with or to ; sticking. — n. One who cleaves 
to or supports some person or cause; partisan; fol- 
lower. — Adher'ently, adr. — Adhesion, -he'zhun, 
w. Act or state of sticking; the force with which 
distinct bodies adhere when their surfaces are 
brought m contact. — Adhesive, -he'siv, a. Sticky; 
tenacious, as glutinnu:* substances. 

Adieu, a-du', adv. Good-by; farewell. 

Adipose, ad'T-pos, Ad'ipous. -pus, a. Pert, to, or 

consisting of , animal fat; fatty. — Ad'ipocere, -ser, 
n. A soft, unctuous, waxy substance, into which 
animal flesh is changed by immersion in water or 
spirit, or by burial in moist places. 

Adit, ad'it, 71. A horizontal or inclined entrance into 
ainine; adrift: passage; approach. 

Adjacent, ad-ja'sent, a. Lying near to; contiguous, 
not touchins- — Acya'cency, «. State of being, etc. 
j Adjective, ad'jek-tiv, //. (Gram.) A word used with 
a substantive, to describe, limit, or define it. or to 
denote .some property of it. — Ad'jectively, adv — 
Adjectival, -ti'val or ad'jek-tiv-al, a. Pert, to, etc. 

Adjoin, ad-join', v. t. [adJoi.ved (-joind'), -joining. J 
To join or unite to. — v. i. To be contiguous, in con- 
tact, or very near. — Adjunct, ad'junkt, n. An ap- 
pendafje; a colleague.— a. Added; united. — Ad- 
juncfly, ac?v. — Adjunc'tion, Ji. Act of joining; 
thing joined. — Adjunc'tive, -tiv, a. Joining ; tend 
ing to join. — n. One who, or that which, etc. — Ad- 
junc'tively, adv. 

Adjourn, ad-jern', v. t. [adjourned (-jernd'),,-jouRN- 
ING.] To put off to another time; to postpone; de- 
fer; prorogue. — v. i. To suspend business for a 
time ; to close the session of a public body. — Ad- 
journ'ment, n. Act of adjourning ; postponement; 
the interval during which business is suspended 

Adjudge, ad-juj', v. t. [adjudged (-jujd'), -judging.] 
lo award or decree: to sentence. — Adjudgement, n. 

— Adjudicate, ad-joo'di-kat, v. t. To try and de- 
termine; to adjudge. — Adju'dica'tion, n. Act of ad- 
judicating; sentence; judgment; decision. 

Adjunct. See under Adjoin. 

Adjure, ad-joor', v. t. [adjured (-joord'), -juring.] 
lo charge, command, or entreat solemnly, as if 
under oath. — Adjura'tion, n. Act of adjuring; the 
form of oath. — Adjur'er, n. One who, etc. 

Adjust, ad-jusf, v. t. To make exact or conforma- 
ble ; to fit, set right. — Adjust'able, a. — Adjust'- 
ment, n. Act of, etc.; arrangement: settlement. 

Adjutant, ad'jrW-tant, n. A military ofHcer who as- 
sists the commanding officer 
in issuing orders, keeping 
records, etc. ; a large species 
of stork, found m India. 

— Ad'jutancy, /!. Office of_an 
adjutant. — Adjutor, -joo'- 
ter, n. A helper. — Ad-ju'trix, 
n. A female helper. — Ad'- 
juvant, a. Helping. — n. 
An assistant. (^Med.) A rem- 

Admeasure, ad-mezh^ur, v. f. 
[admeasured (mezh'urd), 
-measueing.J To take" the 
dimensions of; to apportion. 

Administer, ad-min'is-ter, v. t. 
[administered (-terd), -tee- 
ing.] To manage ; to dis- 
pense; to give or tender. 
(Laio.) To settle, as an estate. 

— V. i. To contribute; to bring aid. To perform 
the office of administrator. — Admin'iste'rial, a. 
Pert, to admistration. — Admin'istrahle, a. Capable 
of being, etc. — Admin'istra'tion, w. The act of ad- 
ministering; the executive part of the government; 
distribution ; the persons collective!}' intrusted with 
executing laws and superintending public affairs. 
(Law.) iVlanagement of the estate of one deceased. 

— Admin'istra'tive, -tiv, a. Administering. — Ad- 
min'istra'tor, n. — Admin'istra'torship, n. Office 
of, etc. — Admin'is-tra'trix, n. A woman who ad- 

Admiral. ad'niT-ral, n. A naval officer of the highest 
rank; the ship which carries him. — Ad'miralship, n. 
Office of, etc. — Ad'miralty, n. The body of otficers 
who manage naval affairs. 

Admire, ad-mir', v. t. [admired (-mird'), -miring.] 
To regard with wonder or surprise, mingled with 
approbation, reverence, or affection; to estimate or 
prize highly. — v. t. To wonder; to marvel. — Ad- 
mir'er, n. One who admires; a lover. — Ad'mirable, 
-niT-ra-bl, a. Worthy of admiration; rare; excellent. 

— Ad'mirably, arfr. — Ad'mira'tion, n. Wonder; 
esp. wonder mingled with esteem, love, etc. 

Admit, ad-mit', v. t. To grant entrance to; to receive 


am, fame, far, p»ss or opera, fare ; 6nd, eve. term ; In, ice ; 8dd. tone, or s 



as true; to concede; to be capable of.— Admit 'tedly, 
adv. Confessedly. — Admiftance, n. Act of ad- 
mitting. (Law.) The giving possession of projierty. 
— Admis'^sible, -sT-bl, a. Worthy of being admitted. 

— AdmiB'sibil'ity, n. Quality of, etc. — Admis'sive, 
-siv, a. Conceding. — Admission, -mish'un, n. Act 
of admitting; permission to enter; access; the grant- 
ing of a position not fully proved. 

Admix, ad-miks', v. t. To mingle with something else. 

— Admix'' ture, -chur, n. A mixing ; what is mixed. 
Admonish, ad-mon'ish, v. t^ [admoxisiied (-isht), 

-isiiiXG.] To reprove gentlj'; to counsel against 
wrong ; to instruct, advise. — Admon'isher, Ad- 
moni'tion, -nish'un, n. Gentle reproof; advice. — 
Admon'itive, -T-tiv, -itory, a. Containing admoni- 

Adnascent, ad-nas'ent, a. Growing to or on some- 
thing else. 

Ado, a-dob', n. Bustle; trouble; labor; difficulty. 

Adobe, a-do''ba, n. An unburnt, sun-dried brick. [Sp.] 

Adolescent, ad-o-les'cnt, a. Growing; advancing 
from childhood to maturity. — Adoles'^cence, -ens, 
n. Youth ; the years from 14 to 25 in men, and 12 to 
21 in women. 

Adopt, a-dopf, v. t. To select and take as- one's own 
when not so before. — Adopfer, n. One who adopts. 
( Cliem.) A receiver with two necks. — Adop'tion, n. 
Act of J or state of being, etc. ; receiving as one's own 
what is not natural. (Theol.) Man's acceptance, 

. through God's grace, on justilitation by faitli. 

Adwre, a-dor', V. f. [adored (a-dord''), . adoring.] To 
worship with profound reverence; to love intensely. 

— Ador'er, n. A worshiper; a lover. — Ador'able, 
a. — Adora'tion, n. Worship paid to a divine being; 
homage to one in high esteem. 

.Adorn, a-dSrn', v. t. [adorned (a-d6rnd''), adou>h:?g.] 
To render beautiful; to decorate, embellish, set-off, 
ornament. — Adorn'ment, n. Ornament; embellish- 
ment. , 

Adrift, a-drift', a. or adv. Floating at random. 

Adroit, a-droif, a. Possessing or exercising skill or 
dexterity; ready in invention or execution; expert; 
clever. — Adroit'ly, adv. — Adroifness, n. 

Adulation, ad-u-la'shun, n. Servile flattery; syco- 
phancy. — Ad'ula'tor, -ter, n. A servile flatterer. — 
Ad'ulatory, a. 

Adtilt, a-dulf, a. Having arrived at mature years, 
or to full size and strength. — w. A person or thing 
irrown to maturity. 

Adulterate, a-duKter-at, v. t. To debase or make im- 
pure hy admixture of baser materials; to contam- 
inate; to corrupt. — a. Tainted with adultery; de- 
based. — Adul'tera'tion, n. Act of, or state of be- 
ing, etc. — Adul'terant, n. One who, or that which, 
etc. — Adul'tery, M. Violation of the m-irriage-bed. 
(Script.) Violation of one's religious covenant. — 
Adul'terer, n. A man guilty of adultery. —AdTU'- 
teress, n. A woman, etc. — ^ Adul'terine, -tn or -in, 
a. Proceeding from adultery. — n. A child born in, 
etc. — Adul'terous, a. Pert, to, or guilty of, etc. 

Advance, ad-vans', v. t. [adva.vced (^-vansf), -vajt- 
CING.] To bring forward ; to raise in rank ; to ac- 
celerate the growth or progress of ; to help on ; to 
offer or propose; to supply beforehand; to pay for 
others, in expectation of re-imbursement. — v. t. To 
move forward; to improve; to rise in rank, etc. — n. 
Act of advancing; approach; improvement. (Com.) 
Additional price or profit; a tender; an olfer; a fur- 
nishing of something before an equivalent is re- 
ceived; money or goods thus furnished. — a. Be- 
fore in place or time ; — used for advanced, as, an 
adi'awce-guard. — Advanced, -vanst', p. p. Pro- 
gressive; imbued with novel ideas. — Advance'ment, 
n. Act or state of, etc.; improvement; promotion; 
payment in advance. — Advan'cer, ?i. A promoter. 

Advantage, ad-van'tej, n. Anv state, condition, etc., 
favorable to some desired end; superioritj' of state, 
or that which gives it; benefit; profit. — v. t. [ad- 
vantaged (-ta]d), -TAGiNG.] To benefit, to pro- 
mote. — Advantageous, -ta'jus, a. Being of, or 
furnishing, etc.; profitable; beneficial. — Advanta'- 
geously, adv. — Advanta'geousness, n. 

Advent, ad'vent, n. A coming; approach; esp. the 
coming of Christ ; a season of devotion including 
four Sundays before Christmas. — Adventitious, 

-tish'us, a. Added extrinsically: casual. (Bot.) Out 
of the usual place. — Adventi'tiously, adv. — Ad- 
ven'tive, -tiv, a. Accidental; adventitious. — Ad- 
ven'tual, -chu-al, a. Pert, to the season of Advent- 
Adventure, ad-'ven'chur, n. Hazard ; risk ; cliance ;. 
an enterprise of hazard ; a remarkable occurrence; 
a thing sent to sea at the sender's risk. — v. t. Iad- 
VENTUKEi) (-churd), -XLRIXG.] To put at hazard; to- 
risk; to run the risk of attempting. — ?•. i. To try' 
the chance ; to dare.— Adven'turer, n. One who, etc. 
— Adven'turesome, -sum, a. Incurring hazard; bold. 

— Adven'turotis, a. Inclined to adventure; daring; 
attended with risk. — Adven'turously, adv.—&A~ 
ven'turousness, n. 

Adverb, ad'verb, n. (Gram.) A word modifying the 
sense of a verb, participle, adjective, or other adverb. 

— Adver'bial, a. Relating to or like, etc. — Adver'- 
bially, adv. — Adver'bialize, v. t. To give the force 
or form of, etc. 

Adverse, ad'vers, a. Acting in a contrary direction ; 
conflicting; unfortunate. — Ad'versene'ss, n. — Ad- 
ver'sity, n. An e\'T^nt or series of events attended 
with misfortune; alfliction; distress. — Ad'versary, 
n. One who is opposed; antagonist; foe. —a. Ad- 
verse ; antagonistic. — Adver'sativer -tiv, a. Not- 
ing opposition or antithesis between connected prop- 
ositions; — applied to the conjunctions but, however, 
yet, etc. — n. An adversative word. 

Advert, ad-vert', v. i. To turn the mind or attention ; 
to regard, observe. — Adver'tence, ?i. Attention;, 
consideration. — Adver'tent, a. Attentive; heedful. 

Advertise, ad-ver-tiz', v. t. or t. [advertised 
(-tizd'), -TISIXG.] To inform ; to make known 
througn the press. — Advertisement, -ver'tiz-ment, 
or -ver-tiz'ment, n. Information ; public notice- 
through the press. — Advertiser, -tiz'er, n. 

Advise, ad-viz'. v. t. [advised (-vizd'), -vising.] To 
counsel; to give information to; to apprise; to ac- 
quaint, consult. — )•. I. To delibei-ate ; to weigh 
or consider. — Advis'able, o. Fit to be advised; ex- 
pedient. — Advis'ably, adv. — Advis'ableness, n. 
Fitness ; propriety. — Advis'edly, adr. With full 
knowledge; purposelj'. — Advis'edness, n. Deliber- 
ate consideration. — Advise'ment, n. Counsel ; con- 
sultation; consideration. — Advis'er, n. One who, 
etc.; a counselor. — Advi'sory, a. Having power 
to advise; containing advice. — Advice, ad-vis'', n. 
An opinion offered, as worthy to be followed; sug- 
gestion; information as to the state of affairs t coun- 
sel; intelligence. 

Advocate, ad'vo-kat, n. One who pleads a cause ; esp. 
one who pleads tlie cause of another before a tri- 
bunal. — V. t. To plead in favor of; to maintain by 
argument ; to defend, support, vindicate. — Ad'vo- 
cacy, -ka-sT, Advoca'tion, n. Act of, etc.; interces- 

Advowson, ad-vow'zun, n. (Eng. Law.) The right 
of presenting or nominating to a vacant benefice. 

— Advowee, -vow-e', or Advow'er, n. One who^ 
presents, etc. 

Adz, Adze, adz, n. A carpenter's tool for 

.Sdile, Edile, e'dil, n. An officer in ancient 
Rome who cared for public buildings, 
streets, public spectacles, etc. 

.Sgis, e'jis, n. A shield, esp. Mi- 
nerva's shield ; anything that pro- 

.Solian, e-o'lt-an, a. Pert, to ^olia 
or ^olis, in Asia Minor ; pert, to 
^olus, god of the winds; pert, to, 
or produced by, the wind. — .Solian. 
attachment. A contrivance for con- 
verting a pianoforte into a wind in- 
strument. — iEolian harp. A box 
on whicii are stretched strings, on 
which the wind produces musical 
notes. — .£olic, e-oKik, a. Pert, to .lEolia. 

.Son, Eon, e'on, n. A great, indefinite, or infinite, 
space of time. 

Aerate, a'er-at, v. t. To impregnate or combine with 
carbonic acid gas; to supply with commonair or with 
oxygen. — Aera'tion, n. Act or process of, etc.; 
exposure of soil to the action of the air. — Aerial^ 
a-e'r1!-al, a. Pert, to the air, or atmosphere ; consist- 


siin, cQbe, full ; moon, fd6t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, then, boNboN, chair, get. 




ing of, inhabiting or frequenting, or existing in, the 
air ; high ; lofty. — A''erifonn, a. Having the form 
■of air, as gas. — A'erify, -fi, v. t. To cliduge into 
an aeriform state. —A'erogram, n. A message sent 
by wireless telegraphy. — A'erolite, n. A stone 
falling from, etc. ; meteoric stone. — A'erom''eter, 
n. An instrument for measuring the weight or den- 
sity of gases.— A'erom''etry, ?i.— A'eronaut',— nawt, 
n. An aerial navigator ; balloonist. — A'eronaufic, 
n. Pert, to, etc. — A'Sronaufics, ?;. Science or art 
of sailing in a balloon.— A'erophyte'', -lit, n. A 
• pla.nt deriving support from air. — A'eroplane, n. A 
flying machine, or a plane for experiments on flying, 
which floats in the air only when propelled through 
it. — A'erostat'ic, a. Pert, to, etc. [bird of prey. I 
Aerie, e'rt or a'ri, n. The nest of an eagle or other) 
Esthetic, Esthetic, es-thet''ik, a. Pert, to jesthetics. 

— .Ssthet'ics, n. sing. The theory or philosophy of 
taste ; science of the beautiful in nature and art. 

Afar, a-far'^, adv. At a great distance; remote. 

ASable, af'^fa-bl, a. Ready to converse ; easy of ac- 
cess ; courteous ; complaisant ; condescending. — 
Affably, adv. — Affabil'ity, n. Quality of being, 
etc.; urbanity; civility. 

Affair, af-far', n. Business of any kind ; esp. public 
business. {Mil.) An engagement of troops. 

Affect, af-fekf, v. t. To act upon ; to produce a 
change in ; to influence, imitate, put on a pretense 
of. — Affecta'tion, n. Assumption of what is not 
natural; false pretense. — Affect'^ed, p. a. Assum- 
ing or pretending to possess, etc. ; assumed artifi- 
cially. (Alg.) Compounded ; containing different 
powers of the imknown quantity (written also Ad- 
jected). — Affect'^edly, adv. In an affected manner. 

— Affect ''edness, ?t. — Affect'er, m. — Affect-'ing, p. 
a. Having power to move the passions; pathetic. 

— Affect'lngly, adv. — Affec'tion, n. An attribute, 
C[uality, or property, inseparable from its subject; 
inclination of the mind toward a particular object; 
love; attachment. {Med.) Disease. — Affec'tionate, 
a. Having or proceeding from, etc. ; tender; fond ; 
warm-hearted. — Affec'tionately, adv. — Affec'- 
tioned, -shund, a. Inclined ; disposed ; affected. — 
Affect''ive, -iv, a._ Affecting, or exciting emotion. 

Affettuoso, af-fet-too-o^zo. {Mus.) A direction to ren- 
der notes soft or affecting. -adtJ. Tenderly. [It. J 

Affiance, af-fi''ans, n. Plighted faith; marriage con- 
tract; trust; confidence. —I'. <. [affianced (-anst), 
-AXCING.] To betroth ; to pledge fidelity in mar- 
riage, promise marriage to, give confidence to, trust. 

— Affi.''ancer, n. One who makes a marriage contract 
between parties. — AfB.'ant, n. (Law.) One who 
makes affidavit. — Affida'vit, n. (jLaw.) A declara- 
tion , signed and made upon oath. 

Affiliate, af-fiKT-at, v. t. To adopt as a son, receive 
into fellowship ; to ally ; to receive into a societj' 
as a member. {Law.) To assign an illegitimate 
child to the father. — AffiPia'tion, n. Adoption; as- 
sociation in the same family or society; assignment 
of an illegitimate child to the father. 

Affinage, af^fin-ej, ?i. A refining of metals. [F.] 

Affinity, af-fin''T-tI, n. Relationship by marriage; 
close agreement; conformity; connection. {Chem.) 
That attraction which takes place, at an insensible 
distance, between particles, and forms compounds. 

Affirm, af-ferm'', v. t. [affirmed (-fermd''), -fiem- 
IXG.] To confirm, estahlish, or ratify; to assert posi- 
tively, aver. — v. i. To declare positively. {Law.) 
To promise, before a magistrate or tribunal, to tell 
the truth, under pain of perjury. — Affirma''tion, 
n. Act of, etc. ; that which is asserted ; ratifica- 
tion. {Law.) Declaration by one conscientiously 
unable to make oath.— Affirm'ative, -tiv, a. Affirm- 
ing, — opp. to negative; confirmative; ratifying. — 
n. A word expressing assent; an affirmative propo- 
sition; that side of a question which affirms or 
maintains, — opp. to negative. — Affirm''atively, adv. 

— Affirm'^er, n. 

Affix, af-fiks', v. t. [affixed (-fixf), -fixing.] To 
add at the end; to attach or connect; to fix or fasten 
in any manner; to annex. —Affix, af'flks, n. A syl- 
lable or letter joined to the end of a word; a suffix. 

— Afflxion, -fik'shun, w. Act of affixing; addition. 

— Affixture, -fiks-'chur, n. That which is, etc. 
Afflatus, af-fla-'tus, n. ' A breath or blast of wind ; 

communication of divine knowledge; the inspira- 
tion of a poet. — Affla'^tion, 72. A breathing on. 

Afflict, af-flikt'', V. t. To strike down; to overthrow; 
to give continued pain ; to cause to suffer dejection ; 
to trouble, harass. — Afflicfer, n. — Afflict'ing. a. 
Causing pain ; grievous ; distressing. — Affliction, 
-flik'^shun, n. Cause of continued pain, state of 
being afflicted; sorrow; adversity. — Afflict'^ive, -iv, 
a. Giving or^ausing, etc. — Afflicfively, adv. 

Affluent, af'floo-ent, a. Wealthy; plentiful. — n. A 
stream flowing into a river or lake. — Affluence, -ens, 
-ency, n. Abundance, esp. of riches; opulence. — Af- 
fluently, adv. — Afflux, af ''fluks, Affluxion, -fluk''- 
shun, n. Act of flowing to; that which flows to. 

Afford, af-ford'', V. <. To yield or produce; to give, 
grant, sell, or expend, with profit or without loss; 
to impart ; confer. 

Affray, af-fra'', n. {Law.) Fighting -in a public 
place, causing fear; a tumultuous assault ; quarrel; 

Affreight, af-fraf, v. t. To hire, as a ship, to trans- 
port goods or freight. —Affireight'ment, n. The en- 
gagement or chartering, etc. 

Affright, af-frit'', v. t. To impress with sudden fear: 
to appall, shock, alarm. — n. Sudden and great fear; 
terror. — Affrighfedly, adv. 

Affront, af-frunf, /;. Any reproachful or contemptu- 
ous action; oft'ense. — v. t. To otf end by manifest- 
ing disrespect; to insult, provoke, outrage. — Af- 
front'er, n. — Affronfive, -iv, a. Abusive, insult- 
ing. — Affiront'ingly, adv. 

Afield, a-feld', adv. To, in, or on the field; out of the 

Afire, a-fir'_, a. or adv. On fire. 

Aflame, a-flam', adv. In flames; glowing with light. 

Afloat, a-flof, adv. In a floating state; passing from 
place to place; unfixed; without guide or control. 

Afoot, artSbV, adv. On foot; in action; in a condition 
for actioji. 

Afore, a-for'', adv. or prep. Before. — Afore'going, 

a. Going before; foregoing; previous. hand, ac/i?. 

Beforehand; before. men'tioned, -shund, adv. 

Spoken of or named before. — rthought, -thawt, a. 
Premeditated. — time, adv. In time past; of old. 

Afoul, a-fowK, a. or adv. Not free; entangled. 

Afraid, a-frad', a. Struck with fear or apprehen- 
sion; timid. 

Afresh, a-fresh', adv. Anew; over again. 

Afrit, af-rif, Afrite, -ref , Afreet', n. {Moham. Myth.) 
A powerful evil jinnee or demon. 

Afront, a-frunf, adv. In front. 

Aft, aft, adv. or a. {Naut.) Astern, or toward the 
stern ; abaft. — Fore and aft. From one end of the 
vessel to the other. 

After, aff er, 7)rep. Behind in place; later in time; 
moving toward from behind; in pursuit of; in im- 
itation of; according to the influence of; in relation 
to. — adv. Subsequently. — a. Later; subsequent. 
{Naut.) More aft. — Aft'ermost, -most, a. Hindmost. 
— Afferward, -wards, -wurdz, adv. In later or_suc- 
ceeding time ; subsequently. — Aft'er-birth, -berth, 
n. The placenta, cord, and membranes inclosing 
the fetus, which come away after delivery. — clap, 

n. An unexpected subsequent event. crop, 7i. 

A second crop. damp, n. Choke-damp; carbonic 

acid gas following the explosion of fire-damp in 
mines. — glow, n. A kind of second twilight, some- 
times following sunset. math, n. A second crop 

of grass in the same year; rowen. — noon', n. Time 

from noon to evening. pains, n. pi. Pains after 

delivery, caused by the after-birth, or by clots. — 
-piece, n. A piece performed after a play. — sails, 
71. pi. {Naut.) The sails on the mizzen mast and 
its stays. — state, n. The future life. — -thought, 
-thawt, n. Something thought of after an act; later 
thought or expedient. 

Aga, a'ga, n. A Turkish commander or chief officer. 

Again, a-gen', adv. Another time; once more; in re- 
turn; back. —Again and again. Often; repeatedly. 
— Against, a-gensf, jorep. Abreast of; opposite to; m 
opposition to ; in preparation for. 

Agape, a-gap', adv. Gaping, as with wonder. 

Agaric, ag'a-rik, n. {Bot.) A family of fungi, includ- 
ing mushrooms ; an excrescence growing on the trunk 
of trees, used for tinder, in dyeing, and in medicine; 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; Snd, eve, term ; In, ice ; 8dd, tone, 6r j 







touchwood. —Agaric mineral. A deposit of carbon- 
ate of lime. 
Agate, a»'et, n. A precious stone, variety of quartz. 
(Print.) A kind of type, larger than pearl and small- 
er than nonpareil; —in England called rub>/. 

^^^ This line is printed in the type called agate. 

— Agatine, -tin, a. Pert, to _^ 
or resembling, agate. — Ag'- 
atize, -tiz, 1-. t. Fagatized 
(-tizd), -Tizixo.J To con- 
vert into, etc. — Ag'aty, -tt, 
a. Of the nature of, etc. 

Agave, a-ga've, n. A genus 

of plants ; the American 

aloe, or century plant, from 

the juice of which the liq- 

uoT jpulque is made. 
Age, aj, n. Whole duration 

of a being; the part ot one's 

life previous toa given time ; 

the latter part of life; legal 

maturity ; a particular pe- 
riod of time in history; the 

people of a particular pe- 
riod; hence, a generation : a 

century: era. — v. i. To grow -:■:. 

old: to show marks ot age.'" 

— Aged, a'jed, a. Ad- 
vanced in age; old; ancient. 

— n.231. Old persons. — Agedly, a-'jed-ir, acZi'. Like 
an aged person. 

Agendum, a-jen-'dum, w.; jjZ. Agex''da, -da. Some- 
thing to be done; a memorandum-book ; a ritual or 
liturgy. [L.] 

Agent, a''jent, n. A person or thing that acts or has 
power to act ; one intrusted with the business of an- 
other ; a substitute ; a deputy ; a factor ; an active 
power or cause. — A'^gentship, 7i. The office of an 
agent; agency. — A'gency, a'jen-sY, m. Quality or 
state of, etc. ; instrumentality ; office or duties of, etc. ; 
bureau of, etc. 

Agglomerate, ag-glom'er-at, v. t. To wind into a 
ball ; to gather into a mass. — v. i. To collect into a 
ball. — A^glom'era'tion, n. Act of, or state of being, 

Agglutinate, ag-glu''tT-nat, v. t. To glue or cause to 
adhere ; to unite by causing adhesion. — Agglu'ti- 
na'tion, n. Act of uniting, or state of being united. — 
Agglu'tina'tive, -tiv, a. Tending to unite. — Agglu''- 
tinant, a. Uniting. — n. A viscous adhesive sub- 

Aggrandize, ag'^gran-diz, t'. <. [aggkandized (-dizd), 
-DiziXG.] To enlarge; to make great or greater in 
power, rank, honor, etc.; to augment; exalt; in- 
crease. — Aggrandizement, -gran^'diz-ment, n. Act 
of, or state of being, etc. — Ag'grandi'zer, n. One 
who, etc. 

Aggravate, ag'gra-vat, v. t. To make worse, more 
severe, more enormous ; to enhance; to give an ex- 
aggerated representation of; to provoke or irritate; 
to tease. — Aggravation, -va'shun, n. Act of, or that 
which, etc. ; exaggerated representation ; provoca- 
tion ; irritation. 

Aggregate, ag'gre-gat, v. t. To bring together : to 
collect into a sum or mass ; to accumulate, pile. 

— a. Formed by parts collected. (Law.) United 
in one bod}' corporate. — n. An assemblage of par- 
ticulars; sum total; lump. — Aggrega'tion, M. Act 
of, or state of being, etc. — Ag -gregative, -tiv, a. 
Causing aggregation ; collective. — Ag'grega'tively, 
adv. — Ag'gregator, -ter, n. One who, etc. 

Aggress, ag-gres*^, v. t. [aggkessed (-gresf), -gress- 
IXG.] To make a first attack ; to begin a quarrel. — 
n. Attack. — Aggression, -gresh'un, n. First at- 
tack; act leading to controversy; invasion; encroach- 
ment. — Aggres'sive, -siv, a. Tending to, etc. — Ag- 
gres''sively, adv. — Aggres'siveness, n. — Aggres'- 
sor. -ser, n. _ 

Aggrieve, ag-grev'', V. t. [AGGRiEfED(-grevd''), -griev- 
ing.] To give pain to ; to afflict ; to oppress or in- 
jure ; to harass. 

Aghast, a-gast', a. or adv. Struck with amazement; 
stupefied with sudden fright or horror. 

Agilo, aj^'il, a. Quick of motion; nimble; lively; 

brisk. — Ag'ileness, Agility, a-jiKt-tX, n. Quality 
of being, etc. 

Agitate, aj'T-tat, v. i. To move with a violent irreg- 
ular action : to shake ; to disturb or excite ; to dis- 
cuss earnestly; to consider on all sides ; to revolve, 
debate. — Agita'tion, n. Act of, or state of being, 
etc. ; perturoation of mind ; discussion. — Agita'- 
tive, -tiv, a. Having power or tendencj' to, etc. — 
Agita-'tor, -ter, h. 

Aglow, a-glc^, adv. Hot; briglit with warmth: glowing. 

Agnail, ag^'nal, n. Inflammation round a nail; a whit- 

Agnate, ag^'nat, a. (Laiv.) Related on the father's 
side. — 71. A male relation by the father's side. — 
Agna-'tion, n. Descent in the male line. — Agna'tic, 
a. Pert, to, etc. 

Agnomen, ag-no''men, a. A name added, among the 
Romans, in celebration of some exploit. [L.] 

Agnostic, ag-nos'tik, a. Professing ignorance ; in- 
volving no dogmatic assertion ; leaving undeter- 
mined. — n. One who, etc. — Agnos'ticism, 7i. The 
condition of neithetjaffirming nor denying, on the 
score of ignorance. ( Theol.) Tlie doctrine that the 
existence of a personal Deity can be neither asserted 
nor denied, proved nor disproved, because of the 
limits of the human mind, or of the insufficiency of 
evidence, — opp. to atlieism and to theism; also,' the 
belief of a Christian sect of the third century, that 
God did not know all things. 

Ago, a-go'', adv. or a. Past; gone. 

Agog, a-gog', a. or adv. Highly excited by eagerness 
alter an object. 

Agoing, a-go^mg,p.nj'. In motion: going: ready to go. 

Agony, ag''o-nT, n. Pain that causes writhing or con- 
tortions of the body, like those in athletic contests ; , 
anguish ; pang. — Ag''onist, n. One who contends 
for the prize in public games. — Ag'^onism, -nizm, 
n. Contention for, etc. — Agonist'^ic, -ical, a. Re- 
lating to prize-fighting, or to bodily or mental con- 
test. — Ag''onize, v. i. [agoxized (-nizd), -xizixg.J 
To writhe with agony; to suffer anguish. — v. t. To 
distress; to torture. -^Ag''onizingly, adv. 

Agrarian, a-gra'rl-an, a. Relating or tending to 
equal division of lands. (Bot.) Growing wild. — n. 
One who favors ejjual division of property. 

Agree, a-gre', v. i. [agreed (-gied'), agreeixg.} 
To harmonize in opinion, statement, or action ; to 
yield assent, come to terms, resemble. (Gram.) To 
correspond in gender, number, case, or person. — 
Agree'able, a. Suitable; in pursuance or accord- 
ance ; pleasing ; ready to agree. — Agree'abil'ity, 
Agree'ableness, n. Qualitj^ of being, etc. — Agree''- 
ably, adv. — Agree'ment, n. A state of, etc. ( Gram.} 
Concord of one word with another in gender, num- 
ber, etc. (Zaiv.) Union of ininds in a thing done or 
to be done ; a bargain, compact, or contract. 

Agriculture, ag^'rl-kul-chur, ?i. Tne art or science of 
cultivating the ground ;" tillage ; husbandry. — Ag- 
ricuKtural, a. — Agricul'^turist, n. One skilled in, 

Agrimony, ag'rl-mo-ni, n. A wild plant having yel- 
low flowers. 

Agrin, a-grin'', adv. In the act of grinning. 

Agriology, ag-ri-oKo-ji, n. The comparative study of 
human customs, esp. of men in their natural state. 

Agrostis, a-gros'*tis, n. (Bot.) A genus of grasses^ 
Dent-grass; red-top. 

Aground, a-grownd''. adv. On the ground ; stranded. 

Ague, a^'gu, n. Chilliness; an intermittent fever, at- 
tended oy alternate cold and hot fits. —A'guish, a. 

Ah, a, interj. An exclamation, expressive of surprise, 
pity, contempt, joy, pain, etc.— Aha, a-ha', intery. 
An exclamation expressing triumph, contempt, or 
simple surprise. 

Ahead, a-hed'', arf?!. Farther forward: onward. 

Ahoy, a-hoi', interj. A sailor's call to attract attention. 

Ahull, a-huK, adv. With the sails furled, and the 
helm lashed on the lee side. ' 

Aid, ad, v. t. To support, by furnishing means to 
effect a purpose or prevent evil ; to assist, succor, 
befriend. — n. Help; the person or thing that aids; 
an aid-de-camp. — Aid'ance, n. Assistance. — Aid-de- 
camp, ad'dg-kaN, n. ; pi. Aids-de-camp, adz- (Mil.y 
One who assists a general officer in his military" 
duties. [F.] — Aid'er, n. — Aid'ful, -ful, a. 

stln, cube, fyll ; moon, f66t ; cow, oil ; ligger or ink, then, boNbox, chair, get. 




4iil, al, V. t. [AILED (aid), AILING.] To affect with 
pain, physical or mental ; to trouble. — v. i. To 
feel pain; to be troubled. — Ail, Ail'ment, n. Slight 
disease; indisposition; pain. 

Ailantos, a-lan-'tus, n. A genus of trees, native of 
India and China; — commonly, but improperly, 
spelt ailanthus. 

Aim, am, v. i. [aimed (amd), aiming.] To point with 
a missive weapon; to direct the intention or pur- 
pose. — V. t. To direct or point, as a weapon; to di- 
rect to a particular object. — n. The pointing or 
directing to an object, with a view to hit or affect 
it; the point to be hit, or affected; intention; direc- 
tion; end; endeavor. — Aimaess, a. — Aim''lessly, 

Air, kr, n. The fluid we breathe; the atmosphere; a 
gas, as, fixed air ; a light breeze ; look or mien. 
(Mus.) A melody or tune.— n.?jL An affected, vain 
manner. — v. t. To expose to the air ; to ventilate. 
— Air'ing, n. Exposure to air; an excursion in the 
open air. —Airy, ar'i, a. Pert, to, made of, or re- 
sembling air; high in air ; exposed to the air; un- 
substantial; frivolous; livelj^ (Paint.) Having the 
light and aerial tints true to nature. — Air'tly, adv. 
In an airy manner; gayly. — Air'iness, n. Openness 
to the air ; levity ; gayety. — Air'bath, n. An ar- 
rangement for drying substances in air of any de- 
sired temperature. bed, n. An air-tight bag, in- 
flated, and used as a bed. bladder, n. An organ 

in fishes, containing air, by which their buoyancy 

is regulated. brake, ?i. {Much.) A contrivance 

for stopping the motion of car-wheels by the use of 
•compressed air. — brick, n. An iron box of the 
size of a brick, built into walls for ventilation. — 
-cells, n. pi. Cavities for air in the leaves, stems, etc., 
of plants ; minute bronchial cells, in animals ; air- 
sacs. — drain, n. A space round the walls of a build- 
ing, to prevent dampness. — gun, n. A gun discharged 

by the elastic force of air. hole, n. An opening 

for air; a hole produced by a bubble of air. — plant, 
n. A plant apparently nourished by air only; an 
■epiphyte. — -poise, -poiz, n. 
An instrument for ascer- 
taining the weight of the 
air. — pump, n. A ma- 
■chine for exhausting the air 
from vessels. — sacs, n. pi. 
Heceptacles for air in the 
bodies of birds, which com- 
municate with the lungs, . . 
and render the body spe- Air-pump. 
ciflcally lighter. — shaft, n. A passage for air into a 
mine. — -tight, a. Impermeable to air. — trunk, n. 
A ventilating shaft, opened from the ceiling to the 
roof. — vessels, n. Vessels in plants or animals, 
which convey air. 

Aisle, il, n. {Arch.) The wing of a building; a lateral 
division of a church, separated from the nave by 
piers; a passage in a church, etc., into which pews or 
seats open. — Aisled, ild, a. Having aisles. 

Ajar, a-jiir', ado. Partly open, as a door. 

Akimbo, a-kim'bo, a. With elbow bent outward. 

Akin, a-kin', a. Related by blood; allied by nature. 

Alabaster, aKa-bas-ter, n. {Min.) A compact variety 
of sulphate of lime, or gypsum, of fine texture. — a. 
Pert, to, or resembling, etc. 

Alack, a-lak'', Alackaday, a-lak'a-d'a, interj. Excla- 
mations expressive of sorrow. 

Alacrity, a-lak'rt-tt, n. Cheerful readiness; ardor; 
liveliness; promptitude. 

Alamode, al-a-mod', adv. According to the mode or 
fashion. — ?!. A thin, glossy, black silk. [F.] 

Alarm, a-larm', n. A summons to arms; a notice of 
approaching danger; surprise with fear or terror; ap- 
prehension ; a mechanical contrivance for awaking 
persons from sleep. — v. t. [alarmed (a-larmd'), 
alarming.] To call to arms for defense; to fill with 
apprehension ; to disturb. — Alarm'ingly, adv. — 
Alarm''ist, 71. One who excites alarm. — Alarm''-bell, 

n. A bell that gives notice of danger. clock, 

n. A clock made to ring at a particular hour. — 
-gauge, -gaj, n. A contrivance applied to boilers to 
show when the steam is too strong or water too low. 

post, n. A place to which troops repair in case of 

alarm. — -watch, ?i. A watch that can be set to 

Although; be it so; notwith 

strike at a particular hour. — Alarum, a-la'rum, n. 
Same as Alarm; — applied to a contrivance attached 
to a clock for calling attention. 

Alas, a-las', interj. An exclamation expressive of sor- 
row, pity, concern, 
or apprehension of 

Alb, aib, n. An ec- 
clesiastical V e s t- 
ment of white lin- 

Albatross, aKba- 
tros, n. A very 
large web-footed 
sea-bird of the 
Southern Ocean. 

Albata, al-ba'ta, n. ' 
German silver, an 
alloy of copper, 
zinc (or tin), and 

Albeit, awl-be'it, conj. 

Albelen, aKbe-len, n. A fish of the trout species. 

Albertype, aKber-tip, n. A picture printed from a 
gelatine plate prepared by means of a photographit 

Albigenses, aFbT-jen'sez, n. pi. A party of reformers, 
who separated from the church of Rome in the 
12th century ; — so called from AIM, in Languedoc. 

Albino, al-bi'no, n. ; pi. Albi'nos. A person or ani- 
mal having preternatural whiteness of skin, flaxen 
hair, and pink iris. 

Albion, aKbl-un, n. A poetic name of England. 

Albugineous, al-bu-jin-'t-us, a. Pertaining to the white 
of an egg, and hence to the white of the eye. 

Album, al'bum, n. A blank book, for the insertion 
of autographs, photographs, literary memorials, etc. 

Albumen, al-bu'men, w. {Bot.) Nourishing matter 
found in seeds. (Physiol.) A substance existing 
nearly pure in the white of egg, and its chief com- 

Alburnum, al-ber''num, n. The white and softer part 
of wood next to the bark; sap-wood. 

Alcaid, al-kad', n. In Spain, the governor of a castle, 
fort, or the like; a jailer or warden. 

Alcalde, al-kaKde, n. In Spain, a magistrate or judge. 

Alcedo, al-se^'do, >?. A perching bird; kingfisher. 

Alchemy, aKke-mi, n. Occult chemistry; an ancient 
science which aimed to transmute base metals into 
gold, find the universal medicine, etc. — Alchem'ic, 
a. Relating to alchemy. — Alchem^ically, adv. — 
Al'^chemlst, n. One versed in, etc. — Alchemist''- 
ical, a. 

Alcohol, aKko-hol, n. Pure or highly rectified spirits, 
ardent spirits in general. 

Alcoran. See Koran. 

Alcove, al^'kov or al-kov', n. A recess, or part of a 
room, separated from the rest by a partition. 

Alder, awl'der, n. A tree or shrub of several vari- 

Alderman, awVder-man, n.; pi. Al'der-men. A mag- 
istrate or officer of a city or town corporation. 

Ale, al, n. A liquor made from malt by fermentation; 
an English country festival, so called from the liquor 

Alee, a-le', adv. (Naut.) On the 
side opposite to the side on which 
the wind strikes. 

Alembic, a-lem'bik, n. A chemi- 
cal vessel, formerly used in dis- 

Alert, a-lerf, a. Watchful ; vigi- 
lant ; moving with celerity. — 
Upon the alert. Upon the watch. 
— Alert'ly, adv. — Alert'ness, 
n. Briskness ; watchfulness ; 
promptitude; nimbleness. 

Alewlfe, al'wif, n. ; pi. Ale-'wives, 
-wivz. An American fish resembling a herring. 

Alexandrine, al'egz-an'drin, n. A verse of twelve syl- 
lables, or six iambic feet; — so called from a French 
poem on the life of Alexander. 

Alfalfa, al-fal'fa, n. A perennial plant, allied to 


Sm, fame, far, pass or opera, f Sre ; Snd, eve, tgrm 5 th. Ice ; 8dd, tone, 6r t 




Alga, aKga, n.; pi. Alg,*;, al'je. A grand division of 
cryptogaraic plants, embracing sea-weeds. 

Algarot, aKga-rot, n. An emetic powder, prepared 
from antimony. 

Algebra, aKje-fira, n. (3fath.) That branch of anal- 
j-sis which investigates the relations and properties 
of numbers by nieans of letters and other symbols. 

— Algebraic, -bra'ik, -leal, a. Pert, to, or performed 
by, ttc. — Algebra'ically, adv. By means of, etc. — 
Al'gebraist, n. One skilled in, etc. 

Algid, al'jid, a. Chilled with cold. — Al'gide, -jid, a. 
Characterized by great coldness, said of certain dis- 
eases. — Algid^ity, n. — Algific, -jif 'ik, «. Produ- 
cing cold. — Al''gor, -gor, n. {Med.) Unusual cold- 
ness; chill at the onset of fever. 

Algoazil, al-ga-zel', n. A Spanish officer of justice. 

Alias, a'll-as, adv. Otherwise; otherwise called; — a 
term used in legal proceedings to connect the differ- 
ent names of a party who has gone by two or sev- 
eral, and whose true name is doubtful. — n. (Latv.) 
A second or further writ issued after one has expired 
without effect ; an assumed name. [L.] 

Alibi, al'I-bi, n. {Law.) When one on trial for crime 
shows that he was elsewhere when the act was com- 
mitted, he is said to prove an alibi; hence, the de- 
fense under which this proof is made. [L., else- 
y_ where.] 

Alien, al'yen, a. Xot belonging to the same country; 
foreign; different in nature. — n. A foreigner; a 
Joreign-born resident of a country, in which he has 
n<.t citizenship. — Al'ienage, n. State of being an 
alivn. — Al'ienate, v. t. To convey or transfer to 
ano.her, as title, property, or right; to make indif- 
ferent or averse ; to estrange. — a. Estranged. — 
Al^iena'^tion, n. {Latv.) A transfer of title, or legal 
conveyance of property, to another. State of being 
alienated or transferred ; estrangement, as of the 
affections ; derangement ; insanity. — Al''ienator, 
-ter, n. One who, etc. — Aliene, al-yen', v. t. To 
convey_ or transfer, as property; to estrange. — Al- 
ienee, al-yen-^', n. One to whom a thing is sold. 

— Alienism, aKyen-izm, n. State of being an alien. 
Alienist, al'yen-ist, n. A physician who makes a 

speeialtv of insanity. — a. Kelatine to insanity. 

Alight, a-llt'', V. i. To get down or descend, as from 
on horseback; to dismount; to fall or descend, and 
settle, or lodge. 

Alight, a-lit'', a. Lighted; burning. 

Align, a-lin'', r. t. [aligived (-lindO, '^lig^ing.] To 
adjust or form by a line, as troops. — v. i. To form 
inline. — v. t. {^ngin.) To lay out the ground-plan, 
as of a road. 

Alike, a-llk', a. Having resemblance; similar; with- 
out difference. 

Aliment, aKl-ment, n. That which feeds or supports; 
food; nutriment. — Alimenfiveness, n. (Phren.) 
The organ of appetite for food or drink. See 

Alim ony, _al'T-mo-ni, n. An allowance made to a 
wife out of the estate of a husband from whom she 
is separated. 

Aliped, aKt-ped, . a. Wing-footed. — n. An animal 
having toes connected by membranes serving as 
wings, as the bat. 

Aliquant, aKt-kwant, a. Xot dividing another num- 
ber without a, remainder. 

Aliquot, aKi-kwot, a. Dividing exactly, or without 

Alive, a-liv' a. Having life; not dead; susceptible. 

Alizarine, a-liz''a-rin, n. A coloring principle m mad- 

Alkali, al'ka-li or-lT, n. {Chem.) One of a class of 
caustic bases, which are soluble in water and alco- 
hol, unite with oils and fats to form soap, neutralize 
and change reddened litmus to blue. — AKkaUne, 
-lin or -lin, a.' Having the qualities of, etc. — Al- 
kalin'ity, n. Quality which constitutes, etc. —Al- 
kaliza'^tion, n. The act of rendering alkaline by 
impregnating with, etc. — Al'kalize, -liz, v. t. To 
alkalify. — Al'kaloid, n. { Chem.) A salifiable base 
existing in some vegetables as a proximate principle. 
— Alkaloid 'al, a. 

Alkoran, aKko-ran, n. The Mohammedan Bible; a 
tower of a mosque in which the Koran is read. 

All, awl, a. Every one ; the whole. — adv. Wholly ; 

altogether. — n. The whole number, quantity, or 
amount; the total. — All along. Continually: reg- 
ularly. — All that. A collection of similar things; 
et caetera. — All-fools'-day. The 1st of April, when 
it is a custom to play tricks, or make fools. — All- 
fours. A game of cards, containing four chances. 
To go on all fours, to move on four legs, or on two 
legs and two arms or hands. — All-hail. All health; 
a phrase of salutation. — All-hallow, -hallows, -hal- 
lowmas. All-Saints'-day. — All-hallow-tide. The 
time near All-Saints'. — All-Saints'-day. The first 
day of November, a feast in honor of all the saints. 

— All-souls' -day. The second of November, a Ro- 
man Catholic solemnity, when the souls of the faith- 
ful are prayed for. — Allspice. An aromatic berry 
of the West Indies. — All-sufficient. Sufficient for 
everv thing. — All told. All counted; including the 
whole number. — At all. A phrase of enforcement 
or emphasis, signifying, in the least; under any cir- 

Allah, al'lii, n. Arabic name of_the Supreme Being. 

Allay, al-la', v. t. '[.\ll.\yed (-lad'), allayixg.] To 
put at rest, appease, abate, mitigate, or subdue. 

Allay. See Alloy. 

Allege, al-lej', v. t. [alleged (-lejdO, alleging.] 
To bring forward with positiyeness ; to produce, as 
an argument, plea, or excuse. — Allegation, al-le- 
ga'shun, n. Positive declaration. 

Allegiance, al-le'jans, n. Obligation of a subject to 
his prince or government ; loyalty. 

Allegory, al'le-go-rl, n. A story in which the direct 
and literal meaning is not the real or principal one, 
but images forth some important truth; figurative 
description. — Allegoric, -gSr'ik, -ical, a. In the 
manner of, etc. ; figurative. — Al'legorize, -rlz, v. t. 
[allegokized (-rizd), -rizing.] To form or turn 
into, etc. ; to understand in an allegorical sense. — 
V. I. To use, etc. — Allegoriza'tion, n. 

Allegretto, aRa-grefto, a. {Mils.) Quicker than an- 
dante, but not so quick as allegro. [It.J 

Allegro, al-la'gro, a. {Mus.) Quick, brisk, livelj'. — 
n. A quick, sprightly strain or piece. [It.] 

Alleluiah, al-le-lu'ya, n. Praise to Jehovah. 

Allemande, al-le-mand'', n. A German waltz. {Cook- 
ery.) A white sauce. 

Alleviate, al-le^vT-at, v. t. To make light or easy to be 
borne; to remove in part; to make easier; to lessen, 
mitigate, assuage, allay. — Allevia''tion, n. Act of, 
etc. ; miti<;ation. — Alle'viative, -tiv, a. and n. That, 
or that which, alleviates. 

Alley, aKlt, n. ; pi. Alleys, aKltz. A walk in a gar- 
den; a narrow passaM, as distinct from a public 
street. — A large marble. 

Alliaceous, al-ll-a'shus, a. Pert, to garlic; having the 
smell or properties of, etc. 

Alliance. See under Ally. 

Alligate, aKlY-gat, v. t. To tie together; to unite. 

Alligator, al-li-ga'ter, n. A large carnivorous am- 
phibious reptile, of 
the Saurian family, 
peculiar to America. 

AUineate, al-lin'i-at, 
v.t. {Surv.) Toad- 
just to a line ; to 

Allision, al-lizh''un, n. 
A striking against. 

Alliteration, al-lit'er- 
a'shun, n. Repeti- 
tion of the same let- 
ter at short intervals. Alligator. 

— Allit'erative, -tiv, a. Pert, to, etc. 

Allocate, aKlo-kat, v. t. To place, set apart, allot. 

— Alloca^'tion, n. Act of putting one thing to an- 
other; admission of an article of account; allow- 
ance made upon an account. — AUoca'tur, n. {Law.) 
Allowance of a thing or proceeding, by a court or 
judicial officer. 

AUocntion, al-lo-ku'shun, n. An address ; esp. by the 

pope to his clergy. 
Allodium. al-lo'dT-um, n. {Laiv.) Freehold estate; 

land which is the absolute property of the owner. 

— Allo'dial, o. {Law.) Pert, to, etc.; free of rent 
or service, — opp. to feudal. 

Allopathy, al-lop'a^thT, n. Employment of medicines 

sfin, cQbe, fyll ; moon, f 6&t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, then, boNboN, chair, get. 




to produce effects opposite to those resulting from 
disease; the ordinary practice, as opp. to homeopathy. 
Allot, al-lof, V. t. To divide or distribute, as by lot; 
to distribute in parts; to grant, as a portion; to give, 
assign, apportion. — Allofment, n. Act of allotting; 
part allotted. — Allottee, -te', n. One to whom a 
thing is allotted. 

iillOW, al-loW'', V. t. [^ALLOWED (-lowdO. -LOWING.] 

To give, afford, or yield; acknowledge; abate or de- 
duct; grant license to; permit; show, or prove to be; 
to approve of, justify. — v. i. To make abatement. 

— AUow'ably, arff . — AUow'ance, w. Act of, etc.; 
permission or license ; that which is allowed ; a 
stated quantity. {Naut.) A limited quantity of 
meat and drink, when provisions fall short ; abate- 
ment. {Com.) A deduction from the gross weight 

of goods. — V. t. [ALLOWAJfCED (-anst), -AKCING.] 

To put upon allowance. 

Alloy, al-loi'', v. t. [alloyed (-loid''), -loying.] 
To reduce the purity of, by mixing with a less valua- 
ble metal; to abate, impair, or corrupt. — n. Any 
compound of two or more metals ; a baser metal 
mixed with a finer ; evil mixed witli good. 

Allude, al-lud'', v. i. To refer to something not directly 
mentioned; to have reference, advert to. — Allusion, 
-lu-'zhun, n. Indirect reference. {Rhet.) A figure 
by which something is applied to, or understood of, 
another, on account of some similitude between 
them. — AUu'sive, -siv, a. Hinting at; referring to. 

— AUu'sively, adv. — Allu''siveness, n. 

Allure, al-lur', v. t. [allured (-lurd'), alluring.] 
To try to draw to; to tempt by offers ; to entice, se- 
duce. — AUure^ment, n. That which allures. —Al- 
lur^'er, n. A tempter. 

Alluvium, al-lu'vl-um, -vion, n. ; pi. Allu''via, -vT-a. 
(Geol.) Deposits of earth, sand, etc., made by rivers, 
floods, etc., upon land not permanently submerged. 

— Allu'^vial, a. Pert, to, contained in, or composed 
of, etc.; washed ashore or down a stream; of fresh- 
water origin. 

«i,Uy, al-li', V. t. [allied (-lid''), allying.] To 
unite, or form a connection between. — n. ; pi. Al- 
lies, al-liz''. One united by compact, marriage, or 
any tie; a confederate. — AlUance, al-li'ans, n. State 
of being allied ; a union or connection of interests; 
the compact or treaty which is the instrument of 
allying ; persons or parties allied; league; confeder- 
acy; coalition. 

;lllyl, aKlU, n. {Cliem.') An organic radical, existing 
esp. in garlic and mustard. 

Alma Mater, aKma master. A college or seminary 
where one is educated. [L., fostering mother.] 

Almanac, awKma-nak, n. A calendar of days, weeks, 
and months. 

Almandine, aKman-dln, n. (Mn.) The red variety 
of garnet, translucent or transparent. 

Alme, Almeh. aKme. n. In Egypt, a dancing-girl. 

Almighty, awl-nnt' T, n. God; the Supreme Being. — 
a. Having all power. 

Almond, ii'mund, n. The fruit of the almond-tree; 
one of the glands called tonsils, at the base of the 

Almost, awl'most, adv. Nearly; for the greatest part. 

Alms, ani2, n. pi. Any thing gratuitously given to re- 
lieve the poor; a charitable donation. — Alms'-house, 
n. A house for the poor; poor-house. — Almoner, 
aKmun-er, n. One who distributes alms for another. 

— Al'moniy, n. A place for^^etc. 

Aloe, al'o, n ; pi. Aloes, al'oz. (Bot.) A genus of 
evergreen herbaceous plants. — pi. (Med.) The in- 
spissated juice of several species of aloe, used as a 
purgative. — Al'oet'ic, -ical, a. 

Aloft, a-loft', arfu. On high. (JS^aut.) In the top; at the 
mast-head; above the deck. 

Alone, a-lon', a. Apart from, or exclusive of, others; 
single; solitary. 

Along, a-long'', adv. In a line with the length; length- 
wise; in a line, or with a progressive motion; onward; 
in company; together. —prep. By the length of, as 
disting. f r. across. — Along''side, adv. By the side 
of a ship. 

Aloof, a^loof ', adv. At or from a distance, but within 
view ; apart. — prep. At or to a distance from ; away 

Alose, a'Tos, n. The American shad. 

Alouchi, Aluchi, a-lu'che, «. A compound resin ob- 
tained from Madagascar. 

Aloud, a-lowd', adv. With a great noise; loudly. 

Alow, a-lo', adv. In a low place ; not aloft. 

Alp, alp, n. Avery high mountain; — esp. in the 
mountain ranges of Switzerland. 

Alpaca, al-pak'a, n. An animal of Peru, having long, 
fine, woolly hair; a species of 
llama; a tnin cloth made of al- 
paca wool mixed with silk or cot- 

Alpha, al'f a, n. The first letter of 
the Greek alphabet, used to de- 
note ^rs«. (Astron.) Used to des- 
ignate the brightest star in a con- 
stellation. — AFphabet, n. The 
letters of a language arranged in 
order. — AKphabet, AKphabet- 

iZe, -IZ, v. t. [ALPHABETIZED (-izd J, 

-TiziNG.] To arrange in the order Alpaca, 

of an alphabet. — Al'phabeta'rian, n. A learner of 
the alphabet; abecedarian. — Alphabetic, -ical, a. 
Of, pertaimng to, or arranged in the order of, etc. — 
Alphabet^ically, adv. 

Already, awl-red'T, a_dv. Before this time; now. 

Alsike, aKsik or aKsek, n. A kind of clover. 

Also, awKso, adv. or conj. In like manner; likewise; 
too; m addition to. 

Alt, ait, a. or n. {Miis.) The higher part of the scale. 

Altar, awFter, n. An elevated place on which sacri- 
fices are offered to a deity; in Christian churches, 
the communion table. — AKtarage, n. Profits of 
priests from offerings. 

Altazimuth, al-taz^l-muth, n. An instrument at- 
tached to telescopes for taking azimuths and alti- 
tudes at the same time. See Azimuth. 

Alter, awKter, v. t. [altered (-terd), -tering.] To 
make some change in; to vary; to change entirely or 
materially. — v. i. To become, in some respects, dif- 
ferent; to change. — Al'terable, a. Capable of being 
altered.— AKterableness, -abil'ity, n. — Al'terably. 
adf. — AKterant, a. and n. Same as alterative.— 
Altera'tion, n. Act of, or state of being, etc.; 
change; the change made. — Al'terative, -tiv, a. 
(Med.) Having power to restore the healthy func- 
tions of the body without sensible evacuations. — n. 
An alterative medicine. 

Altercate, aKter-kat, v. i. To contend in words; to 
wrangle. —Alterca'tion, n. Warm contention; con- 
troversy; wrangle. 

Alternate, al-ter-'nat, a. Being by turns; one follow- 
ing the other in succession; reciprocal. — n. That 
which happens by turns ; ^acissitude ; a substitute. 
— Alternate, aKter-nat or al-ter'nat, v. t. To per- 
form in succession; to cause to succeed by turns; to 
change reciprocally. — v. i. To happen or to act by 
turns.— Alter 'nately, arfv.— Altema'tion.Ti. Recip- 
rocal succession. (Math.) Changes or alterations of 
order in numbers; permutation. — Alter 'native, -tiv, 
a. Offering a choice of two things. — n. That which 
may be chosen or omitted; a choice of two things. — 
Alter''natively, adv. — Alter'nativeness, n. Quality 
or state of being, etc. (Biol.) Alternate generation; 
a form of reproduction in which development from 
eggs alternates with that from buds, the individuals 
arising in the two methods differing from one an. 
other; metagenesis. —Alter'nant, a. (Geol.) In 
alternating layers. 

Althea, al-thc'a, n. (Bot.) A genus of plants includ- 
ing the marsh-mallow and hollyhocks. — Althe'in, 
n. (Cfiem.) An alkaline .substance existing in the 
marsh-mallow; asparagine. 

Althom, alt'h6rn, n. A musical instrument similay 
to the saxhorn. 

Although, awl-tho'', conj. Grant all this ; be it so ; 
suppose that; notwithstanding. 

Altitude, aKtI-tud, n. Height ; perpendicular eleva- 
tion above the ground, or' above a given level. 
(Astron.) Elevation of a celestial object above the 

Alto, aKto, n. (Mas.) The part sung by the lowest 
female voices, between tenor and soprano ; in i»i 
strumental music, the tenor. 

Altogether, awKto-getfe'er, adv. With united action 
without exception; completely. 

Sm, fame, f iir, pass or opera, fare ; 6nd, eve, tSrm : In, Ice ; 5dd, tSne, 6r ; 




Alto-relievo, al'to-re-le'vo, -rilievo, -re-le-a'vo, ii. 

(^Sculp ) High relief; the figure standing out irom 

the background. 
Altruism, al'troo-izm, n. Regard for others; devotion 

to the interests of others; unselfishness; opp. to 

Aladel, al'u-del, n. A chemical pot open at each end, 
u.<ed in sublimation. 

Alum, aKuin, n. A double sulphate of alumina and 
l)'it.isia. — Alu'mina, -ml-na, Al'umine, -min, 71. 
(Mill.) One of the earths, having two parts of alu- 
iiiiiiumanJ tliree of oxygen. — Aluminiferous, -nif'- 
e;--us, a. Pi-0(lucing or containing alum. — Alumin''- 
iuai, Alti'minum, n. The metallic base of alumina; 
a very light wiiite metal, not easitj^ oxidized. — Alu'- 
miaous, «. Pert, to, or containing alum, or alumina. 

— Al'umish, «. Of the nature of alum. — Al'um- 
stoae, a. A mineral containing alum. 

Aluaittus, a-lum''nus, n. ; pi. Aluji'xi, -ni. A pupil; a 
araduate of a college, etc. 

Alva, al'va, n. A plant of the pondweed order, dried, 
and used for stuffing beds and upholstery. 

Alveary, aKvT-a-rl, n. A bee-hive; the hollow of the 
ear. — Alveolus, al-ve'o-lus, n. ; pi. Alve''oli. A 
cell in a honey-comb; the socket in the jaw in which 
a tooth is fixed. — Al'veolar, a. Pert, to or resem- 
bling tooth-sockets. — Al'veolate, a. Pitted like 
honej'comb. — Alvine, aKvin, a. Pert, to the lower 
bellv or intestines. 

Alway, awKwa, Al'ways, aeVv. Perpetually; regularly 
at stated intervals; invariably. 

Am, the first person singular of the verh to he in the 
indicative mode, present tense. 

Amain, a-man', adv. Violently; suddenly. {Naut.) 
Suddenly, or at once. 

Amalgam,' a-maKgam, n. A compound of mercury, 
or quicksilver, with another metal; a mixture of 
different things. — Amal''gamate, -gamize, v. t. To 
compound or mix. — i\ i. To unite in an amalgam; 
to coalesce, as a result of growth. — AmaPgama''- 
■fcion, w. Act or operation of, etc.; esp. the process 
of .separating gold and silver from their ores by mix- 
ing them with mercury ; the blending of difterent 
things or races. — Amalgamator, -ma'ter, n. A ma- 
chine for producing an amalgam. 

Amanuensis, a-man'u-en'''sis, n. ; pi. -enses, -sez. One 
who writes what another dictates, or copies what 
is written; a copyist. 

Amaranth, am'a-ranth, n. (Bot.) A genus of annual 
plants, with flowers and foliage of various colors and 
leaves that last long without withering; an imaginary 
flower that never tades; a purplish color. 

Amaryllis, am-a-ril'lis, n. {Bot.) A bulbous plant, 
with large, lily-like flowers of various colors. 

Amass, a-mas', v. i. [amassed (a-mast''), am.\ssing.] 
To collect into a mass or heap; to accumulate, pile 
up, gather. — Amass'^able, a. Capable of being, etc. 

— Ajnass'^ing, n. Act of accumulating; what has 
been accumulated. — Amass'^ment, n. Accumula- 

Amasthenic, am-as-then'ik, a. Uniting all the chem- 
ical rays into one focus, — said of a lens; arnacratic. 

Amateur^ am-a-ter', n. One who cultivates a study or 
art, without pursuing it professionally. — Amateur'- 
ish, a. Inclined to, etc. 

Amative, am'a-tiv, a. Full of love ; amorous ; ama- 
tory. — Am''ativeness, n. {Phren.) Supposed seat of 
sexual desire ; propensity to love. See Phrexol- 
OGY. — Amato''rial, Am'atory, a. Relating to, in- 
duced by, or expressive of, love. 

Amaurosis, am-aw-ro''sis, n. {Med.) A loss or deca}' 
of sight, without visible defect in the eye, usually 
from loss of power in the optic nerve. — iunaurofic, 
-rofik, a._ Pert, to, etc. 

Amaze, a-maz', v. t. [amazed (-mazd'), amazing.] 
To confound with fear, sudden surprise, or won- 
der ; to confuse with terror and astonishment. — n. 
Astonishment ; perplexity. — Ama''zedness, n. — 
Amaze'ment, n. A feeling of surprise and wonder; 
perplexity from, etc. ; admiration ; confusion. — 
Ama'zingly, adv. In an amazing degree. 

Amazon, am'a-zon, n. One of a fabulous race of fe- 
male warriors, on the coast of the Euxine; a warlike 
or masculine woman ; a virago. — Am''azonite, -it, 
n. (.Min.) A variety of feldspar, found near the Ama- 

zon River, also in the Ural Mountains in Siberia, 
and in Colorado._ 
I Ambages, am-ba-'jez, n. A circuit of words; a circum- 

Ambassador, am-bas'sa-der, n. An envoy of the 
highest rank sent to a foreign go\"ernment. — Am' 
bas'^sadresB, n. A female ambassador ; the wife ol 
an ambassador. —Am^bassage, n. Embassy. 

Amber, am'ber, n. A ycl[i)W lossil resin, rendered 
electric by friction. — a. Of, resembling, or of the 
color of, amber. 

Ambergris, am^ber-gres, n. A fragrant substance 
used in perfumery, etc. It is a morbid sijcretion 
of the intestines of the sperm-whale. — Am'brite, 
-brit, n. A fossil gum-resin resembling amber, louml 
in N^ew Zealand. 

Ambidexter, am-bi-deks'ter, n: One who uses both 
hands equally well; a double-dealer. 

Ambient. am-^bT-ent, a. Encompassing; surrounding. 

Ambiguous, am-big-'u-us, a. Doubtful or uncertain, 
esp. in respect to signiftcation. — Ambig-'nously, adv. 
-^ Ambig'uousness, Ambigu'lty, 71. 

Ambition, am-bish'un,tt. Eager desire of preferment; 
power, etc.; greediness. — Ambi'tious, -shus, a. Pos- 
sessino;, springing from, or indicating, ambition. — 
Ambi'tionless, a. — AmWtiously, adv. — Ambi'- 
tiousness, 7i. 

Amble, ani-'bl, v. i. To move, as a horse, by lifting 
together the two legs on one side; to pace; to move 
aft ectedlj'. — ?i. Gait of a horse. 

Ambrosia, am-bro''zha, ?i. {Mijth.) The food of the 
gods, which conferred eternal youth. {Bot.) A 
genus of plants, including rag-weed, hog-weed, etc. 

Ambrotjrpe, am''bro-tip, ji. A picture taken on a pre- 
pared glass, in which lights are represented in silver, 
and shades by a dark background, visible through 
the unsilvered portions of the glass. 

Ambulance, am'bu-lans, n. {Mil.) A flying hospital 
to follow an army in its movements. — Am'bulant, 
a. Walking; moving from place to place. — Am''bu- 
lato'ry, a. Able or accustomed to, etc. {Law.) Not 
fixed in its legal character, but capable of being al- 
tered, as a will. — n. Part of a building intended 
for walking in, esp. a place inclosed by a colonnade 
or arcade, as a portico. 

Ambury, am''bu-rT, An'bnry, n. A soft swelling on a 
horse, full of blood. 

Ambuscade, am'bus-kad, n. A" lying concealed, to 
attack an enemy by surprise ; a concealed place 
from which to attack ; ambush. — v. t. To lie in 
wait ; to attack from ambush. — Am 'bush, -bush, n. 
Act of attacking, etc. ; an ambuscade ; troops con- 
cealed, etc.— V. t. [ambushed (-busht), ambushing.] 
To lie in wait for^; to surprise; to' place in ambush. 

Ameer, Amir, a-nier''. Same as Emeer, Emir. 

Ameliorate, a-meKyo-rat, v. t. To make better; to im- 
prove, —v. I. To grow better; to meliorate.— Amel- 
iora'tion, w.— Amel'iorative, -tiv, a. Producing, etc. 

Amen, a'men'' (in singing pron. a'men''). An ex- 
pression used at the end of prayers, meaning, So he it. 

Amenable, a-me-'na-bl, a. Liable to be brouglit to 
account or punishment; responsible; willing to yield; 
submissive. — Ame^nably, adv. — Amenabil'ity 
Ame^nableness, n. State of being, etc. 

Amend, a-mend', v. t. To change for the better; to cor- 
rect, reform. —V. i. To grow better. —Amend'er, n. 
— Amend^'ment, n. An alteration for the better; cor- 
rection of faults; reformation by quitting vices; in 
public bodies, an alteration in a bill or motion by 
adding, changing, etc. {Law.) Correction of an er- 
ror in a wnt or process. — Amends', n. sing, and 
]>l. Compensation for loss or injury ; satisfaction ; 

Amende, a-maNd', n. A fine or punishment; repara- 
tion ; retraction. —Amende honorable, -on'o-ra'bl. 
Public recantation or apology for injury. [F.] 

Amenity, a-men'T-tT, n. Agreeableness in situatic 
climate, manners, etc. 

Ament, am'ent, ». {Bot.) A species of inflorescence, 
consisting of a scaly 
sort of spike, as in the 
alder, birch, etc. ; a 
catkin. — Amenta '- 
ceous, -ta'shus, a. 
Producing catkins. Ament. 


sun, cube, full ; moon, iSbt ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, ttien, boNboN, chair, get. 




In the midst or middle; 
Half-way between the 

Amentia, a-inen'sht-a, n. Imbecility) idiocy. 

Amerce, a-mers', v. t. [amerced (-mersf), amee- 
CiNG.J To punish by a pecuniary penalty fixed by 
the court; to punish, in general. — Amerce'ment, n. 
(Law.) Pecuniary penalty inflicted at the discretion 
of the court. — Amer'cer, n. 

American, a-mer'T-kan, a. Pert, to America, — esp. to 
the United States. — n. Native of, etc., formerly 
applied to the aboriginal inhabitants ; but now to 
descendants of Europeans born in America, esp. in 
the United States. —Amer''icanism, -izm, n. Word, 
phrase, or idiom peculiar to America ; regard of 
Americans for their country or its interests. — 
Amer''icanize, -iz, v. t. [-ized C-izd), -izing.] To 
render American. 

Amethyst, ara'e-thist, n. A subspecies of quartz, of a 
bluish violet color. —Amethysfoline, -lin, w. Vol- 
atile fluid found in cavities of the amethyst. 

Amiable, a^'ml-a-bl, a. Worthy of love; deserving of 
affection; charming. — A'^miableness, -biKity, n. 

Amianth, am''t-anth, Amianthus, am-t-an'thus, n. 

■ {Min.) An incombustible flax-like mineral sub- 
stance, which may be wrought into cloth and paper. 

Amicable, am't-ka-bl, a. Harmonious in mutual in- 
tercourse; friendly; peaceable. 

Amice, am''is, Am'lct, n. A loose flowing garment 
worn by pilgrims. (Eccl.) A piece of embroidered 
linen, worn on the head like a hood, or on the shoul- 
ders like a cape. 

Amid, a-mid', Amidst', prep 
surrounded by ; among. 

Amidships, a-mid'ships, adv. 
stem and the stern. 

Amiss, a-mis'', a. Wrong; faulty; out of order; im- 
proper. — adv. Wrongly, etc. 

Amity, am'I-tt, n. Friendship ; harmony ; good un- 

Ammonia, am-mo'nY-a, n. A volatile alkali of a pun- 
gent smell; spirit of hartshorn. — Ammo^niac, a. Of, 
or pert, to, etc. — Ammo'niac, or Gum ammo'^niac, 
n. (Med.) Concrete juice of an umbelliferous plant, 
from Persia. 

Ammunition, am-mu-nish'un, n. Military stores for 
attack or defense; articles used in charging fire-arms 
and ordnance; as powder, balls, shot, etc. 

Amnesty, am'nes-tt, n. A general pardon of offenses 
against government. 

Amoeba, a-me'ba, n. (Zool.) An animalcule capable 
of numerous changes of form. — Amoe^biform, 
Amoe'boid, a. Resembling, etc. — Amoe'bous, -bus, 
a. Of, or pert, to, etc. 

Among, a-mung'. Amongst, a-mungsf, prep. Mixed 
or mingled with; associated with; making part of the 
number of. 

Amontillado, a-mon-'til-la'do, n. A dry sherry. [Sp.] 

Amorous, am-'o-rus, a. Inclined to love ; prone to 
sexual enjoyment; enamored; in love; of, or caused 
by, love. 

Amoroso, am-o-ro'so, n. A lover. — adv. {Mies.) Lov- 
ingly; tenderly. [It.] 

Amorph, am''5rf, n. CChem. and Min.) A body with- 
out crystalline structure. — Amor^phism, n. A state 
of being, etc., as in glass, opal, etc. — Amor'^phous, 
-fus, a. Having no determined form ; of no partic- 
ular character ; anomalous. — Amor^photae, -fo-te, (Astron.) Stars not comprised in any constel- 

Amortize, a-mSr'tTz, v. t. (Law.) To alienate in mort- 
main. — Amortiza'tion, Amor'tizement, -tiz-ment, 
n. (Law.) Act or right of alienating lands to a cor- 
poration, considered as transferring them to dead 
hands, or in mortmain ; extinction of debt, esp. by 
a sinking fund. 

Amount, a-mownt', r. i. To rise or reach by accumu- 
lation ; to come in the aggregate ; to be equivalent. 
— n. Sum_total ; effect, substance, or result. 

Amour, a-moor'', n. A love intrigue. 

Ampfere, SN'par'', -pere, am-par', n. The unit of 
electric current. 

Amphibious, am-fib''i-us, a. Able to live in the air and 
water; adapted for living, etc.; partaking of two na- 
tures. — Amphib'iously, adv. — Amphib'iousness, n. 
— Amphib'ia, -I-a,M.pi. (Zo'ol.) The class of reptiles 
which includes the saurian s. — Amphib^ian, n. An 
amphibious animal. —a. Of, or pert, to, etc. 

Amphibole, am-'fi-bol, n. (Geol.) Hornblende, which 
is easilv mistaken for augite. — Amphib'olite, -lit, «. 
Hornblende ; trap-rock. 

Amphibology, am-fi-boKo-jt, n. A phrase, proposi- 
tion, etc., susceptible of more than one interpreta- 

Amphibrach, am'fi-brak, n. (Anc. Pros.) A foot of 
three syllables, the middle one long, the first and 
last short. 

Amphicar-'pic, -carpous, am-fl-car'pus, a. (Bot.) Bear- 
ing fruit of two kinds. 

Amphictyons, am-fik'tr-unz, n. pi. A council of dep- 
uties from the difterent states of ancient Greece. — 
Amphic'tyon'tc, a. — Amphictyony, -fik'tl-o-nl, n. 
A league of neighboring states. 

Amphigean, am-fij'e-an, a. Extending over aU the 
zones of the earth. 

Amphigory, am-fig^o-rY, n. Nonsense verses; a rig- 
marole, with apparent meaning, but really meaning- 
less. — Amphigor'^ic, a. Nonsensical; absurd. 

Amphimacer, am-fim'a-ser, n. (Anc. Pros.) A foot ofi 
tm-ee syllables, the middle one short, and the others 

Amphiprostyle, am-fip'ro-stil, n. AHouble prostyle, 
or an edifice with columns in front and behind, but 
not on the sides. — Amphip'roSty'lar, a. 

Amphitheater, -tre, am-fl-the''a-ter, m. 
Ai oval or circular edifice, having 
rows of seats one above another, 
around the arena; the highest gallery 
in a theater. — Am'phitheafrical, o. 

Amphora, amf S-ra, n. An ancient two- 
handled earthen vessel. 

Ample, am^'pl, a. Large in size ; of 
great extent or bulk : fully sufficient. 
— Am''plitude, -tud, n. State of be- 
ing, etc. ; extent of capacity or intel- 
lectual powers, or of means, or re- 
sources. — Amp'ly, adv. — Amplify, 
am''plT-fi, v. t. [amplified (-fid), 
-FYIXG.] To render larger, more ex- 
tended, or more intense. (Rhet.) To 
treat copiously. — v. i. To grow or 
become large ; to dilate. — Am'plia- 
tive, -plT-a-tiv, Am-'plifica'tive, a. Serving or tend- 
ing to, etc. 

Ampiilla; am-pul'la, n. An ancient flask or bottle, 
having a narrow neck and big bel- 
ly; a drinking cup. (Bot.) A hol- 
low leaf. (Anat.) A dilatation in 

• the semi-circular canals of the ear. 
[L.] — Ampullaceons, -la'shus, a. 

Amputate, am''pu-tat, v. t. To cut 
off, as a limb. — Amputa'tian, n. 

Amuck, a-muk'', n. Act of killing; 
slaughter. — adv. Wildly ; indis- 
criminately. — To run amuck. To 
rush out frantically, attacking all comers, as is done 
by fanatics in the East. 

Amulet, am^u-let, n. Something worn to prevent 
evil ; a charm inscribed with mystic characters. 

Amuse, a-muz', v. t. [amcsed (-muzd''), asiusittg.I 
To entertain agreeably: to keep in expectation, de- 
lude, divert. — Amuse^ment, n. That which, etc. ; 

Amylaceous, am-Y-la'shus, a. Pert, to starch. —Am'- 
ylene, -Y-len, n. A hydro-carbon of anesthetic prop- 
erties. — Amyl'ic, a. Of or from starch. 

AHj, a. Commonly called the indej^vite article. It 
Signifies one or any, but less emphatically, and is used 
before a vowel sound. 

An, conj. If. [Oh.?.] 

Ana, a'na. A suffix to names denoting a collection ot 
memorable sayings. Thus, ScaKgerana is a book of 
sayings by Scaliger. Sometimes used alone as a 

Anabaptist, an-a-bap'tist, n. (Eccl. Hist.) One wh& 
denies the validity of infant baptism, and maintains 
that those so baptized ought to be baptized again. — 
Anabaptis^'tic, a. — Anabap''tism, n. The doctrine 
of, etc. 

Anabasis, a-nab'a-sis, n. Lit., a going up; esp., Cyrus' 
invasion of Asia ; a great military expedition. ( Jfed.) 
The first period, or increase of a disease. 



fim, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; Snd, eve, tgrm ; tn, ice ; Sdd, tone, dr ; 




Anacathartic, an'a-ka-thar'tik, a. Exciting dis- 
charges from the mouth and nose. — j». A medicine 
having this property: — opp. of cathartic. 

Anachoret, Anachorite. See Axchoket. 

Anacharis, an-ak'a-ris, >i. {Dot.) A fresh-water weed 
wiiich obstructs navijjation ; waterwecd. 

Anachorism, an-ak^o-nzm, n. A practice or expres- 
sion differing from tlie usage of the country in which 
it is employed. 

Anachronism, an-ak'ro-nizni, n. An error in chro- 
iiologj', l)y which events are misplaced iu regard to 
each other. — Anach''roni3t''ic, a. Involving, etc. 

Anaclastics, an''a-klas''tiks, n. That part of optics 
concerning the refraction of light; dioptrics. 

AnaclisiB, an'a-klc'sis, «. {Med.) Position taken by a 
sick person in bed. 

Anacoluthon, an'a-ko-lu'thon, n. {Rliet.) Waiit of 
sequence in the parts of a sentence, when one part 
has a diiferent grammatical construction from an- 
other. — Anacolu'thic, -thical, a. 

Anaconda, an-a-kou'da, n. A large snake of the Boa 
famih', which lives in South America. 

Anacreontic, a-nak're-on'tik, a. Pert, to, or after the 
manner of , the Greek poet Anacreon. — n. A poem 
in praise of love and wine. 

Anacrusis, an-a-kroo'sis,?;. {Pros.) A prefix of unac- 
cented syllables to a verse beginning with an accented 

Anadem, an'a-dem, n. A garland ; fillet ; chaplet. 

Anadiplosis, an'a-dl-plo'sis, n. (Jihet.) A repetition 
of words in a sentence or clause, at the beginning of 
the next. 

Anadrom, an''a-drom, n. A fish that periodically 
leaves the sea to ascend rivers. — ^nad'^romous, 
-mus, a. 

Ansemia, a-ne'mT-a, n. (Med.) Deficiency of blood in 
the system.— An£e''mic,n.—Anaemot''ropliy, -fl, n. 
Lack of nourishment in the blood. 

Aneesthesia, an-es-the''zht-a, Anaesthe'sis, n. (3Ied.) 
Entire or partial loss of perception; insensibility pro- 
duced by disease or by inhaling ether, chloroform, 
nitrous oxide gas, etc.— Anaesthefic, a. Capable 
of rendering insensible ; characterized by insen- 
sibilit}'. — n. That which produces, etc. — Anses'- 
thetize, v. t. To produce, etc. 

"Anaglyph, an''a-glif, n. An embossed or chased or- 
nament, worked in relief, — when raised on stone a 
cameo, when sunk an intaglio. 

Anagoge, Anagogy, an''a-go-jT, n. An elevation of 
mind; mystical interpretation of the Scriptures; ap- 
plication to the New Testament of types and alle- 
gories of the Old: one of four modes of Scriptural in- 
terpretation, the others being literal, allegorical, and 
tropological. {Med.) Rejection through the mouth 
of blood from the lungs. — Anagogics, -goj''iks, n. 
pi. Mystical interpretations, esp. of the Scriptures. 

i&£agram, an''a-gram, n. A transposition of the let- 
ters of a name, forming a new word. 

Anagraph, an'a-graf, n. A commentary. 

Anal, a'nal, a. Belonging to or near the anus or open- 
ing at the lower extremity of the alimentary canal. 

Analectic, an-a-lek'tik, a. Collecting or selecting; 
made up of selections. — An''alects, AnaleC'ta, 
-lek'ta. re. pi. A collection of literary fragments. 

Analepsis, an-a-lep'sis, n. {Med.) Recovery; conva- 
lescence. — Analep'tic, fJ. Corroborating: invigora- 
ting: giving strength after disease. — n. Restorative 

Analogy, an-aKo-jT, n. A likeness in some respects, 
between things otherwise different. (Geom.) Equal- 
ity, proportion, or similarity of ratios. — Analogous, 
-gus, a. Correspondent. — AnaKogously, adv. — An'- 
alogue, -log, n. — AnaKogon, n. A thing analogous 
to some other thing. 

Analysis, an-aKt-sis, w. ; pJ. Axal'yses, -sez. A reso- 
lution of any thing into its constituent elements; — 
opp. to synthesis. (Chem.) Separation of a compound 
into its constituents. (Logic.) The tracing of things 
to their source; resolving of knowledge into its orig- 
inal principles. (Math.) The resolving of problems 
by equations. — Analyst, an'a-list, re. One who, 
etc. — Analyt'ic, -ical, a. Pert, to, or fond of, etc. 
— Analyt'ically, ««:/?'. — Analyt'^ics, n. The science 
of analysis. — All'' alyze,-liz, v. t. [ analyzed (-iTzd), 
-LYZiifG.] To separate into component parts ; to re- 

l/lM^J 1 









solve into first principles or elements. — Analyzahla, 
-liz'a-bl, a. Capable of being, etc. — An'alyzer, w- 

Anamnesis, an-am-ne^'sis, n. 
(lilitt.) A recalling something 
omitted. — Anamnestic, -nes'^- 
tik, a. Aiding memory. 

Anamorphism, an-a-mdr'fizm, n. 
A progression from one type to 
another; anamorphosis. — Ana- 
morphosis, -mor'fo-sis or -mSr- 
fo^'sis, re. (Persp.) A distorted 
representation of an image on a 
plane or curved surface, which, 
viewed from a certain poitit, or 
by reflection from a mirror, ap- 
pears in proportion. (Bot.) A 
morbid or monstrous develop- 
ment, or change of form, or de- 

Anandrous, an-an''drus,a. (Bot.) 
Without stamens. 

Anapaest, an-'a-pest, n. ^Pros.) 
In Greek and Latin versifica- 
tion, a foot of three syllables, 
the first tv.'o short, the last long; 
in English versification, a foot 
having two unaccented sylla- 
bles, followed bj^ an accented 
one; — the reverse of the 

Anaphora, a-naf^'o-ra, n. (Rhet.) Repetition of words 
at the beginning of two or more successive clauses. 
(Med.) Discharge of blood or purulent matter by 
the mouth. 

Anaplasty, an'a-plas-tt, n. (Surg.) The art of re- 
storing lost parts or the normal shape. 

Anapodeictic, an'a-po-dik'tik, a. That cannot be 
shown ; undemonstrable. 

Anaptotic, an-ap-tot'ik, a. (Gram.) Losing inflec- 
tion, — said of languages which lose inflection, as 
the English. 

Anarchy, an''ark-T, re. Want of §:overnment m soci- 
ety ; confusion. — Anarch'ic, -ical, a. Lawless. — 

- An'archist, n. One who promotes, etc. — An'arch- 
ize, -iz, V. t. To create anarchy in. 

Anasarca, an-a-sar-'ka, re. (Med.) Dropsy of the cel- 
lular tissue. — Anasarcons, -sark'us, o. Dropsical. 

Anastasis, an-a-sta'^sis, re. {3Ied.) A rising up from 
sickness; recovery; a translation of humors to a su- 
perior part. 

Anastrophe, a-nas''tro-tTf, re. (Ehet.) Inversion of 
the natural order of words. 

Anathema, a-nath-'e-ma. re. (Antiq.) An offering to 
a deity, hung in a temple ; a curse pronounced by 
ecclesiastical authoritj^ ; person or thing anathema 
tized. — Anath''ematize, -tiz, v. t. [anathematized 
(-tizd), -MATiziNG.] To derxounce with curses. — 
Anathe^matiza'tion, re. Act of, etc. 

Anatomy, a-nafo-nit, ?i. Art of dissection ; science of 
the structure of animal bodies; act of dividing any- 
thing, to examine its parts ; thing dissected. — Ana- 
tom^ic, -ical, a. — An'atom''ically, adr. — Anat'o- 
mism, -mizm, re. Application of the principles of 
anatomy, as in art. — Anafomist, re. One who dis- 
sects, oris skilled in, etc. — Anat'omiza'tion, re. Act 
of, etc. — Anafomize, v. t. [anatomized (-mizd), 
-MiziNG.] To dissect; to lay open the interior struc- 
ture of; to analyze. 

Ancestor, an'ses-ter. n. One from whom a person is 
descended; progenitor. — Ances'tress, re. A female 
ancestor. — Ancestral, -ses'tral, a. Relating to, or 
descending from, etc. — An'cestry, -trt, w. A series 
of ancestors ; lineage ; birth or 
honorable descent. 

Anchor, ank'^er, re. An iron instru- 
ment for holding a vessel at rest 
in water ; a firm support ; that 
which gives stability or security. 
— v.t. [ANCHORED (-erd), anch- 
oring.] (Naut.) To place at anch- 
or. To fasten ; to fix in a stable 
condition. —v. i. — To cast anch- 
or; to come to anchor. — Anch'- 
orable, a. Fit for anchorage. — 
Anch'orage, -ej, re. A place where 


aa, stock; 

h, shank; cc, 

flukes; dd,a.rms. 

sHn, cube, fijll ; moon, fi56t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, tiien, boNboN, chair, get. 




a ship can anchor; the anchor and all necessary tackle 
for anchoring; duty imposed on ships for anchoring 
in a harbor. — Anch^ored, -erd, a. {Heraldnj.) Shaped 
as a cross with extremities turned back like flukes of 
an anchor; written also ancred and ancree. — Anch''- 
or-ground, n. Ground suitable for anchoring. — hold, 
n. The hold which the anclior takes; security. — 
-ice, n. Ice at tlie bottom of streams, arwl thus anch- 
ored to the ground ; ground-ice. smith., n. A 

maker of ancliors. — At anchor or Riding at anchor, 
said of a ship kept from drifting by the anchor. — To 
cast, or dro}}, anchor. To sink the anchor in the sea 
to hold the ship from drifting. — To cat the anchor. 
To draw it up to the cat-head. — To fish the anchor. 
To raise the flukes by an appliance called a flsh. — 
To shoe the anchor. To cover the flukes. — To sweep 
the anchor. To dra^ for a lost anchor. — J'o weigh 
anchor. To raise it from the bottom. — Anchor 
comes home when it drags from its hold. — Bower 
anchor. One of medium size, carried at the bow of a 
ship. — Ked-TjC anchor. One of small size. — Sheet 
anchor. One of the largest and strongest kind. 

Anchoret, ank'er-et, -orite, -it, n. A hermit; recluse. 
— Anchoret 'ic, a.— Anch^oress, n. A female liermit. 

Anchovy, an- cho'vl, n. A small sea-flsh of the herring 
family. — Ancho'vy pear. A West India fruit. 

Ancient, an'^shent, a. Old; of former times; advanced 
in years; pristine; antiquated; obsolete. — n. pi. 
Those who lived in f oriner ages, opp. to the moderns ; 
very old men. — Aa'^ciently, -II, adv. In old times. 
— An''cientry, -rl, n. The honor of ancient lineage; 
gentry; aristocracy. 

Ancillary, an'sil-la-rt, a. Subservient or subordinate, 
like a handmaid. 

And, co)ij. A particle which expresses the relation of 
addition, and connects words or sentences. 

Andante, an-diin'ta, a. (J/tts.) Rather slow; less 
slow than iacf/o, more slow than allegretto. — n. A 
movement or piece in andante time. — Andantino, 
-te'^no, a. Slow, but quicker than andante. [It.] 

Andean, an-de'an, Andine, au'din, a. Pert, to the 
Andes mountains. 

Andiron, and''i-urn, n. A utensil for supporting 
wood in a fire-place; a fire-dog. 

Androgynal, an-droj''I-nal, -smous, -nus, a. Having 
both sexes; hermaphroditical; having mental char- 
acteristics of both sexes. {Bat.) Bearmg both stam- 
iniferous andpistillii'erous flowers. 

Android, an''droid, Androi-'des, -dez, n. A machine in 
human form, which performs motions of a man. — 
An''droid, a. Resembling man. 

Androphagi, an-drot''a-ji, n. Man-eaters ; anthro- 
pophagi. — Androph'agous, -gus. Inclined to can- 

Anecdote, an-'ek-dot, n. A particular or detached 
fact; incident; story; tale. — Anecdo'tal, -dot'ic, 
-dot'ic.a,!, a. Pert, to, etc. 

Anemo-dynamometsr, an'e-mo-din-a-mom'e-ter, n. An 
instrument for 
measuring the 
force and velocity 
of the wind. — 
-graf, n. An in- 
Btrument for regis- 
tering the force of 
the wind. — Ane- 
mog'raphy, -ft, n. 
A description of 
the winds. — Anemom'eter, n 



Same as Anemo- 

■ Anemom''etry, n. Measurement 

by means of an anemometer. — Anern'oscope, n. A 

weather-cock, esp. a contrivance for bringing down 

the indications of a wind-vane to a dial below. 

Anemone, a-ncm'o-nT, n. (Bot.) A genus of plants 

of the crowfoot family; wind-flower. 
Aneroid, an'e-roid, a. Dispensing with the use of 

A portable barometer, which dis- 
(3Ied.) Lessening pain; ano- 


penses, etc. 
Anetic, an-et'ik, a. 

Aneurism, an'u-rizm, n. {Anat.') A soft tumor, 

arising from dilatation or rupture of the coats of an 

Anew, a-nu'', adv. Newly; over again; afresh. 

Anfractuous, an-frakt'u-us, a. Winding; full, ol 


Angel, an-'jel, n. A spirit, or spiritual being; an an- 
cient gold coin of England, bearing the figure of art 
angel. — a. Resembling, or belonging to, etc. — 
AngeKic, -ical, an-jeKik-al, a. -— Angel'ically, 
flc/y. — AngeKicalness, Ji.— Angelology, -oKo-jf, n. 
Doctrine oj angelic beings. 

Angel-fish, an''jel-lish, n. A species of shark, named 
from its large wing-like pectoral fins. 

Anger, an''ger, n. A strong passion or emotion of 
the mind ; indignation ; resentment ; wrath ; rage. 

— V. t. LAXGEEED(-gerd), ANGERING.] To cxcite to 
anger; to provoke, displease. — An''gry, -gri, a. In- 
flamed, as a sore; touched with or showing anger; 
indignant; furious; choleric. — An'gerly, An''gnly> 
-gri-ll, adv. 

Angina, an-ji'na, n. Inflammation of the throat. [L-l 

— Angina Pectoris, -pek'to-ris, n. A distressing af- 
fection of the chest. [L.] 

Angle, an''gl, n. A c o r n e r . 
{Geom.) The difference of 
direction of two lines in the 
same plane that meet or tend 
to meet in a point; or the dif- 
ference of direction of two 
planes intersecting, or tending |^ 
to intersect, each other. Fish- ~ 
ing tackle. — v. zV [axgled „.„.,. , 
(an'gld), AXGLiXG.] To fish S A E, right angle? 
with line and hook; to use C A D, acute angle; 
some bait or artifice ; to in- B A E, obtuse an- 
trigue. — Angle of incidence. S^^- 
{Opt.) The angle which a ray of light makes with 
a perpendicular to that point of the surface of any 
medium on which it falls. — Angle o^f refraction. The 
angle wliich a ray of light retracted makes with a 
perpendicular to 'that point on which it falls. — A 
riglit angle. One formed by a right line falling on 
another perpendicularly, or an angle of 90°. — An ob- 
tuse angle. One greater than a right angle, — An 
acute angle. One less than a right angle. — Ohliiiue 
angles. Angles that are either acute or obtuse. — Fa- 
cial angle. See under Face. — Visual angle. The 
angle formed by two rays of light, or two straight 
lines drawn from the extreme points of an object to 
the center of the eve. — An'gler, n. One who fishes 
with a hook. (Ichth.) A kind of fish; the fishing- 
frog. — An'gle-bar, -iron, n. A rolled bar of iron 
of an angular shape, for the edges 
of iron safes, etc.; or to connect 
the side-plates of iron boilers, €tc. 

— Angular, an'gu-ler, a. Having, 
an angle or angles; pointed; form-y 
ing an angle ; sharp and stiff in 
character. — An-'gulames^, -ler- 
ness. Angular'ity, -lar'T-tY, n. 
Quality of being, etc. — An'gu- 
larly, -ler-lT, adv. With angles; in 
the direction of the angles. — An''- 
gulated, -la-ted, a. Formed with angles. — An'gulose, 
-los, a. Full of angles. 

Anglican, an^glt-kan" a. English; pert, to England. 

— n. A member of the church of England: esp. of 
the high-church or ritualistic party. —An 'glicize, 
-siz, 1-. t. fAXGLUrzED (-sTzd),-cizrxG.] To render 
comformable to English idiom or analogies. — An- 
glo, an''glo. A prefix meaning Z^wr/Zi's^. 

Anglice, an'glT-se, adv. In English; in the English 

manner. [L.] 
Angor, an ''gov. n. Intense bodily pain. [L.] 
Angry, Angrily. See under Anger. 
Angtiish, an^'gwish, w. Extreme pain; agony; grief. 
Angular, Angularity. See under Angle. 
Anhelation, an'he-la-'shun, ?i. Short breath; difficult 

AnU, an'il. n. (Bot.) A shrub whose leaves and stalks 

yield indigo. — Anile, an'il, n. A dark blue color. 

— Aniline, an'T-lin or -lin, w. A dyeing material 
obtained from indigo, also from benzole in coal tar. 

— a. Pert, to dyes made from aniline. 

Anile, an'II, a. Old womanish; imbecile. — Anil'lty, 

-nil-i-tT, An'ileness, -il-nes, n. Dotage. 
Animadvert, an'I-mad-vert', v. i. To turn the mind 

with intent to notice; to consider by Avay of crit- 


fim, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; 6nd, eve, term ; In, Ice ; Sdd, tone, 6r ; 




icisin or censure ; to remark, comment. — Animad- 
version, -ver'shun, n. Remarks by way of criti- 
cism, etc. ; strictures ; blame. — Animadver'sive, 
-siv, a. Having the power of perceiving. — Ani'mad- 
ver'ter, n. 

tunimal, an't-mal, n. An organized living being hav- 
ing sensation and power of voluntary motion; an 
irrational being, as disting. fr. man. — a. Of, or rela- 
ting to, animals; pert, to the merely sentient part of 
a creature; consistingjof the flesh of animals. 

Animalcule, an-T-i.iaKkul, -culum, w. ,• pi. -ccla, -la. 
A. I animal invisible, or nearly so, to the naked eye. 
[AniiuulcuUe, as if from a Lat. singular animalcula, 
IS a barbarism.]_ 

Animate, an'I-mat, v. t. To give natural life to ; to 
enliven, incite. — a. Alive. — An''iniated,^j. a. En- 
dowed v.'ith animal life; full of life; epirited; lively. 

— Anima''tion, n. Act of, or state of being, etc.; 
vivacity; spirit; sprightliness. 

Animosify, an'T-mos'I-tl, n. Violent hatred; active 
enmity; rancor; malignity. 

Animus, an'T-mus, n. Intention; spirit ; temper. [L.] 

Anise, an'is, n. Aplant bearing aromatic seeds. 

Ankle, an'kl, n. The joint which connects the foot 
with tRe leg. — Ank'let, m. An ornament for the 

Annals, an'nalz, n. j)l. A history of events in chro- 
nological order; a series of historical events; an an- 
nual publication. —An'' nalist, n. A writer of an- 

Anneal, an-neK, v. t. [annealed (-neld'), axneal- 
ixc] To heat nearly to fluidity and then cool 
slowly, to render less brittle ; to temper. To heat, 
as glass, in order to fix colors. 

Annex, an-neks', v. t. [annexed (-nekst''), annex- 
ing.] To unite at the end; to affix; to add; to con- 
nect, esp. as a consequence. — n. An extension of a 
building ; a subsidiary building ; an addition to a 
document. — Annexation, -a'shun, Annexion, -nek'- 
shun,?i. Act of annexing; addition; vinion. {Law.) 
Union of property with a freehold, forming a fix- 
ture. — Annexa^'tionist, ». An advocate of, etc. — 
Annex'ible, a. That may be, etc. — Annex'ment, n. 
Act of, or state of being, etc.; thing annexed. 

Annihilate, an-ni'hY-lat, v. t. To cause to cease to be ; 
to destroj' the form or properties of. — Anni'Mla'- 
tion, n. Act of, or state of being, etc. ; destruction. 

— Anni'Mla'tionist, n. ( Tkeol.) One who believes 
that eternal punishment consists in annihilation; 
a destructionist. — Anni'liilatory, -rl, a. Tending 
to, etc.; destructive. 

Anniversary, an-nT-ver'sa-rY, a. Returning with the 
year at a stated time. — n. A day celebrated each 

Annomination, an-nom'i-na'^shun, n. A pun; a para- 
nomasia ; alliterfition. f 

Annotate, an'no-tat, v. i: To make annotations or 
comments. — An'notator, -ter, n. A commentator. 

Annotto, an-not'to, Amat'to, Arnofto, n. A yellow- 
ish-red vegetable dyeing material. 

Announce, an-nowns', v. t. [announced (-nownsf), 
ANNOUNCING.] To give first notice of ; to make 
known, publish, advertise. — Announce^'ment, n. — 
Act of, etc. ; declaration. — Announ'^cer, n. 

Annoy, an-noi', v. t. [annoyed (-noid''), annoying.] 
To injure or disturo by repeated acts ; to incom- 
mode, vex, plague. — Annoy'ance, n. Act of, or 
state of being, etc. ; that which annoys. — Annoy'- 
er, n. 

Annual, an''u-al, a. Returning or happening every 
year; j'early; performed in a year; lasting only one 
year or season. — n. A thing happening yearly; a 
work published once a year; a plant that lasts but 
one year or season. 

Annuity, an-nu'T-tT, n. A sum of money, payable 
yearly. — Annu''itant, n. One who has an annuity. 

Annul, an-nul'', v. t. [annulled (-nuld''), annul- 
ling.) To make void or of no effect ; to repeal, 
nullify, set aside. — Annul^'ment, n. Act of, etc. 

Annulet, an'u-let, n. A little ring. {Arch.) A srnall 
flat fillet, encircling a column, etc. {Her.) A little 
circle borne as a chargejn coats of arms. 

Annumerate, an-nii'mer-at, v. t. To add to a num- 
ber. — Anniuneration, -a'shun, n. 

Annunciate, an-nun'shY-at, v. t. To annotmce. — 

Annuncia'tion, n. Act of, etc.; a festival, celebrated 
March 2.0th, in memory of the angel's arinounce- 
; Virgin Marv. — Annun'xiator, -ter, «. 

Medicine which allays pain. 

ment to the ' 
Anodyne, an'o-din, n. 

— a. Assuaging pain. 
Anoint, a-noinf, r. t. To pour oil upon; to rub with 

unctuous substances; to consecrate, by unction ; to 
smear or daub. — Anoinfed, n. The Messiah. 

Anomaly, a-nom'a-ll, -alism, -lizm, n. Deviation 
from common rule or analogy; irregularity. (As- 
tron.) Angular distance of a planet from its perihel- 
ion, as seen from the sun ; angle measuring appar- 
ent irregularities in the motion of a planet. — Anom'- 
alous, -lus, a. Abnormal. — Anom'alously, adv. 

Anon, a-non', adv. Quickly ; immediately ; at an- 
other time; again. 

Anonymous, an-non'I-mus, a. Wanting a name ; 
' without the real name of the author ; nameless. 
— An'^onyme, -nini, ?i. An assumed name. — Ano- 
njrmity, -uiin'I-tT, n. State of being, etc. 

Anorexia, an-o-reks'l-a, An'orexy, -1, n. {Med.) Want 
of appetite. " 

Another, an-utii''er a. Not the same; different; one 
more; any other. 

Anourous, Anurous, an-oo'rus, a. Without a tail. 

Ansated, an''sa-te_d, a. Having a handle. 

Anserine, an'ser-in, -serous, -us, a. Pert, to, or like a 
goose, or its skin; silly. 

Answer, an'ser, v. t. [answered (-serd), answer- 
ing.] To speak or write in return to; to refute; to 
be or act in return to. — v. i. To make response; to 
be accountable, liable, or responsible; to be or act 
in return; to conform; to suit. — n. Something 
said, written, or done, in return; a mathematical so- 
lution. — An''sweral)le, a. Capable of being an- 
swered ; obliged to answer ; liable to pay, indem- 
nify, or make good ; responsible ; suitable ; equiva- 

Ant, ant, n. An emmet ; a pismire. — Anfbear, -bar, 
-eater, -et'- 
er, n. A n 
animal that 
feeds upon 
ants. — eggs, 
n.p/.The lar- 
va of ants, 
which are 
incased i n 
sacs resem- 
bling eggs. 

— -hiU, n. A 
nest of ants. 

Antagonist, , \ , 

an-tag-'o- Anteater. 

nist, n. One who contends with another; adversary; 
opponent. — Antag'onisfic, -ical, a. — An'tago- 
nisfically, adv. — Antag'onism, -nizm, n. Opposi- 
tion of action ; counteraction or contrariety of 
things or principles. — Antag-'onize, -niz, v. t. To 
act in opposition ; to contend. 

Antalgic, an-taKjik, a. Alleviating pain. 

Antaphrodisiac, anfaf-ro-diz'T-ak, a. {Med.) Less- 
ening venereal desire. — n. Anti-venereal medicine. 

Antarctic, ant-ark''tik, a. Opposite to the northern 
or arctic pole; relating to the southern pole or to 
the region near it. 

Antarthritic, anfiir-thrifik, a. Counteracting gout. 

— ti. A remedy for, etc. 

Antecede, an-te-sed'^, v. t. To go before in time. — An- 
tece'dent, a. Going before ; prior; previous. — n. 
That which, etc.; 2>?. the earlier events of one's life. 
{Grain.) The noun to which a relative refers. 
{Lofjic.) The first of two propositions in an enthy- 
meme; the first and conditional part of a hypothet- 
ical proposition. {Math.) The first of two terms 
of a ratio. — Antece'^dently, adv. Previously. — An- 
teces'sor, -ser, n. One wlio goes 'before; a leader; 
one who possessed lanjl before the present possessor. 

Antechamber, an'te-cham''ber, An'^teroom, -room, n. 
A room leading to the chief apartment. 

Antecommunion, an''te-com-mun''yiin, n. The part 
of the Anglican liturgy which precedes the conse- 
cration of the elements in the communion. 

Antecursor, an'te-ker'ser, n. A forerunner. 

Antedate, an''te-dat, n. A date before the true time. 

stln, cube, full : moon, fd6t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, then, boNboN, chair, get. 





— V. t. To date before the true time; to anticipate; 
to take before the true time. 

Antedilnvial, an'te-dl-lu''vl-al, Antedilu'vian, a. Be- 
fore the deluge._ 

Antelope, an'te-lop, n. A ruminant quadruped, in- 
termediate between the deer and 

Antemeridian, an'te-me-rid'I-an, 
a. Before noon. 

Antemundane, an-te-mun''dan, a. 
Before the creation of the world. 

Antenatal, an-te-na'tal, o. Before 

Antenna, an-ten'na, n. ; pi. An- 
ten'n^, -ne, a. (Zool.) A mova- 
ble, articulated organ of sensa- 
tion, attached to the heads of insects and Crustacea. 

Antenuptial, an-te-nup'shal, a. Before marriage. 

Antepaschal, an-te-pas'kal, a Before Easter. 

Antepenult, an'te-pe-nult'', An'tepenulfi-ma, n. 
(^Fros.) The last syllable but two of a word. 

Anterior, au-te'rl-or, a. Before in time or place; for- 
mer ; foregoing. — Anteriority, -or't-tT, n. Prece- 

Anthem, an^'thcm, n. Church music adapted to pas- 
sages from the Scriptures; a motet. 

Anthemorrhagic, ant'hem-or-raj''ik, a. {Med.) Tend- 
ing to stop hemorrhage. 

Anther, another, n. (Bot.) That part of the stamen 
containing the pollen. — Anther- 
if'^erous, -er-us, a. Producing, etc. 

Anthesia, an-the''sis, n. {Bot.) The 
opening of a flower. — AnthoKogy, 
n. A discourse on flowers ; collection 
of flowers ; a collection of beautiful 
passages from authors. 

Anthony's Fire, an^'to-mz -fir, n. The 

Anthracite, an'thra-slt, n. A hard 
mmeral coal. — An'thracene, -sen, 
-cine, -sin, n. (Chem.) A solid hy- 
drocarbon produced in distilling 
coal-tar ; paranaphthaline. 

Anthropogeny, an-thro-poj''6-nY, n. 
The development of man. — Anthro- 
pog''raphy, n. {Phys. Oeog.) The 
distribution of the human race. — 
An'^thropoid, a. Resembling man. 

— Anthropol'ogy, -]X, n. The nat- 
ural history of the human species ; 
science of man, considered in his 
entire nature. — An'thropomor''phlsm, -mSr^'fizm, 
n. Representation of the Deity as having human 
form or attributes. — An'thropomor'pMte, -fit, n. 
A believer in, etc. — Anthropomor''phous, -fus, a. 
Resembling a man. — An''tliropoph''agi, -pof ■'a-jl, n. 
pi. Man-eaters; cannibals. —Anthropopli''agy, -j1, 
n. CannibaUsra. 

Antic, an'tik, a. Odd ; fanciful ; fantastic ; ludi- 
crously wild. — n. A buffoon; odd appearance. 

Anticatnode, an'tt-kath-'od, n. {Phj/s.) The part of 
a vacuum tube opposite the cathode. 

Antichrist, an'tl-krist, n. An adversary of Christ; 
the man of sin. — Antichristian, -kris'chun, n. An 
opposer of Christianity. — .a. Opposing, etc. 

Anticipate, an-tis't-pat, v. t. To take or do before 
another, so as to prevent him; to take up beforehand, 
or before the proper time ; to foresee ; to expect. 

— Anticipation, -pa-'shun, n. Act of, etc. ; previous 
view or impression; foretaste; preconception ; fore- 
thought. — Anticipative, -tis'l-pa-tiv, a. — Antic'- 
ipator, n. — Antic 'ipatory, a. Taking before time. 

Anticlimax, an-tT-kli'maks, n. A sentence in which 
the ideas fall, or become less important, at the close. 

Anticlinal, an-tT-kli^nal, a. Marking inclination in op- 
posite directions. — n. The crest-line from which 
strata dip in opposite directions; the anticlinal axis. 

Antidote, an'tT-dot, n. That which tends to counter- 
act poison, etc.— Antido'tal, -dot''ical, a. — Anti- 
dc'tally, -dofically, adv. 

Antifebrile, an-tl-f eb^ril or -f e^'bril, a. Abating fever. 

Antimony, an''tt-mo-nT, n. A whitish, brittle metal 
used in medicine and the arts. — Antimo'nial, a. 
Of or pert, to, etc. — n. A preparation of, etc. 

.Antinomy, an'tt-no-mt or -tin'o-mt, n. Opposition of 

a, ovary; 

b, style; 

c, stigma; 
dd, filaments; 

ee, anthers. 

one law or rule to another ; a thing contrary. — An- 
tinc'mian, n. (Eccl. Hist.) One of a sect said to 
maintain, that, under the gospel dispensation, the 
moral law is of no obligation. 

Antipapal, an-tl-pa'pal, -papist'ic, -ical, a. Opposing 
the papacy or popery-. 

Antipathy, an-tip'a-thT, n Aversion at the presence 
of a particular object ; dislike ; contrariety. (Nat. 
Phil.) A contrariety in the properties or affections 
of matter. 

Antiphlogistic, an'tY-flo-jis'tik, a. {Chem^ Opposed 
to the doctrine of phlogiston (Med.) Counteract- 
ing inflammation, —n. Medicine or diet which, etc. 

Antiphon, an'tt-fon, Antiphony, -tif'o-nt, n. (3fus.) 
An anthem or psalm sung in alternate parts: a re- 
sponse. — Antiph^onal, Antiphon-'ic, -phon-'ical, a. 

— Antiph'onal, n. A book of antiphons or anthems. 
Antiphrasis, an-tif'ra-sis, n. (Ehet.) Use of words in 

a sense opposite to their proper meaning; irony. — 
Antiphrastic, -fras'tik, -tical, a. 

Antipode,_ an''tt-pod, n.; pi. Antipodes, -pciz or 
-tip-'S-dez. One of those who live on opposite sides 
of the globe, anji whose feet are directly opposite. 

Antipope, an'tl-pop, n. One who usurps the popedom. 

Antique, an-tek', a. Old; ancient; of old fashion; 
made in imitation of antiquity. — n. Anything 
very old ; a remnant of antiquity ; relic. — Antiq^ 
uity, -tik'wl-tl, n. Ancient times, or their peo- 
ple ; great age. 2>l- Remains of, etc. — Antiquarian, 
-kwa-^rt-an, a. Pert, to antiquity. — h. An anti- 
quary. — Antiqua^rianism, n. Xove of, etc. — An'ti- 
quary, n. One versed in, etc. — An'tiquate, -kwat, 
V. t. To make obsolete, old, or void. — An''tiquated, 
p. a. Grown old, or out of fashion; out of use. 

Antiaabbatarian, an'tY-sab'ba-ta'rl-anjO. Opposed to 
the observance of the Sabbnth. — n. One who. etc. 

Antiscorbutic, an'tt-sk5r-bu'tik, -bu'tical, a. (Jled.y 
Counteracting scurvy. 

Antiscriptural, an-tl-skrip^'chur-al, a. Not accordant 
with Scripture. 

Antiseptic, an-tt-sep''tik, a. Opposing putrefaction. 

— 71. A substance which resists or corrects, etc. 
Antislavery, an-tl-sla'ver-t, a. Opposed to slavery. 
Antisocial. an-t1-so''shal, a. Adverse to society or 

hostile to its existence. 

Antispasmodic, an'tl-spaz-mod'ik, Antispastic, an-tt- 
spas'tik, a. (Med.) Causing a revulsion ol fluids or 
humors; counteracting spasm. 

Antistrophe, an-tis'tro-fl, n. (Ehet.) Repetition of 
words in an inverse order; the turning of an dd^'el> 
sary's plea aMinst him. (Anc. Lyric Poetry.) Part 
of a song or dance, around the altar, performed by 
turning from left to right, in opp. to the strophe, 
which was from right to left; the stanza of an ode 
following the strophe. — Antistrophic, -strof 'ik, a. 
Pert, to, etc. ' • 

Antithesis, an-tith'e-sis, n. ; pi. -eses, -sez. (Rhet.y 
An oppositionjjf words or sentiments in the same 
sentence; contrast; anything directly opposed to an- 
other. — Antithetic, -thefik, -ical, a. Pert, to, or 
containing, etc. — Antithet'^ically, adv. 

Antitoxic, an'tlt-tSks'ik, a. Counteracting poison. — 
An'titox'in, n. A substance (sometimes the product 
of a micro-organism and sometimes naturally present 
in an animal), capable of counteracting or produ- 
cing immunity frojn certain diseases. 

Antitrades, an'^l-tradz, n. The higher winds in the 
tropics, which blow in a direction contrary to the 
trade winds. 

Antitype, an-'tt-tlp, n. That which is prefigured by 
the type ; thus the paschal lamb was a type of whica 
Christ is the antitype. 

Antler, ant'ler, n. A deciduous growth of bone on 
the head of a cervine animal, resembling horns in 

Anvil, an-'vil, n. An iron block, upon which metals 
are hammered and shaped. 

Anxious, agk''shus, a. Greatly concerned or solici- 
tous, esp. about something uncertain; accompanied 
with anxiety ; disturbed ; uneasy. — Anx'^iousnesBt 
Anxi^'ety, ang-zi^e-tT, n. State of being, etc. 

Any, en'T, a. One out of man j-, indefinitely; some; 
an indefinite number or quantity. — adv. To any 
extent ; at all. — An'ybody, -bod-I, n. Any one per- 
son out of many; a person of importance. how* 

Sm, fame, far, p&ea or oper&, fSre ; end, eve, tSnn ; tn, Ice ; Odd, tOne, dr ; 





adv. In any case; at any rate. — wise, ar/i'. In any 

decree. where, -whar, ailv. In any place. — 

-whither, -hwirii'er, wlv. To any place. 

Aorist, a'o-rist, /(. (Gram.) .•V tense in Greek, which 
expresses an action as completed in indeterminate 
past time. 

Aorta, a-or'ta, «. The great arterv from the heart. 

Apace, a-pas', af/c. Quickly; hastily; fast. 

Apagoge, ap-a-jco'je, ii. (Loffic.) The proving a 
thing indirectly by showing the impossibility of the 
contrary thing. 

Apart, a-part', wlv. Separately; aside; in a state of 
separation, exclusion, or of distinction; in two or 
more parts ; asunder. — Apart'^ment, n. A room in 
a building or house. 

Apathy, ap'a-thT, n. Want, or a low degree, of feel- 
ing ; indifference; unconcern. —Apathet'ic, a. — 
Ap 'athist, n. One who is, etc. 

Ape, ap, yj. A quadrunianous mammal having teeth 
like man, and neither tail nor 
cheek pouches; one who imi- 
tates servilely, like the_ape; 
a dupe. — r. '^ Taped (apd), 
APING.] To imitate servilely; 
to mimic. _ 

Apeak, a-pek'', adv. On the 
point ; in a posture to pierce. 
(N'aut.) Perpendicular. 

Aperient, a-pe'rT-ent, a. (Med.) 
Having the quality of open- _^ .. 

ing ; laxative. — n. Laxative medicine. —ApiBrture, 
ap'Sr-chur, 7i. An opening through solid substance; 
a hole. 

Apex, a'peks, n. ; pi. A'pe.xes ; L. pi. Ap''ices, ap't- 
sez. Tne top, tip, or summit of anything. 

Aphasia, af-a'zhr-a, Aphasy, afa-zt, n. \3Ied.) Loss 
of the powerof speech, or of memory of words, with- 
out loss of ijitelligence or injury to the vocal organs. 

-Aphelion, a-feKyun, n. ; pi. Aphelia, -fe'lt-a. (As- 
tron.) That point of a planet's or comet's orbit 
most distant from the sun. 

Aphis, a''fis, 71.; pi. Aphides, af-'T-dez. (Entom.) 
The yine-fretter, or plant-louse. 

Aphorism, afo-rizm, n. A precept or principle ex- 
pressed in a few words ; a maxim ; adage. — Aph'- 
orist, n. A writer of, etc. — Aphorist'ic, -ist'ical, a. 
Having the form of, etc. — Aphorist'ically, adv. 

Aphthong, afthong or ap'thong, 71. A letter or com- 
Dination of letters having no sound. 

Apiary, a''pT-a-rT, «. A place where bees are kept ; 
bee -house. — Apicul'ture, -chur, n. Rearing of 

Apiece, a-pes', adv. To each; each by itself. 

Aplomb, a'plox, n. Assurance; self-possession. [F.] 

Apocalypse, a-pok''a-lips, n. Revelation; disclosure; 
the last book in the Bible. —Apoc'alsrp'tic, -lyp''- 
tical, a. Containing or pertaining to, etc. — Apoc'- 
alyp'tically, adv. 

Apocope, a-pok'o-pe, n. The cutting off of the last 
letter or syllable of a word. — Apoc'opate, v. t. To 
cut off, etc. 

Apocrypha, a-pok'rT-fa, n. pi. Books whose inspira- 
tion is denied, and which are excluded from the 
canon of the Scripture. — Apoc'ryphal, -fal, a. Pert, 
to, etc.; notcanonical; of uncartain credit; spurious. 

Apode, ap''od, ?j. An animal that has no feet; a fish 
having no ventral fins. — Ap'odal, n. 

Apogee, ap'o-je, n. (Jst7-07i.) The point in the orbit 
of the moon most distant from the earth. 

Apology, a-poKo-jT, ?«. Something said or written in 
defense or justification; expressed regret for some 
injurious remark or act; anything provided by way 
of substitute; a makeshift. — Apologet'ic, -lefik, 
-get'lcal, a. Excusatory or defensive. — Apol'oget'- 
icB, n. (Theol.) The defense of the Scriptures, 
and evidence of their divine authority. — ApoKo- 
gist, -jist, n. One who makes an apology. — Apolo- 
gize, -jiz, v.i. Tapologized (-jTzd), -oizing.] To 
make, etc. — Ap'ologue, -log. n. A moral fable. 

Apoplexy, ap'o-plek-sT, >i. A disease characterized 
Dy sudden loss of sense and voluntary motion, usu- 
alljr caused by pressure on the brain. 

Aposiopesis, a-po'sT-o-pe'sis, n. (li/iet.) An abrupt 
breaking off, as if the speaker was unable or un- 
willing to say what he had in mind 

Apostasy, a-pos'ta-sl, n. Total desertion of one's faith, 
principles, or party. — Apos'tate. -tat, 7t. One who, 
etc. — «. False, renegade. —Apos'tatize, -tiz, t;. i, 
[-TATiZEDC-tlzd'), -TIZING.] To abaiKiou, etc. 
A posteriori, a pos'te-rl-o'ri. (Lo/jic.) Reasoning a 
posteriori derives profrositions from observation of 
facts, or principles and definitions from general- 
izations from facts, or infers causes from effects ; — 
the reverse oi a priori. (^P/iilos.) Knowledge a ;jos- 
teriori is derived from facts through induction or 
experiment. [L.] 

Apostle, a-pos'sl, ?t. A person sent forth to execute 
some important business ; one of the twelve disci- 
ples of Christ sent to preach the gospel. — Apos'tle- 
ship, n. The office, etc. — ApoB''tolate, -to-lat, 71. 
Mission ; apostleship. — ApostoKic, -toKik, -icai, 
a. Pert, to an apostle or to the apostles, their times, 
spirit, or doctrines. — ApostoKically, ac/y.— Apos- 
tol'icism, -sizm, -tolicity, -lis'T-tr, /;. State or qual- 
ity of being apostolical. 

Apostrophe, a-pos''tro-tI, n. (^lihet.) A turning away 
from the real auditory, and addressing an imaginary 
one. (Gram.) Conti^ction of a word by omitting 
letters; the mark ['] denoting contraction. — Apos'- 
trophize, -fiz, v. t. [-piiized (-lizd), -phizixg.j To 
address by apostrophe; to contract by omitting, etc. 

Apothecary, a-poth^e-ka-rl, ?i. One who prepares 
drugs for medicinal use. 

Apothegm, Apophthegm, ap'o-them, n. A short, pithy, 
and instructive saying ; a precept ; maxim. \_Ap- 
othegm is now the prevalent spelling.] 

Apothem, ap''o-them, 71. (Math.) The perpendicular 
from the center to a side of a regular polygon. 

Apotheosis, ap-o-the'o-sis, 7i. Act of elevating a 
mortal to the rank of the gods. — Apothe'osize, -siz, 
V. t. To deify. 

Appall, ap-pawl', v. t. [appalled (-pawkK), appal- 
ling.] To depress with fear; daunt, terrify. — v.i.. 
To occasion fear._ 

Appanage, ap''pan-aj, ??. Land assigned by a sovereign 
prince to his younger sons; means of sustenance. 

Apparatus, ap-pa-ra'tus, n. ; pi. -ratus or -kati'ses. 
rhings provided as means to some end; a set of im- 

Apparel, ap-par-'el, n. Coveringfor the body; clothing: 
raiment; vestment. — 'v. t. Tappareled or-ELLED 
(-eld), -ELING or -ELLING.] To dress; to cover with 
something ornamental; to embellish. 

Apparent. See under Appear. 

Appeal, ap-peK, n. (Law.) Removal of a cause or suit 
to a superior judge or court for ree.xamination or 
review ; right of appeal ; a surnmons to answer to a 
charge. A call for proof or decision, or to grant a 
favor; resort; recourse. — ?;, i. [appealed (-peld''), 
-PEALiN'G.] (Law.) To remove a cause, etc. To re- 
fer to another; to call on for aid. — v. t. (Laiu.) To 
remove, etc.; to charge with a crime; to accuse. — 
Appellant,_-peKlant, n. One who appeals. — Ap- 
pellate, -lat, a. Belonging to, or having cognizance 
of, appeals. — Appella'tioh, »?. Name by which one 
is called; title; address. —Appel''lative,-tiv, a. Pert, 
to a common name. — n. A common, as distinguished 
from a proper, name. — Appel'latively, adv. — Ap- 
peKlatory, a. Containing an appeal. — Appellee'', 
71. (Law.) The defendant in, etc.; one who is ap- 
pealed, or prosecuted, by a private man for a crime. 

— Appellor, -Idr', ?i. One who institutes an appeal, 
or prosecutes another for crime. 

Appear, ap-n^i-' 

to seem, in opposition to reality. — Appear'^ance, «. 
Act of, etc.; thing seen ; phenomenon; semblance, 
or apparent likeness; personal presence; exhibition 
of the person; air; manner; mien. — Appear''er, w. 

— Apparent, ap-par'ent, a. Capable ot being seen, 
or easily seen; plain; certain; evident; appearing to 
the eye, but not true or real ; seeming. — Appar'ently, 
adv. — Appar'entness, n. — Apparition, -rish'un, n. 
Appearance ; tiling appearing ; ^ preternatural ap- 

■ pearance; ghost; specter. 

Appease, ap-pez'^, v. t. [appeased (-pezd'), -peasing.) 
I o make quiet, pacify, compose, calm. 

Append, ap-pend', v. t. To hang or attach; to add, 
• annex. — Append'age, n. Something added as sub- 
ordinate. — Append'ant, 71. Thing appended. — a. 

ap-per', v. i. [appeared T-perd'), appear- 
To come or be in sight; to oecome manifest; 

sQn, cQbe, full ; moon, fa&t ; cow, oil ; ligger or iflk, then, boNboN, chair, get. 




Hanging; annexed. — Appendicitis, ap-pend'T-si'- 
tis, n. {Med.) Inflammation of the appendix. — Ap- 

Eend'icle, -Y-kl, n. A small appendage. — Append'- 
i'j"j'-P'- -i-^^ES; L. pi. -WES, -t-sez. Something 
added; a concomitant; literarv matter added to a 
book. (Anat.) A slender blind process of the csecum 
in man and some animals; — called also vermiform 

Appertain, ap-per-tan'', v. i. [-tained (-tand''), -tain- 
i.vG.] To belong, relate. — Appur''teaance, w. That 
which, etc.; an adjunct. 

Appetence, ap'pe-tens, -tency, 7i. Strong natural de- 
sire; sensual appetite; tendency to select. — Ap'^pe- 
tent, a. Very desirous. — Ap'petite, -tit, n. Desire 
of gratification; esp. desire lor food or drink. — Ap''- 
petize, -tiz, v. i. To create, or whet, an appetite. — 
Appetiz'er, n. Something which, etc. 

Applaud, ap-plawd', v. t. or i. To praise by clapping 
the hands, acclamation, etc. ; to commend; extol; cry 
up ; magnify. — Applaud'er, Applause, -plawz', n. 
Act of applauding; commendation. —Applausive, 
-plaw'siv, a. 

Apple, ap'pl, n. A well-known tree and its fruit; the 
pupil of the eye. 

Applique, ap-plek'', a. Having a pattern which has 
been cut out and transferred to another foiOJidation, 
as in a kind of lace. 

Apply, ap-pll'', V. t. [APPLIED (-plld''), PLYIIfQ.] To 

lay or place; to put, Dring, or carry; to use for a par- 
ticularpurpose ; to engage and employ diligently. — 
V. i. To suit; to have recourse. — Appli''able, a. 
Capable of being applied. — Appli^ably, adv. — 
Appli^ance, n. Act of applying, or tiling applied; 
instrument or means. — Ap'plicable, a. Capable or 
fit to be, etc. ; suitable. —Ap'plicably, adv. — Ap'- 
plicabil'ity, Ap''plicableness, n. Quality of being, 
Etc. — Ap'plicant, n. One who, etc. ; a petitioner. 

— Ap'^pUcate, a. Applied to some use. — AppUca'- 
tion, n. Act of applying or laying on, in a literal 
sense; the thing applied; act of making request; act 
of fixing the mind; intenseness of thought. — Ap''- 
plicative, -tiv, -catory, -to-rt, a. Applying. — n. That 
which applies. _ 

Appoggiatura, ap-pod'ja-too'ra, n. (Mus.) A passing 
tone preceding an essential tone or an accented part 
of a measure. [It.] 

Appoint, ap-point', y. t. Toiix; to establish; to consti- 
tute, prescribe, allot, assign, equip. — v. i. To deter- j 
mine; ordain. — Appoint'able, a. Capable of being, 
etc. — Appointee", ?i. One who is, etc.— Appoint ""er, 
n. One who, etc. — Appoinfment, n. Act of, or 
state of being, etc. ; stipulation ; arrangement ; es- 
tablished order; pi. whatever is appointed for use 
and management. —Apportion, ap-por''shun, v. t. 
[-T10NED C-shuud), -TioNixG.] To divide and assign 
m just proportion. — Appor'tionment, n. 

Apposite, ap''po-zit, a. Very applicable ; fit ; rele- 
vant; pat. — Ap'positenesa, -sition, -zish'^un, n. Act 
of adding; accretion. (Gram.) The state of two 
nouns (one of which explains the other) put in the 
same case, without a connecting word between 
them. — Apposi''tional, a. 

Appraise, ap-praz"", v. t. [appraised C-prazd'), ap- 
PRAisiXG.] To estimate the worth of, esp. by per- 
sons appointed for the purpose. — Apprais'al, n. A 
valuation by authority. — Appraise'ment, n. — Ap- 
prais^'er, n. One who, etc.; esp. one appointed and 
sworn to fix values. [Sometimes pronounced and 
written, apprize, apprizal, etc.] 

Appreciate, ap-pre'sht-at, v. t. To set a price on ; 
to estimate, esteem, value. — v. i. To rise in value. 

— Appre''ciable, a. Capable of being, etc. — Appre- 
cia'tion, n. A just valuation; increase of value. — 
Appre''ciative, -tiv, -ciatory, -rt, a. Having ]ust ap- 
preciation. — Appre'ciatively, adv. 

Apprehend, ap-pre-hend'', v. t. To seize or lay hold 
of; to understand; to entertain suspicion of fear 
of; to arrest, conceive, imagine, dread. — ?;. i. To 
be of opinion; to believe. — Apprehen'sible, a. Ca- 
pable of being, etc. — Apprehen'sion, -shun, n. Act 
of seizing; a taking by legal process; a taking in the 
mind; conception; opinion; faculty by which ideas 
arc conceived; distrust or fear of future evil. — Ap- 
prehen'sive, -siv, a. Fearful; suspicious; percep- 

Apprentice, ap-pren'tis, n. One bound to another to 
learn a trade or art. — r. t. [Ai'PKEXTrcED (-tist), 
-TiciNG.J To bind out as, etc. — Appren'ticestiip, 
n. The condition of, etc.; his tune of service. 

Apprise, ap-piiz', v. t. [APPRisKuC-prizd''), -pkisixg.] 
To inform; to give notice, verbal or written; to ac- 
quaint, make known, communicate 

Apprize. See Appraise. 

Approach, ap-proch', v. i. [approached (-prochf), 
-PROACHING.] To come or go near; to approximate. 
— v.t. To place near; to come near to. — n. Actor 
opportunity of, etc.; access; passage by which build- 
ings are approached, pi. (Fort.) Works covering ad- 
vances towards a fortress — Approach'able, a. Ac- 
cessible. — Approach'ableness, n. 

Approbate, ap'pro-bat, v. t. To express or manifest 
approbation of. [iiore.J— Approba'tion, n. Act of 
approving; consent, on the ground of propriety; ap- 
proval ; liking ; attestation. — Ap'proba'tory, -rt, 
-bative, -tiv, a. Approving, or implying approba- 
tion. —Approve, -proov'', v. t. [approved (.-proovd''), 
-PROVING. J To be pleased with; to think well of; to 
sanction officially. — Approv'able, a. Worthy of, 
etc. — Approv'al, n. Act of, etc.; approbation. 

Appropriate, ap-pro'prl-at, v. t. To set apart for a 
particular purpose, or for one's self ; to assign. — o. 
Set apart for a particular use or person; belonging 
peculiarly; fit; pertinent. — Appro'priately, adc. — 
Appro'pria'tion, ?!. Act of, etc.; thing, esp. money, 
set apart. — Appro'priajior, -ter, n. One who, etc. 
(Law.) One who has an appropriated benefice. 

Approve. See under Approbate. 

Approximate, ap-proks'T-mat, a. Near to. ( Chem. & 
Math.) Nearly correct. — v.t. To carry or advance 
near; to cause to approach. — v. i. To come near; ap- 
proach. — Approx-'imately, adv. — Approx'ima'- 
tion, n. A coming near. - Approx'imative, a. Ap- 

Appurtenance. See under Appertain. 

Apricot, a'prY-kot, n. A fruit allied to the plum. 

April, a'pril, n. The fourth month of the year. 

A priori, a prt-o'ri. Reasoning a priori deduces con- 
sequences from definitions formed or principles as- 
sumed, or infers effects from causes previously 
known ; —the reverse of a posteriori. [L.] 

Apron, a^'purn or a'prun, n. A cloth, or piece of 
leather, worn before the body, to protect the clothes 

Apropos, ap'ro-po', adv. Opportunely ; seasonably ; 
by the way; to the purpose. [F.J 

Aps, aps, n. The wood of the white poplar. . 

Apse, aps, n. (Arch.) The domed part of a church. 
where the altar is placed. — Ap- 
sij, ap'sis, n. ; pi. -sides, -st- 
dezi (Astron.) One of the two 
points in an elliptical orbit vhich ' 
are at the greatest and least dis- 
tance from the central body. 
(Arch.) An apse. . . 

Apt, a. Fit ; suitable ; having a Apsis. 

tendency; liable; ready; quick; dexterous. — Apt'- 
itnde, -tad, n. Disposition or tendency; readiness in 
learning; docility. — Apfly, adv. — Apfness, n. 

Apteral, ap'ter-alj a. (Entom.) Destitute of wings. 
(Arch.) Having no columns along the sides, but 
only in front.— Ap'terous, -us, a. (Entom.) Apteral. 

Aqua", a'kwa, n. Water, — a Latin word used in 
chemistry, in significations determined by words 
annexed.' —A. fortis, fer'tis. Mtric acid. — A. ma- 
rine, ma-ren' or marina, •ri'^na. A variety of beryl, 
so called on account of its sea-green color. — A. regia, 
re'jT-a. Nitro-chloro-hydric acid. — A. vitae, vi'^te. 
Water of life; brandy. — Aqua ''rium, n.; pi. -ria. 
An artificial pond for rearing aquatic plants; glass 
tank for aquatic animals. — Aquatic, -kwafik, -ical, 
a. Pert, to, inhabiting, or frequenting, water. — 
AquaficB, n. pi. Aqu'atic sports, — as "swimming, 
rowing, etc. — A'quatint, -tinfa, n. A method of 
etching by aqua fortis, producing an effect resemb- 
ling a water-color or India ink drawing. — Aque- 
duct, ak'^we-dukt, n. An artificial conduit for water. 
— Aqueous, a'kwe-us, a. Of the nature of, or abound- 
ing with, etc.; watery; made by means of water. — 
Aqueous hu''mor. A tmnsparent fluid, forming 
part of the eye. — Aquiform, d'kwi-fdrm, a. In the 
form of water. 

Sm, lame, fiir, pass or opera, fare ; 6nd, eve, tSrm ; Tn, Ice ; Sdd, tone, 8r j 




Aquiline, ak'wl-lln or -lin, a. Belonging to the eagle; 
curving; hooked ; prominent, like the beak oi an 

Arab, ar'ab, n. A native of Arabia; 
a street vagabond ; a gamin. — Ara- 
besque, ar'a-besk, n. A species of or- 
namentation after the Arabian man- 
ner, intermingling foliage, fruits, etc., 
•with other objects. — a. In the man- 
ner of the Arabians ; relating to the 
style of ornament called arabesque. — 
Arabian, a-ra'bt-an, Arabic, ar'a-bik, 
a. Pertaining to Arabia or Arabian*. 

— Ar'abic, n. The language of, etc. 
Arable, ar'a-bl, a. Fit for tillage or plow- *f 

ing; plowed. ' 

Arbalest, ar'bal-est, -balist, -balet, 
-blast, Arcubalist, iir'ku-ba-list, n. A 
cross-bow, — Arbalister, Arcubalister, 
-bal'ist-er or -barlist'er, n, A cross- 

Arbiter, ar'bt-ter, Arbitra'tor, n. One Arabesque, 
empowered to judge and determine, without con- 
trol; an umpire; one chosen by parties in contro- 
versy to determine their differences. [L.] — Ar-'bi- 
trable, a. Arbitrary; determinable. —Ar^bitrage 
-trej, n. Judgment by an arbiter, esp. as to trafHc in 
Stocks of differing values in different markets. — 
Arbit''rament, n. will; determination; award of ar- 
bitrators. — Ar'bitrary, -trSr-I, a. Depending on 
will or discretion ; despotic; bound by no law; ty- 
rannical; imperious; capricious. —Ar'bitraiily, adi'. 
— Ar'bitrate, -trat, v. t. To hear and decide, as ar- 
bitrators. — y. i. To decide; to judge or act as arbi- 
trator. — Arbitra'tion, n. Determination by, etc. 

Arbor, ar'ber, n. A bower ; a seat shaded by trees. 
(.Mach.) A spindle or axis. — Arbo-'reous, -re-us, 
Arbo''real, a. Belonging to. growing on, or of the 
nature of, trees. — Ar'boricid'ture, -kuKchur, n. 
Art of cultivating, etc. 

Arbu'tufl, n. Tlie strawberry-tree, an evergreen 
shrub, ■whose berry resembles the strawberry ; an 
early spring flower. 

Arc, ark, n. Part of the circum- 
ference of a circle or curve. . 

— Arc light. Electric light -^^<'* 
produced by passage of a powerful current of elec- 
tricity between carbon points. 

Arcade, ar-kad', n. A series of arches ; a walk arched 
above ; a range of shops along an arched passage. 

Atcanom, ar^a'num, n. ; pi. -ua, -nft. A secret. [L.] 

Arch, arch, a. Cunning or sly; mischievous in sport; 
roguish. — Arch'ly, adv. — Arch'^ness, n. 

Arch, arch, a. Chief; of the first class; principal; — 
used as a prefix in compounded words, most of 
which are self-explaining ; as, arch-apostle, arch- 
conspirator, etc. — Arch-angel, ark-an'jel, n. An 
angel of the highest order. — angeKic, -an-jeK-, a. 
Pert, to, etc. — ^bishop, arch-bish''op, n. A chief 
bishop; a metropolitan. — bish^opric, n. The juris- 
diction or diocese of, etc. — deacon, arch-de'kn, n. 
An ecclesiastical dignitary next in rank below a 

bishop. duke, arch-, n. A grand duke; chief 

prince; now, strictly, a son of an Emperor of Aus- 
tria. — duke''dom, n. The jurisdiction of an arch- 
duke or arch-duchess. — du'cal, a. Pert, to an arah- 
duke. — duch^ess, n. A princess of the house of Aus- 
tria. — duch^y, n. Territory or 

jurisdiction, etc. en''emy, 

arch-, n. The devil. fiend, 

arch-fend', n. The chief of 
fiends. — Archidiaconal, ark't- 
di-ak'o-nal, a. Pert, to an arch- 
deacon. — Archiepiscopacy, 
ark'T-e-pis'^ko-pa-sI, n. Estate 
of an archbishop. — A r c h ' - 
iepis-'copal, a. Of, or pert, to, 

Arch, arch, n. A curve line or 
part of a circle ; any work in 
that form, or covered by an 
arch. — V. t. or i. [aeched 
(archt), ARCHING.] To form an arch.— Arch' way, 
n. Passage under an arch. 

Archaan, ar-ke'an, rt. Ancient. (Genl.) Pert, to the 


earliest geological period. — ArchseoKogy, -ol'o-jT, 
n. The science of antiquities; atreatise on antiqui- 
ties or ancient usages, customs, etc. — Ar'chseolog'- 
ical, a. Relating to, etc. — Arcbxol'ogist, n. One 
versed in, etc. — Archaic, ar-ka'ik, -ical, a. An- 
cient, antiquated. — Ar'chaism, -izm, n. An ancient 
or obsolete word or idiom; antiquity of style or use. 

Archer, arch'er, n. A bowman. —Aj:ch''efy, n. Art 
of sliooting with a bow. 

Archetype, ar'ke-tlp, h. Th^ original pattern of a 
work; the model from which a thing is made. 

Archil, ar^kil, n. A violet dye obtamed from se\». 
eral species of lichen. 

Archimedean, ar'kl-me-de'an, a. Pert, to Archim- 
edes. — A. screw, or 
Archimedes' screw. 
An instrument lor 
raising water, 
formed by winding 
a flexible tube 
round a cylinder in 
the form of a screw. 

Archipelago, ar-kl- 

peFa-go, n. Any . v.- j , o 

body of water inter- Archimedes' Screw, 

spersed with isles; a group of isles. 

Architect, ark'T-tekt, n One who plans and super- 
intends the construction of a building; one who 
builds up. — Architecture, -tek'chur, 71. The art or 
science of building; frame or structure; workman- 
ship. — Architec'tural, a. Of, or pert, to, etc. 

Architrave, ar'kr-trav, ?i. (Arch.) Lower division of 
an entablature, the part resting immediately on the 
column; an ornamental molding. 

Archives, ar'kivz, n. pi. Place m which public rec- 
ords are kept; records preserved as evidence of facts. 

Archon, ar'kon, n. A chief magistrate in ancient 

Arctic, ark'tik, a. Northern; lying far north. — Arc- 
tic circle. A lesser circle 23" from the north pole. 

Arcubalist. See under Arbalest. 

Ardent, ar'dent, a. Hot or burning; much engaged; 
intense; fierce; vehement; fervent. — Ardor, ar'^er, 
n. Heat; warmth of passion or affection; eagerness. 

Arduous, ard'u-us, a. High or lofty; attended with 
great labor, like climbing heights; difficult. 

Are, ar. Present indie, pi. of the substantive verb, ety- 
mologically a different word fr. be, am, or was. 

Are, ar, n. {Metric Sj/st.) A measure of surface; 100 
sq. meters, or 119.6 so. yards. 

Area, a're-a, n. Any plane surface; the inclosed space 
around a building; a sunken space around a base- 
ment. {Geom.) Superficial contents of any figure. 

Arena, a-re'na, n.; pi. Are'nas, -naz; L. pi. Aee'^n^e, 
-ne. (Rom. Antiq.) The area in an amphitheater, for 
gladiators, etc., which was covered with sand; any 
place of public contest. 

Areola, a-re'o-la, n. ; pi. -ol^, -le. An interstice or 
small space; the colored ring around the nipple, also 
around certain vesicles. 

Areopagus, ar-e-op'a-gus, n. A tribunal at Athens, 
held on a hill named for Ares, or Mars. 

Argand lamp, ar'gand. A lamp having a hollow wick 
under a glass chimney, producing a strong light. — 
A. burner. A ring-shaped gas-burner, admitting a 
current of air through the center. 

Argent, ar'jent, a. Silvery; bright like silver. — n. The 
white color on a coat of arms. — Ar'gentan, ?i. Ger- 
man silver. — Argentiferous, -us, a. Containing, 

Argil, ar'jil, n. (Min.) Clay or potter's earth ; some- 
times pure alumina. — Argillaceous, -la'shus, a. Of 
the nature of, etc. — Ar^Uif'erous, -er-us, a. Pro- 
d^icing, etc. 

Argive,"ar''iTv, a. Pert, to Argos, in Greece. 

Argonaut, ar'go-nawt, n. One who sailed to Colchia 
with Jason, in the Argo, in quest of the golden fleece. 
(Zool.y The nautilus. — Argosy,' ar'go-sl.n. A large 

Argot, ar-go', n. The secret language of thieves, 
tramps, etc.; flash; cant. 

Argue, ar'gu, v. i. [argued (-gud), -guing.] To 
use arguments ; to reason; to contend in argument, 
dispute. — 11. t. To debate or discuss, prove. — Ar'gu- 
ment, n. A proof or means of proving ; process of 

Biln: cube, full ; moon, t&A ; cow, oil ; liQger or igk, tiien, boNboN, chair, get. 




reasoning; subject-matter, or abstract of the subject- 
matter, of a dis«ourse. writing, picture, etc. — Ajgu- 
men'tative, -tiv, a. Containing or addicted to, etc. 
— Argumen''tiim ad hom'^iiiem. Unexpected qonse- 
quences pressed against a man, from his own prin- 
ciples or conduct. [L.] 

Arhythmous, a-rith'mus, a. {Med.') Without rhythm 
or regularity, as the pulse. - 

Aria, a^rl-a, h. (J/h».) An. air or song; a tune. — 
Arietta, -efta, Ariette, -ef, n. A little aria. 

Arian, a'rT-an, a. Pert, to Arius, or his doctrines. — 
a. A believer in Arius's doctrine, that Christ was 
only a superangelic bein^. 

Arid,'ar''id, a. Dry; parched up with heat. 

Aright, a-rit'', adv. Rightly ; without mistake. 

Arise, a-riz'', v. i. [arose (-roz^), arising (-riz'ing), 
AiusEX (-rizn').] To come or get up higher ; to 
mount, ascend, rise; to come into action, being, or 
notice; to proceed, issue, spring. 

Aristocracy, ar-is-tok'ra-sl, n. A form of govern- 
ment, in which the supreme power is vested in a 
privileged order; nobility or chief persons in a state. 

— Aristocrat, -ris'to-krat or ar^'is-, n. One who fa- 
vors, etc. ; a proud or haughty person. — AT'lstocrat'- 
ic, -leal, a. Pert, to, consisting in, or partaking of, 
etc. — Ar^istocrafically, adc. — Aris'tocratism, ti. 
Habits or principles of, etc. 

Arithmancy, ar'^ith-man'sl or a-rith'man-sT, ?i. The 
foretelling of future events, by means of numbers. 

— Arith'metic, n. Science of numbers; art of com- 
putation by figures. — Arithmefical, a. According 
to, etc. — Arlthmefically, adv. — Ar'itliineti''cian, 
-tish'an, n. One skilled in, etc. 

Ark, ark, n. A chest, such as contained the Jews' ta- 
bles of the covenant; Noah's vessel during the del- 
uge; a large boat for transporting bulky articles. 

Arm, arm, n. The limb between the shoulder and 
the hand ; anj^thing resembling an arm, as the 
branch of a tree, or an inlet of water from the sea; 
power ; might. {Nciut.) The end of a yard; part 
of an anchor. {Mil.) A branch of the military ser- 
vice; an instrument of warfare. — n. i)l. Instru- 
ments or weapons of offense or defense ; deeds or 
exploits of war. {Her.) Ensigns armorial. — v. t. 
[ARMED (armd), arming.] To furnish with weap- 
ons ; CO add strength, force, etc. ; to furnish with 
means of defense. — v. i. To be provided with means 
of attack or resistance: to take arms. — Arrn'ohair, 
-char, 11. A chair with arms to support the elbows. 
hole, -hoi. n. The cavity under the shoulder; arm- 

git; a hole for the arm in a garment. pit, n. The 
oUow under the shoulder. ^ Arm''fal, )«. ; 'p^- -fl'ls. 

As much as the arms can hold. less, a. Without 

arms. — like, a. Of the form of, etc. — Coat of arms, 
n. {Her.) A habit worn by knights over armor; an 
armorial device. — Stand of amis, n. A complete set 
for one soldier. — Small arms, n. Those not requir- 
ing carriages. — Ar'mament, n, A body of forces 
equipped for war ; arrangements for defending a 
fortification ; ships' guns and munitions. — Ar''- 
mature, -ma-chur, ». Armor. {Magnetism.) Apiece 
of iron connecting the poles of a magnet, or electro- 
^magnet, to complete the circuit. — Ar''inistice, -tis, 
n. A temporary cessation of arms; a truce. — Arm'- 
or, -er, n. Defensive covering tor the body or for 
ships. — Ann''or-bear''er, n. One who carries anoth- 
er's armor or arms; an esquire — Ar'niorer, n. One 
who makes or has charge of, etc. — Armc'rial, a. 
Belonging to armor, or to a family escutcheon. — 
Ar''mory, n. A place where arms, etc., are kept or 
manufactured. {Her.) _Science of coat-armor. 

Armada, ar-ma''da or -ma'da, n. A fleet of armed 
ships; esp. the Spanish fleet sent against England, 
A. D. 1588. [Sp.] ___ 

Armadillo, ar'ma-diKlo, 
n. {Zool.) An animal 

of South America, hav- /^^^^^^^^^^t^ \ 
in^ the body encased ^n^^3l^^^£^9^^^ ^ 
in "bony plates. 

Armillary, ar'mil-la-rT, 
a. Pert, to, or resem- =^ "^^^isfr 

bling, a bracelet or 
ring; consisting o f Armadillo, 

rings or circles. — A. sphere. An instrument con- 
sisting rings, of all circles of the same sphere, repre- 

senting the circles of the ce- 
lestial sphere. — Ar^millate, 
-lated, a. Furnished witii 

Arminian, ar-min'T-an, n. A 
follower of Arminius, who 
denied predestination and 
kindred doctrines.— a. Pert, 
to Arminius or his princi- 

Armore, ar'mtir, w. A wool-, 
en fabric, twilled, or woven '. 
with ribs on the surface. [F.] 

Army, ar'ml, n. A body oi 
men armed and organized 
for war; a great number; a , , 

host. Armillary isp.iere. 

Arnica, ar'nT-ka, ti. {Bot.) A plant used in medicine 
as a narcotic and stimulant. — Ar'nicine, -nt-sin, 
n. A bitter resin, the active principle of arnica. 

Aroma, a-ro'ma, n. The fragrant qualitv in plants. 
— Aromatic, ar-o-mat'^ik, -ical, «. Pert, to, or con- 
taining, etc.; fragrant; spicv. — Aromat'ic, n. A 
plant, drug, or medicine, fragrant, and usuallv pun- 
gent in taste. — Aromatize, -ro'ma-tiz or ar'o-ma-tiz, 
v.t. [AROMATIZED (-tizdX-TizixG.l To impregnate 
with, etc. — Aro'matous, -tus, a. Containing aroma. 

Around, a-rowud', prei). On all sides of ; about ; 
from one part to another ot.—adv. In a circle; on 
ever}' side ; at random ; here and there. 

Arouse, a-rowz'', v. t. [aroused (-rowzd'), arous- 
ing.] To awaken suddenlv, excite, animate. 

Arpeggio, ar-ped'jo, n. {Mus.) The production of 
the tones of a chord in rapid succession, and not 

Arpent, ar-'pent, n. A French land measure, used 
in Louisiana, where it contains 4.088 sq. vards. [F.] 

Arquebuse, ar'kwe-bus, n. A hand-gun, fifed from a 
hook or rest. 

Arrack, ar'rak, n. A spirit obtained from rice or the 
cocoa-nut tree, etc. 

Arraign, ar-ran', v. t. [arraigned (-rand'), -eaigjt- 
ing/J {Law.) To call or set to answer at the bar of 
a court; to call in question, impeach, censure. 

Arrange, ar-ranj'', r. t. [arranged (-ranjd'), -ran- 
ging.] To put or place in proper order; to adjust or 
settle. — Ai-range^ment, n. Act of, or state of being, 
etc.; result of arranging; classification; settlement; 
adjustment by argeement. {Mus.) Adaptation of a 
composition to voices or instruments for which it 
was not written; a piece so adapted. 

Arrant, ar'rant, a. Very bad; notorious. 

Arras, ar''ras, w. Tapestry; hangings, — made first at 
Arras in the Netherlands. 

Array, ar-ra'', n. Order; disposition in regular lines; 
posture for fighting ; an orderly collection ; dress; 
raiment. {Law.) A ranking of a jury as impan> 
eled in a cause; the panel itself; the whole bcdy of 
jurors summoned to attend the court. — v.t. [ar- 
rayed (-rad''), -raying.] To dispose in order ; to 
deck or dress. {Law.) To set in order, as a jury; 
to call them man by man; to draw out, arrange, en- 

Arrear, ar-rer'', n. sing., Arrears', n. pi. That which is 
behind in payment, or remains unpaid*, though due. 
-=^ Arrear'age, -ej, n. The part of a debt unpaid. 

Arrect, ar-rekf, Arrecfed, a. Lifted up;, raised; 

Arrest, ar-rest', v. t. To check or hinder the motion 
or action of. {Law.) To take or apprehend by au- 
thority. To seize on and fix ; to obstruct, delay, 
check, stop. —K. {Law.) The taking or apprehend- 
ing of a person; any seizure, or taking by power; 

Arrive, ar-rlv', v. i. [arrived (-rivd''), -riving.] 
Lit., to come to the shore; to come; to gain or com- 
pass an object by effort, practice, study, etc. — Ar- 
ri'val, n. Act of arri\'ing; attainment or gaining of 
any object; person or thing arriving. 

Arrogate, ar'ro-gat, v. t. To claim unduly; assume. 
— Ar'rogative, -tiv, a. Arrogant. — Ar^rogance, «. 
Undue assumption of importance; haughtiness. — 
Ar'rogant, a. Assuming undue importance; over- 
bearing ; presumptuous. — Ar'rogantly, adv. 

Arrow, ar'ro, n. A pointed weapon to be shot from a 

am. fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; Snd, eve, term ; In, Ice ; 8dd, tone, 6r : 




bow. — Ar'row-head'ed, -hed'ed, a. Shaped like 
the head of an arrow; — esp. applied to the v'3dge- 
shaped, or cuneilorin, alphaoetical characters fo'.md 
in inscriptions at Persepolis, Nineveh, Babylon, etc. 
— Ar'rowroot, -root, n. A tropical plant, and the 
starch which it yields. 

Arsenal, ar'se-nal, n. A public establishment for the 
manufacture or storage of arms. 

Arsenic, ar''se-nik, n. ( J/m.) A metal of a steel gray 
color, and brilliant luster. (Com.) Arsenious acid ; 
— a \'irulent poison, called also oxide of arsenic, 
white arsenic, and ratsbane. 

Arsis, ar'sis, n. {Pros.) The part of a foot marked by 
a greater stress of voice. 

Arson, ar'sn, ?j. (Law.) Malicious burning of build- 
ings or ships. 

Art, art. becond person sing., indie, mode, pres. 
tense, of the verb to be, but from were. 

Art, iirt, ti. Employment of means to accomplish an 
end; a system of rules for performing actions, — 
opp. to science; power of performing certain actions, 
acquired by experience, study, etc. ; cunning; arti- 
fice; duplicity. — Art'ful, -ful, a. Made, performed 
with, characterized by, or using art or skill; prac- 
ticing strata'^em; crafty. — Arffully, adv. — Art''- 
fulness, n. — ilr'tifice, -tl-fis, n. Artful or skillful 
contrivance ; fraud. — Artificer, -tif''t-ser, n. A 
skillful workman in some art; one who constructs 
and contrives. — Artificial, -fish'al, a. Made or 
contrived by art; factitious; hence, feigned; ficti- 
tious; cultivated; not indigenous. — Artifi''cially, 
adv. — Artifi'cialness, -cial'ity, ar-tl-flsh'I-aKl-tl, 
n. — Arfisan, -zan, u. One skilled in any mechan- 
ical art; a handicraftsman. —Art'ist, ?i. One who 
prof esses jind practices one of the liberal arts. — Ar- 
ti3te, ar-tesf, n. One who is dexterous and tasteful 
in almost any art. [F.] — Artist 'ic, -ical, a. Pert, 
to, or characterized by, art; made in the manner of 
an artist. — Arfless, a. Free from art, craft, or 
stratagem ; ingenuous ; contrived without skill or 
art; inartificial. 

Artery, ar'ter-T, ?;. One of the vessels which convey 
the blood from the heart to all parts of the body; an 
important channel of communication. 

Artesian, ar-te'zhan, a. Pert, to Artois in France. — 
A. wells. Wells bored into the earth to reach water, 
which flows frona internal pressure. 

Artichoke, ar'tt-chok, n. An esculent plant resem- 
bling a thistle. 

Article, iir'tl-kl, n. A distinct portion of any writing, 
consisting of particulars; a clause in a contract, ac- 
count, treaty, etc.; a distinct part; a particular com- 
modity or substance. (Oram.) One of the three 
words, a, an, the'. — v. t. [articled (-kid), -clixg.J 
To set fortli in distinct articles; to bind oy articles 
of covenant. — *;. i. To agree by articles; to stipu- 
late. — Artic'ulate, a. (i^at. ffist.) Formed with 
joints. Uistinctlv uttered; clear. — n. (Zool.) An 
animal having tlie body and members jointed. ^ 
T>. t. To joint: to unite by a joint; to form into ele- 
mentary sounds. — I', i. To utter articulate sounds; 
to enunciate. — Artic'Tila'tion, n. (Anat.) Junction 
of the bones of a skeleton. (Bot.) Connection of 
the parts of a plant by joints, as in pods; one of the 
joints, as in cane and maize; one of the parts be- 
tween joints. Utterance of the elementary sounds 
of language. 

Artillery, ar-tiKler-Y, n. Offensive weapons of war; 
cannon; great guns; ordnance; the body of men in 
charge of cannon, etc.; the science of artillery and 

Aryan, ilr^yan or ar''t-an, a. Pert, to an ancient 
people of Central Asia, from whom are supposed to 
descend the Celtic, Teutonic, Sclavonic, and other 
races; Indo-European or Indo-Germanic. 

As, az, adv. Like; similar to; of the same kind with; 
while; during; in the idea, character, nature, or 
condition of; for 'instance; by way of example; 

Aaafetida, -foetida, as-a-fet'Y-da, n. A fetid inspis- 
sated sap from India, used in medicine. 

Asbestus, as-bes'tus, -bes'^tos, n. (Min.) A fibrous 
variety of hornblende and pyroxene, making an 
incombustible cloth. 
Ascend, as-send', v. i. To mount; to go up; to rise. — 

V. t. To go upward upon; to climb. — Ascend' ant, 
a. Above the horizon; superior; predominant. — n. 
Superior influence; an ancestor. (AMrol.) The 
horoscope, or that degree of the ecliptic which 
rises above the horizon at the time of one's birth. — 
Ascend'ency, «. Authority; sway; control. — As- 
cen'^sion, «. Act of ascending; esp. the elevation of 
our Savior to heaven. — Ascent'', n. The act of ris- 
ing; way by which one ascends; an eminence or 
high place; the angle which an object makes with a 
horizontal line; inclination. 
Ascertain, as-ser-tan', v. t. [ASCERTAI^'ED (-tand'). 
-TAiNiNO.] To make certain; to establish; to find 
out for a certainty. 
Ascetic, as-set'ik, n. One who practices undue rigor 
or self-denial in religious things. — a. Unduly rigid 
or self-denying. 
Ascribe, as-krib', v. t. [ascribed (-kribd'), ascrib- 
IXG.] To attribute to, as a cause or quality; to im- 
pute; to assign. — Ascrip'^tion, n. Act of ascribing; 
thing ascribed. 
Ash, w. A genus of -forest, trees, pr their wood. — 
Ash^es, -ez, 9i. pZ. Earthy or mineral particles re- 
maining after combustion; — among chemists, and 
in composition, used in the sing., as, bone-ash, pearl- 
ash ; the remains of what is burnt; remains of a dead 
body.— Ash-Wednesday, -wenz''dl. The first day of 
Lent. — Ash'y, -I, a. Ash-colored; like ashes. 
Ashamed, a-shamd'', a. Affected by shame; abashed 

or confused by guilt, impropriety, etc. 
Ashlau:, Ashler, ash'ler, n. Free-stones as thev come 

from the quarry; hewn stones for facing walls. 
Ashore, a-shor', adv. On or to shore; on the land. 
Aside, a-sid', ac/w. On, or to, one side; apart. — n. A 

remark in an undertone or by way of parenthesis. 
Ask, ask, V. t.ori. [asked (askt), askixg.] Tore- 
quire; to inquire, petition, beg, claim, demand, intei^ 
rogate. — Ask'er, 7i. One who asks. — (Zoo/.) A 
water newt, eft. 
Askance, as-kans'', Askanf, adv. Obliquely ; side- 
ways; toward one corner of the eve. 
Askew, a-sku'', adv. Sideways; askant; awry. 
Aslant, a-slant', adv. At a slant; obliquely. 
Asleep, a-slep', adv. In a state of sleep; at rest; dead. 
Aslope, a-slop', adv. With a slope or descent. 
Asp, asp, Asp'ic, n. A small. 

hooded, poisonous serpent. 
Asparagus, as-par'a-gus, n. A 

culinary plant. 
Aspect, as'pekt, n. Look; mien; 
air; appearance to the eye or 
the mind ; position in rela- 
tion to the points of the com- 
pass. {Astrol.) The situation 
of one planet or star with re- 
spect to another. 
Aspen, as'pen, n. (Bot.) A spe- 
cies of poplar. — a. Pert, to 
the aspen. 
Asperate, as'per-at, v. t. To 
make rough. — Asperity, -per''- 
t-tY, n. Roughness of surface, 
taste, or sound; harshness of spirit and language; 
acrimony; moroseness. 
Asperse, as-pers', r. <. [aspersed (-persf)-' aspers- 
ing.] To bespatter with foul reports or injurious 
charges: to calumniate, slander, defame. — Asper''- 
sion, -shun, n. A sprinkling, as of water or dust, in 
a literal sense; spreading of calumnious reports; cal- 
Asphalt, as-falf, -phaKttun, n. Mineral pitch; com- 
pact native bitumen. 
Asphodel, as'fo-del, n. {Bot.) A perennial plant of 

the lily species: daffodil. 
Asphyxia, as-flks't-a, -phyx'y, -f, n. {Med.) Apparent 
death, or suspended animation. —Asphyx^ia'tion, 
n. The process of producing, or state of, asphyxia. 
Aspire, as-pir', u. i. [aspired (-pird''), aspiring.] 
To desire with eagerness; to rise. — Aspir^'ant, a. 
Aspiring ; ardently desirous of rising. — Aspir''ant, 
Aspir'er, n. One who seeks eagerly. — Aspirate, 
as'pT-rat, v. t. To pronounce with a breathing or 
full emission of breath, —n. A letter marked with 
a note of breathing; a mark of aspiration ( ' ) used 
in Greek; the rough breathing; a non-vocal conso- 


siin, cQbe, full ; moon, f(J6t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, tien, bojf boN, chair, g^ 




nant. — a. Pronounced with a rough breathing.— 
Aspira'tion, n. Pronunciation of a letter with a 
strong emission of breath; strong wish or desire. 

AsB, ass, n. iZool.) A quadruped of the horse family, 
having long, slouch- 
ing ears. A dull, 
stupid fellow : a dolt. 
— Asinine, as'I-nln, 
a. Belonging to, or 
having the qualities 
of, an ass ; stupid ; 

Assail, as-sSK, v. t. 
[assailed (-said'), 
tack with violence; 
to attack with a view 
to change feelings, 
conduct, etc.; to as- 
sault, beset, fall 

Assassin, as-sas''sin, n 


One who kills or attempts to 
kill bj^ secret assault. — Assas'sinate, v. t. To mur- 
der by, etc. — Assas'siaa'tion, n. Act of, etc. 

Assaalt, as-sawlt', n. A violent attack with blows, 
weapons, etc., or with words, arguments, appeals, 
and the like; invasion; incursion; onset; charge. 
{Lcuv.) An attempt or offer to beat another, but 
wiihout touching his person: if the blow takes ef- 
fect, it is bntteri/. — ?'. t. To attack with, etc. 

Assay, as-sa', )i. (Cheni.) Determination of the quan- 
tity of any metal, esp. gold or silver, in an ore or al- 
loy; the substance to be assayed; a_trial of weights 
arid measures. — r. t. [assayed (-sad'), assaying.] 
To subject to chemical examination, etc. — ;;. i. To 
attempt, try, or endeavor. 

Assemble, as-sem-'bl, v. t. [assemb.led (-sem'bld), 
-BEING.] To bring or call together; to convene; to 
congregate. — v. i. To meet or come together: to con- 
vene. — Assem'blage, -blej, n. Act of assembling; 
collection of individuals, or of particular things. — 
Assem'bly, blT, n. A company collected in one 
place, usually for some common purpose; meeting; 

Assent, as-sent', n. The act of assenting, admitting:, 
or agreeing to anything; consent. — v.i. To admit 
a thhig as true; to express agreement, or concession. 

— Assenta'tion, n. Assent b.y way of flattery or dis- 
simulation; adulation. — Assenta'tor, -ter, n.' A flat- 
terer or dissembler. — Assent'er, ?;. One who assents. 

Assert, as-sert', v. t. To affirm .positively; to aver, 
vindicate. — Assertion, -ser'shun, n. Act of assert- 
ing; vindication. — Assert'ive, -iv, a. Positive : af- 
firming confidently. — Assert'or, -er, n. — Assert'- 
ory, -er-T, a. Aflirming; maintaining. 

Assess, as-ses', i\ t. [assessed (-sest'j, -sessixg.] To 
tax: to value for taxation; to determine, fix, estimate. 

— Assess'able, a. Liable to be assessed. — Assess'- 
ment, n. Act of, etc. ; valuation ; sum charged. — 
Assess'or, -er, «. One appointed to assess persons 
or property. 

Assets, as'sets, n. pZ. Property in possession or 
money due, as opp. to liabilities. 

Asseverate, as-sev'er-at, v. t. To affirm solemnly. — 
Assev'era'tion, n. 

Assiduous, as-sid'u-us, a. Constant in attention ; sed- 
ulous; persevering; indefatigable. — Assid'uousness, 
??. — Assidu'ity, -I-tT, n. Constant application. 

Assign, a's-sm', v. t. [assigned (-sind'), assign- 
ing.] To appoint, allot, apportion; to fix, desig- 
nate. (Law.) To transfer, or make over to an- 
other : to transfer to, and vest in assignees, for the 
benefit of creditors. — ?). (Laiv.) One to whom prop- 
erty is transferred. — Assign'able, a. Capable of 
being, etc. — Assignation, -sig-na'shun, m. Act of, 
etc. : an appointment to meet at given time and place. 

— Assignee, as-si-ne', n. One to whom something is 
assigned. — Assignor, as-sTn'er, n. One who, etc. — 
Assign'ment, n. An allotting to a particular person 
or use. (Low.) A transfer of title by writing; writ- 
ing b}' v.'hich an interest is transferred: transfer of 
a bnnkrupt's property to assignees, tor creditors. — 
Assignor, -s'f-nor', n. (Law.) One who assigns or 
transfers an interest. 

Assimilate, as-sim'T-lat, J', f. To cause to resemble; 

to convert into a like substance. — v. i. To become 
similar. — Assim'ilable, a. Capable of, etc. — Ab- 
sim'ila'tion, n. Act of assimilating : state of resem- 
blance or identity ; conversion of nutriment into 
the substance of the body. — Assim'ilative, -tiv, a. 
Having power of assimilating. 

Assist, as-sist', V. t. To give support to; to succor.— 
v.i. To help; to attend. —Assistance, ?j. Aid : re- 
lief. —Assistant, a. Helping; auxiliary.— ?«. One 
who assists. 

Assize, as-siz', n. Lit.-, a sitting ; an order or regula- 
tion, esp. about the weight of bread, etc. (Law.y 
Periodical sessions of the superior courts in the 
counties of England, — usually in the pi. — r. t. 
[ASSizED (-sTzdO, -SIZING.] To fix the weight, 
measure, or price of, by authority. 

Associate, as-so'shT-at, v. t. To join in eompanv as a 
friend, companion, partner, etc.; to unite in the'same 
mass.— V. i. To unite in company, —a. Closely 
connected. — «. A companion; a mate. — Asso'cia'- 
tion, -sliT-a'shun, n. Union ; connection ; union of 
persons in a society for some particular purpose. — 
Asso'cia'tional, a. Pert, to an, etc. — Asso'cia'- 
tionalism, ». (Pldlos.) Doctrine of associationalists. 

— Asso'cia'tionalist, n. (Philos.) One who ex- 
plains the higher functions and relations of the 
soul by the association of ideas.— Asso'ciative, -tiv, 
a. Tending or pertaining to association. 

Assort, as-sorf, v. t. To distribute into classes; to 
furnish with all sorts. — Assorfment, w. Distribu- 
tion into classes ; things assorted. 

Assuage, as-swaj', v. i. [assuaged (-swajd'), assua- 
ging.] To soften; to allay or lessen, as pain or grief; 
to appease, soothe, alleviate. 

Assume, as-sum'. r. i. [assumed (-sumd'), assuming.] 
To take, or take upon one's self; to take for granted, 
or without proof ; to pretend to possess. — 1\ i. To 
claim unduly. — Assump'tion, -sum'shun, n. Act 
of assuming: sujjposition ; thing supposed. (Logic.) 
The minor proposition in a categorical syllogism. 
l^Eccl.) A festival in honor of the ascent oi the Vir- 
gin Maiy into heaven. _ 

Assure, a-shoor', v. t. [assured, (-shoord'), assur- 
ing.] To make sure or certain; to insure. (Law.} 
To covenant to indemnify for loss. — Assor'ance, n. 
Act of assuring: a declaration inspirmg credit: free- 
dom from doubt; firmness of mind; intrepidity; im- 
pudence; insurance: a contract to pay on occasion of 
a certain event, as lessor death. (Law.) Evidence of 
conveyance of property. — Assur'edly, adv. Cer- 
tainlj'; without doubt. 

Aster, as'ter, ?;. (Bot.) A genus of plants with radi- 
ated compound flowers. — As'terisk, n. The mark 
[*] in printing and writing. — As'terism, -izm, n. A 
small cluster of stars. (Printing.) Three asterisks 
[***] directing attention to a particular passage. 

— As'teroid, «. (Astron.) One of the small planets 
revolving between Mars and Jupiter. — As'tial, a. 
Belonging to the stars ; starry. — As'tral Lamp, n. 
An Argand lamp having the oil in a flattened ring. 

— Astrol'ogy. -jT, n. Science of predicting events 
by the aspects of the stars. — Astrol'oger, -jer, n. 
One who pretends to foretell events, etc. -Astro- 
logic, -loj'ik,-ical, a. Pert, to, etc. — Astron 'omy. n. 
Science of the heavenly bodies. — Astron'omer, n. 
One versed in astronomy. 

Astern, a-stern', adv. In, at, or toward, the hinder 
part of a ship; behind a ship. 

Asthma, as'ma or az'ma, n. Disordered respiration, 
with cough and difficult breathing. — Asthmafic, 
-ical, a. Pert, to, or affected by, etc. 

Astir, a-ster', adv. In motion or action. 

Astonish, as-ton'ish, v. t. To strike dumb with sud- 
den feor. terror, surprise, or wonder ; to amaze. — 
Aston'ishing, a. Of a nature to excite astonish- 
ment ; surprising; wonderful ; admirable : marvel- 
ous. — Aston'ishment, n. Confusion of mind from, 

Astound, as-townd', v. t. To astonish. 

Astraddle, a-strad'dl, adv. With the legs across a 
thing, or on different sides of it. 

Astray, a-stra', adv. Out of, or from, the right way ; 

Astrict, as-trikt', v. t. To constrict; to contract. 
i — Astric'tion, m. — Astringe, as-trinj', v. t. [as- 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fSre ; 6nd, eve, term ; Tn, ice ; 6dd, tone, 6r ; 





TRixGED (-trinid'), astrixoixg.] To bind fast, 
constrict, contract. — Astrin'gency, «. Quality 
of being astringent. — Astrin'gent, a. Binding; 
strengthening; — opp. to huutice. — n. A medicine 
causing vital~contraction in the organic textures. 

Astride, a-strid', adv. With the legs apart. 

Astute, as-tuf, a. Critically examining or discern- 
ing; shrewd; subtle; sagacious. — A8tate''ness, n. 

Asunder, a-sun'der, adv. Apart; separately. 

Asylum, a-si'lum, ii. ; pZ. Eng. Asy'lums, L. Asy'la, 
-la. A place of refuge; an institution for protection 
or relief, for the deaf and dumb, insane, etc. 

At. prep, denoting presence or nearness in place or 
time (at home. a< one o'clock); hence, relations of 
situation, condition, etc. (at war, at your service); 
after verbs of motion, direction towards (to run at). 

Ate, at, pret. of Eat. See Eat. 

Atelier. at'lT-a or a-tel'ya, n. An artist's workroom; 
studio. [F.] 

Athanasian, ath-a-na'zhan, a. Pert, to Athanasius, 
bisliop of Alexandria, or his doctrines. 

Atheist, a'the-ist, n. One who denies the existence 
of God. — A'^theism. n. Disbelief in, etc. — Atheist'- 
ic, -leal, a. Pert, to, etc. ; impious. — Atheist'^ically, 

Atheneum, -nxnm, ath-e-ne'um, 71.; pi. Eng. Athexe''- 
UMS, L. -x.EA, -ne^a. A literary or scientific associa- 
tion; a public library and reading room. 

Athenian, n-tlie^nT-aii, a. Pert, to Athens, in Greece. 

Athirst, a-therst', a. Thirsty; having keen desire. 

Athlete, ath'let, n. A contender for victory in trials 
of strength.— Athletic, -lefik, a. Pert, to wrestling, 
boxing, and other manly exercises; strong; vigorous. 

Athwart, a-thwawrt', prep. Across. — adv. Sidewise ; 
in a manner to cross and perplex. 

Atilt, a-tilf, adv. In the position of one making a 
thrust; with one end raised. 

Atlas, at'las, n. A collection of maps in a volume; 
a volume of plates or 
tables; a kind of silk- 
satin ; a kind of large 
d r a-w i n g paper. 
(Anat.) The first 
vertebra of the neck. 
[Atlas, a Greek 
demigod, said to 
bear the world on 
his shoulders, and 
whose figure w a s 
printed on the title- 
pages of old atlas- 

Atmosphere, at'^mos- 
fer, n. {Fhi/sics.) 
The aeriform fluid 
surrounding the 
earth ; pressure of 
the air on a unit of 
surface ; a gaseous 
medium. — Atmos- 
pheric, -fSr'ik, -ical, 
a. Relating to, ex- 
isting in, or dependent on, etc. 

Atom, at'om, n. An ultimate or constituent particle 
of matter; a molecule; anything extremely small. — 
Afomize, v. t. To reduce to atoms or to fine spray, 
-said of liquids.— At'omizer. n. {Med.) An instru- 
ment for converting liquids into spray for inhala- 
tion, local anaesthesia, etc. 

Atone, a-ton', v. i. [atoxed (-tond''), aton^ing.] To 
stand as an equivalent ; to make reparation, com- 
pensation, etc.; to expiate. — v. t. To reconcile; to 
answer or make satisfaction for. — Aton^able, a. — 
Atone''ment, n. Reconciliation ; reparation made 
by giving an equivalent for an injury. (Thcol.) 
The expiation of sin made by Christ. — Aton'er, n. 

Atrocious, a-tro'shus, a. Extremely heinous; enor- 
mously wicked ; flagrant. — Atro''ciou3ly, adv. — 
Atro'ciousness, Atrocity, a-tros'I-tT, n. Enormous 
wickedness or cruelty. 

Atrophy, afro-fT, n. A wasting away from lack of 

Atropia, a-tro'pT-a, Atro''pina, Afropine, -ro-pin, n. 
(Chem.) A very poisonous alkaloid extracted from 
the Atropa helladoima, or deadly nightshade. 


Attach, at-tach', v. t. [attached (-tachf), attach- 
IXG.] To bind, fasten, or tie; to take by legal au- 
thority; to lay hold on, aflfix, gain over, win. — v. i. 
To adhere. — Attach'ment, n. Act of, or state of 
being, etc. ; a passion or affection ; that by which 
one tiling is attached to another ; an adjunct. {Civ. 
Law.) A seizure by legal process ; the writ com- 
manding such seizure. — Attach^, at-ta-sha', n. 
One attached to the suite of an ambassador. [F.] 

Attack, at-tak', v. t. [attacked (-takf), attack- 
ing.] To falj^upon with force or with unfriendly 
words; to assail, invade. (Chem.) To begin to de- 
compose, by chemical agents. — n. A falling on with 
violence, or with calumnj^ satire, etc.; onset; in- 
road; charge. 

Attain, at-tah', v. i. [attained (-tand'), attain- 
ing.] To come or arrive, by motion or efforts; to 
reach. — v. t. To achieve ; to gain ; to equal. — At- 
tain'' able, a. Capable of being, etc. [finproperly 
used for obtainable, procurable.'] — Attain'abil''ity, 
Attain ''ableness, n. — Attain'ment, n. Act of, etc., 
that whicli_is, etc. ; pToficiency in knowledge. 

Attaint, at-tant', v. i. To stain; to disgrace. (Law.) 
To taint or corrupt, as blood; to taint, as the credit 
of jurors giving a false verdict. — n. A stain; spot. 
(Law.) A writ to inquire whether a jury has given 
a false verdict. (Far.) A wound on anorse's leg, 
made by over-reaching. 

Attemper, at-tem'per, v. t. [attempered (-perd), 
-pering.] To reduce, modify, or moderate, by mix- 
ture; to soften; to mix in just proportion; to make 
suitable; to adapt. 

Attempt, at-temt', v. t. To make trial of; to make 
an attack upon. — v. i. To make an effort or an 
attack. — n. An essay, trial, or endeavor. 

Attend, at-tend', v. t. To go or stay with; to wait on, 
accompany; to be united or consequent to. — v. i. To 
pay attention with a view to perceive, understand, or 
comply ; heed ; listen ; wait or be in waiting. — At- 
tend'ance, H. Actof, etc.; persons attending; atrain; 
a retinue. — Attend'ant, a. Present, or in the train; 
accompanying or immediatel}^ following, as conse- 
quential. (Laio.) Depending on, or owing duty or 
service io. — n. One who, or that which, etc. — At- 
tenf, a. Attentive. — Atten'tion, n. Act of attend- 
ing or heeding; act of civility; care; respect; regard; 
notice. — Attenfive, -iv, a. Full of attention ; 
mindful ; civil ; polite. 

Attenuate, at-tcn^u-at, v. t. To make thin, or less 
viscid; to make slender; to draw out or extend in 
length.—)!, i. To become thin, slender, or fine; to 

Attest, at-test', v. t. To bear witness to; to give proof 
of; to call to witness. — Attesta'tion, n. Testimony; 
esp., official testimony. — Attesfor, n. 

Attic, aftik, a. Pert, to Attica, in Greece, or to its prin- 
cipal city, Athens.— n. (Arch.) A story in the upper 
part of a house; a garret. 

Attire, at-tir', v. t. [attired (-tird'), attiring.] 
To dress, array, adorn. — n. Ciothes; dress. 

Attitude, aftT-tud, n. Posture or position. — Attitu'- 
dinize, v. i. [attitudinized (-nizd), -nizing.] To 
assume affected attitudes. 

Attorney, at-ter'nT, n. ; pi. Attor'neys. (Law.) One 
legally appointed by another to transact business for 
him. — Power of attorney. A document by which 
one is authorized to transact business for another. 

— Attor'neyship, n. Office of, etc. 

Attract, at-trakf, v. t. To draw or cause to tend to- 
ward; to cause to adhere or combine; to allure; to 
engage. — Attract'able, a. Capable of being, etc. — 
Attract'abil'ity, n. — Attract'ile, -il, a. Having 
power to attract. — Attraction, -trak''shiin. 71. 
(Physics.) An invisible power in a body by which it 
draws anything to itself; the power in nature tend- 
ing to draw bodies together or to produce cohesion; 
and resisting separation. Act of attracting; power 
or act of alluring, inviting, or engaging. — Attracf- 
ive, -iv, a. Having the power of, etc.; enticing; in- 
viting. — n. That which, etc. — Attracfively, adv. 

— Attractiveness, n. 

Attribute, at-trib''ut. v. t. To consider as belonging 
to; to ascribe to; charge. — Attribute, at ''trt-bilt, n. 
A thing that may be attributed; inherent quality; 
essential or necessary property. — Attrib^utable, a. 

sQn, cube, full ; moon, fd6t ; eow, oil ; linger or ink, then, boNboN, chair, get. 




Capable of being attributed. —Attribu'tion, n. 
Act of attributing; quality attributed. — Attrib'Ti- 
tive, -tiv, a. Relating to, or expressing, an attribute. 

— n. A word denoting an attribute or quality. 
Attrite, at-trif, a. Worn by rubbing or friction. — 

Attri'tion, -trish'un, w. Act of wearing by friction; 
abrasion; state' of being worn. 

Attune, at-tun', v. t. [.\TTUJfED (-tund'),'ATTUNiJfO.] 
To put in tune, arrange fitly, make accordant. 

Aubmn, aw'bern, a. Reddish brown. 

Auction, awk'shun, n. A public sale of propej-ty to 
the highest bidder; a vendue. — Auctioneer', -er', n. 
The person who sells, etc. — v. t. To sell by auction. 

Audacious, aw-da'shus, a. Contemning restraints of 
law, religion, or decorum ; bold in wickedness. — 
Auda'ciousness, -dacity, -das'I-ti:, n. Daring spirit 
or confidence; venturesomeness; presumptuous im- 
pudence; hiirdihood; boldness; effrontery ; contempt 
of law or moral restraint. 

Audible, aw'dl-bl, a. Capable of being heard. -^Au- 
dibil'ity, Au^'dibleness, n. Quality of being, etc. 
—Au ''dibly, ac/i^. — Au'^dience, n. Act of hearing; ad- 
mittance to a hearing ; an assembly of hearers. — 
Au'dit, 71. An examination, esp. of accounts, with 
the hearing of the parties concerned, by proper offi- 
cers. — V. t. To examine and adjust, as accounts. — 
Au'ditor, -er, n. A hearer or listener ; one author- 
ized to adjust accounts. — Au'ditorship, n. Office of, 
etc. — Au'ditory, a. Pert, to the sense of hearing. 

— n. An assembly of hearers ; audience. — Au''dit- 
ress, w. A female hearer. —Audito''rium, ii. The 
part of a theater, etc., occupied by the audience. 

Augean, aw-jc'an, a. Pert, 
to Augeus or his stable, 
containing 3,000 oxen and 
uncleaned for 30 years ; 

Auger, aw'ger, n. A car- 
penter's boring tool; an in- 
strument for perforating 
soils or rocks. 

Aught, awt, n. A whit; any- 
thing ; any part. 

Augment, awg-ment', v. t. 
lo enlarge or increase; to 
make bigger. — v. i. To 
grow larger. —Aug'ment, 
II. Enlargement by addi- 
tion ; increase. — Angmen- 
ta'tion, n. Act of, etc.; Auger, 

state of being, etc.; thing added.— Augmenfative, 
-tiv, a. Having the quality of, etc. 

Augur, aw'ger, n. {Rom. Antiq.) One who foretold 
future events by the actions of birds, or by other 
signs. One who pretends to foretell future events 
by omens; a soothsayer. — v. i. [augured (-gerd), 
AUGURING (-ger-ing)".] To conjecture by signs or 
omens; to prognosticate. — v. t. To predict or fore- 
tell; to betoken.— Au'guryjW. Foretelling of events, 
etc. ; an omen ; prediction. 

August, aw-gusf, a. 
Creating extraordi- 
nary respect and vene- 
ration ; grand ; impos- 
ing ; majestic. 

Au ' g u s t , aw'gust, n. 
The eighth month of 
the year. 

Augustine, aw-gusfin, 
Augustin''ian, n. 
{Eccl. Hist.) A monk 
of an order named 
from St. Augustine ; 
Austin friar; White 
friar. — Au'gustin''- 
ian, n. One who fol- 
lows St. Augustine in 
maintaining that grace 
is effectual from its 
nature, absolutely and 
morally, not relatively 

ASkl^f^kT'^* A sea- Great Auk. MZca«npe«««.) 
bird of the Alca family, including the penguin and 

A«nt, ant, n. A father's or mother's sister. 

Aural, aw'ra, a. Belonging to the ear. — An'rist. 
"V ^^^ skilled in disorders of the ear. — Au'ricle, 
-rl-kl, n. {Anat.) The external ear; one of two mus- 
cular sacs at the base of the heart ; a kind of ear- 
trunipet. — Aurlc'ular, a. Pert, to the ear or to the 
hearing ; told in the ear ; secret ; recognized by the 
ear ; traditional; pert, to the auricles of the heart. 

Auriferous, aw-rifSr-us, o. Yielding gold. 

Aurochs, aw'roks, n. (Zodl.) The bison of Poland. . 

Aurora, aw-ro'ra, w. The dawnof day; redness of 
the sky before sunrise; a species of crowfoot. — Au- 
ro'ra borea^'lis. A luminous meteoric phenomenon, 
supposed to be of electrical origin; northern lights. 
— A. austra'lis. Southern lights. 

Auscultation, aws-kul-ta'shun, n. Act of listening 
(Med.) A method of distinguishing diseases, esp 
in the thorax, by observing sounds. 

Auspicate, aw'spl-kat, v. t. To give a favorable turn 
to in commencing. — Au'spice, -spis, w. ; ^>Z. Au'- 
SPICES, -spt-sez. Omen ; augury ; patronage. — 
Auspicial, -spish'al, al Pert, to auspices. — Ausp'- 
cious, -spisii''us, a. Having . omens of success, , 
lucky ; propi_tious. — Auspi'dously, adv. 

Austere, aw-ster', a. Sour "with astringency ; severe in 
modes of judgment, living, or acting; harsh; stern. 

Australian ballot, aws-tra''lt-an-. (Law.) A system of 
voting, originally used in South Australia, in which 
the secrecy of the vote is compulsory and an official 
ballot is furnished by the government. 

Authentic, aw-then'^tik. -tical, a. Of approved au- 
thority ; to be relied on : true ; certain ; genuine. — 
Authen''ticate. v. t. To establish by proof; to render 
authentic ; to prove to be genuine. — Authen'tica'- 
tion. u. — Au'thentic'ity, -tis'I-tl, n. Quality of be- 
ing, etc. 

Author, aw^'ther, n. The beginner, former, or first 
mover of anything ; the creator ; one who writes a 
book.— Au^'thoress, n. A female a uthor. — Au'thor- 
ship, n. State of being, etc.— Authoritative, -thCr'T- 
ta-tiv, a. Having authority, or an air of authority ; 
positive. — Author^itatively, c^i-. — Author'ity. n. 
Legal or rightful power ; dominion ; persons exer- 
cising command — chiefly in the pi. ; influence of 
character, office, station, etc.; testimony; witness; 
the person who testifies; a precedent, decision of a 
court, official declaration ; a book, containing _ pre- 
cedents, etc. ; the name of its author. — Au'thoriza''- 
tion, n. Establishment by authority. — Au'thorize, 
V. t. [-IZED C-Tzd), -iziNG.] To clothe with author- 
ity, empower, legalize; to establish by authority; to 
give authority, credit, or support to. 

Auto, aw'to. An abbrev. of autonidbile, used as a pre- 
fix with the meaning of self-iuonng, self-proiielling ; 
as, an autoca.r, an auiotTUck, etc. ; hence, an auto- 
mobile car, carriage, truck, etc. 

Autobiography, aw''to-bi-og''ra-fI, n. A memoir of a 
person written by himself. 

Autochthon, aw-tok''thon , n. An aboriginal or native ; 
that which is original to a country. 

Autocrat, aw'to-krat, w. An absolute sovereign ; a 
title of emperors of Russia ; one invested with inde- 
pendent power and unaccountable for his actions. 

Auto-da-fe, aw-to-dii^fa, n. ; pi. Autos-da-fe, -toz-. 
Punishment of a heretic by burning, according to a 
Judgment of the Inquisition ; the sentence then read. 

Autograph, aWto-graf, n. One's own handwriting; 
an original manuscript. 

Automath, aw'to-math, n. A self-taught person. 

Automaton, aw-tom''a-ton,w.; pL -atoxs; J^.pl. -ata, 
-ta. A machine moved by intenor.machinery w iicli 
imitates actions of men or animals; any seU-mo iinrf 
machine. — Automatic, -ical, a. Pert, to, or per- 
formed by, an automaton; self-acting; esp. applied 
to machinery, in which movements commonlv madii 
by hand are made by the machine itself; not depend- 
ing on the will; acting involuntarily. — 

Automobile, aw'tn-mo'btl, a. Containing means of 
propulsion within itself; self-propelhng; as, an auto- 
mohile torpedo ; an automobile car. — n. An auto- 
mobile vehicle. _ • vi. _j: „„l* 

Autonomy, aw-ton'o-mt, n. Power or right of self- 

AutoBSV,™awaop-sY, n. Personal observation or ex- 
amination. {Med.) Post-mortem examination. 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; 6nd, eve, tSrm ; In, Ice ; 5dd, tSne, or ; 




AntotjTPe. aw'to-tip, n. A photograph made by au- 
totypy. — Autotypy, -tot''i-pt,o/- -to-ti'pT, ?i. A 
photoVraphic method of making transcripts of pic- 
tures, by potassium bichromate as a chemical agent. 

Autumn, aw'tum, n. The third season of the year; 
the season between sumuier and winter; fall. 

Auxiliar, awg-zil'yar, -iliarsr, -ziFya-rl, a. Helping; as- 
sisting; subsidiary r — Auxil'iary, «• A helper; assis- 
tant; in pi., foreign troops in the service of a nation 
at war. {Gram.) A verb helping to form the moods 
and tenses of other verbs. {Math.) A quantity in- 
troduced to facilitate some operation. 

Avail, a-val', v. t. [availed (-vald'), availing.] To 
profit; to assist; to promote. — v. i. To be of use; 
to answer the purpose. — n. Advantage ; benefit ; 
— pi., profits or proceeds. — Avail'able, a. Capable 
of being used to advantage; profitable; able to ef- 
fect the object; valid. 

Avalanche, av-a-lansh', n. A snow-slip; a mass of 
snow, ice, or earth sliding_down a mountain. 

Avant-courier, a-voN'koo-rer, n. One sent in advance 
to give notice of another's approach. 

Avarice, av'a-ris, n. Excessive love of money or gain; 
cupidity; greediness; covetousness. — Avari'dous, 
-rish'us, a. Actuated by avarice ; parsimonious ; 
miserly ; niggardl}'. 

Avenge, a-venj', r. t. [avenged C-venjd''), aven- 
ging.] To vindicate by inflicting pain or evil on the 
wrong-doer; to revenge. — Aven'^er, n. 

Avenue, av'e-nu, n. An entrance; way; passage; an 
alley or walk, usually shaded by trees; a wide street. 

Aver, a-ver', i'. t. [averred (a-verd''), averring.] 
To declare positively ; to asseverate, affirm, protest, 

Average, av'er-ej, a. Medial ; containing a mean 
proportion; according to the laws of average. — n. 
A contribution tea general loss; a mean proportion; 
medial qiiantitj^; a medial estimate or general state- 
ment from a comparison of specific cases ; duty 
payable to shipmasters on goods. — v. t. [aver- 
aged (-ejd), -AGING.] To reduce to a mean; to pro- 
portion. — V. i. To be or form a medial sum or 

Avert, a-vert', v. t. To turn or cause to turn off, 
aside, or away. — v. i. To turn away. — Aversion, 
-ver'shun, n. Opposition or repugnance ; dislike ; 
contrariety of nature; cause of repugnance; disgust; 

Aviary, a'''vY-a-rY, n. An inclosure for keeping birds. 
— A'^vicul'ture, -chur, n. Care of birds. 

Avidity, a-vid'Tt-tt, n.' An intense desire; strong ap- 
petite ; eagerness. 

Avocation, av-o-ka'shun. n. Act of calling aside, or 
diverting; the business that calls off. [Improperly 
used for vocation.'] 

Avoid, a-void', v. t. To keep at a distance from ; to 
make void ; to annul or vacate ; to shun. (Plead- 
iiuj.) To defeat or evade, as a plea. — v. i. (Law.) 
Tcf become void, vacant, or empty. — Avoid'less, a. 

Avoirdupois, av'gr-du-poiz', n. or a. A weight in which 
a pound contains 16 ounces, or 7,000 Troy grains. 

Avouch, a-vowch', v. t. [avouched (-vowchf), a- 
vorcHiNG.] To declare positively, maintain, sup- 

Avow, a-vow', V. t. [.wowed (-vowd''), avowing.] 
To declare openly; to own; to acknowledge; to con- 
fess. (Law.) To acknowledge and justifv, as an 
act done. — Avow'al, /i. An open or frank decla- 
ration. — Avow'edly, adi\ Openly. — Avowee'', n. 
■An advowee ; one who has the right to present to 
a benefice. — Avow'er, n. One who avows. — Avow'- 
ry, -rt, n. (Law.) Act of a distrainer of goods, who, 
in an action of replevin, avows and justifies the 
taking in his own right. 

Avulsion, a-vuKshun, n. A tearing asixnder; a frag- 
ment torn off. (Law.) Sudden removal of land 
from one man's estate to another's by an inundation, 
current, etc. 

Avuncular, a^vun'ku-lar, a. Of or pert, to an uncle. 

Await, a-waf, v7t. To wait or look out for ; to ex- 
pect; to be ready for. 

Awake, a-wak', v. t. [awoke, awaked (-wakf), 
AWAKING.] To arouse from sleep, or a state resem- 

bling sleep; to put intoaction. — v.i. To cease to 
sleep, etc. — a. Not sleeping; wakeful. — Awaken, 
awak'n, v. t. and i. [-ened (-nd), -ening.] To 

Award, a-wawrd', t'. t. Togive by judicial determina- 
tion; to assign by sentence; to adjudge. — v.i. To 
determine; to make an award. — ti. A judgment, 
sentence, or final decision; esp. decision of arbitra- 
tors ; paper containing such decision. 

Aware, a-war', a. Watchful ; vigilant ; hence, ap- 
prised; cognizant. 

Awash, a-^TOsh', a. "Washed bj- the waves or tide. 

Away, a-wa', adv. Absent; at a distance; continu- 
ously ; without intermission. — interj. Begone. 

Awe, aw, 7i. Profound fear with admiration or rever- 
ence; dread: veneration. — v.t. [awed (awd), aw- 
ing.] To strike with, etc. — Aw'fiil, a. Striking, or 
filling with, etc. — Aw'fully, ar/c — Aw'fulness, n. 
— Awe'struck, a. Impressed with awe. 

Aweather, a-weth''er, adv. (Naut ) On the weather 
side, or toward the wind; opp. to alee. 

Aweigh,a-wa'', ar/r. (Naitt.) Drawn out of the ground, 
and han^ng; atrip, — said of the anchor. 

Awhile, a-hw'iK, adv. A space of time ; for some 
time; for a short time. 

Awkward, awk-'werd, a. Wanting dexterity ; with- 
out skill; bungling; ungraceful; clumsy; uncouth. 

Awl, awl, n. A pointed instrument for making small 

Awn, awn, n. The bristle or beard of barley, oats^ 
grasses, etc. 

Awning, awn'ing, n. A covering from sun, rain, etc. 

Awoke'. See Awake. 

Awry, a-ri', a. or adv. Turned or twisted toward one 
side ; asquint. 

Ax, Axe, aks, n. An instrument for hewing timber,, 
chopping wood, etc. 

Axial. See Axis. 

Axil, aks'il, Axilla, -iKla, n. The armpit. 

Axiom, aks'I-um, n. A self-evident and necessary 
truth or proposition; an established principle; niax- 
ini; aphorism; adage. 

Axis, aks'is, n. ; pi. !Axes, aks'ez. The straight line 
on which a body revolves. (Anut.) The second 
vertebra of the neck; a tooth-like process, on its up- 
per surface, serving as a pivot on which the first 
vertebra turns. (Bot.) The central 
part or column of a plant, around 
which the other parts are disposed. 
A central or medial line between cor- 
responding parts. — Axle, aks'l, n. 
A .shaft, rod, bar, or spindle forming 
the axis of a pulley, drum, or wheel. — 
Ax'letree, n. A transverse bar con- 
necting the opposite wheels of a car- -o a„i„ 
riage. ^- '*^^''- 

Ay, Aye, at, adv. Yes; yea; — a word expressing assent- 
— ?!. An affirmative vote; a voter in the affirmative. 

Aye, a. adv. Always ; continually. 

Aye-aye, at'at, n. " (Zo'ol.) A nocturnal quadruped 
found i n Mada- 
gascar, s o called 
from its cry. 

Azalea, a-za'le-a, w. 
A genus of flower- 
ing plants. 

Azoic, a-zo'ik, a. 
Destitute of ani- 
mal life. — Azote, 
a-zot', n. (C/iem.) 
A gas unfit for, 
respiration; nitro-::^ 
gen. — Az'otize, = 
-tiz, V. t. [azo- 

TIZED (-tizd), AZO- 

TiziNG.] To im- 
pregnate with, 
etc. ; to nitrogen- 
Azure, azh'er or . Aye-Aye. 

a'zher, o. Of a sky-blue; cerulean. — n. The blue- 
color of the sky ;-tlie blue vault above. (Her.) Blue„ 
represented in engraving by horizontal lines. — 
Az'urite, -it, n. Blue caroonate of copper. 

siin, c*be, fijll ; moon, fS&t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, tiien, boNboN, chair,. get. 




B, be. The 2(i letter in the English alphabet ; a vocal 
labial consonant, the correlative of p. It is etymo- 
logically convertible with™, p, f, v, and w. (Mus.) 
The nominal of the 7th tone in the model major 
scale (scale of C major), or of the 2d tone in its rela- 
tive minor scale (scale of A minor). — B flat (Bb.) 
The tone or half step, or semitone lower than B. 

Baa, ba, n. The cry of sheep. — v. i. To cry or bleat, etc. 

Babble, bab'bl, v. i. [babbled (bab'bld), -bling.] 
To utter words imperfectly or unintelligibly ; to 
prate ; to chatter; to make a constant murmuring 
noise, as a stream running over rocks. — v. t. To 
prate. — n. Idle talk ; senseless prate ; unmeaning 
words. — Bab'bler, n. An idle talker ; a tell-tale. 

Babe, bab, Baby, ba-'bY, n. An infant; a doll. — a. 
Pert, to, or resembling, an infant. — v. t. [babied 
(ba'bid), babying.] To treat like a child.— Ba'by- 
hood, -h(%d, n. State of being, etc. — Ba'byish, a. 
Like, etc. ; childish. [disorder. I 

Babel, barbel, n. A confused combination of sounds; | 

Baboo, Baba, ba''b66, n. A title of respect among tht 
Hindoos. _ 

Baboon, bab-oon-', n. A large 
species of monkev. 

Baccalatireate, bak-ka-law'- 

The degree of bach- 
arts. — a. Pert, to, 

Baccarat, bak-ka- 
A French game of 


re-at, n. 
elor of 

ra', n. 

Bacchanal, bak''ka-nal, -na- 
lian, -na'^lt-an, n. A devotee 
of Bacchus ; one prone to 
drunken revels. — a. Pert, 
to reveling in intemperate 
drinking. — Bac'cbanals, 
-nalz, -nalia, -na'lT-a, n. x>l. 
Feasts in honor of Bacchus; 
drunken revels. — Bacchant, 
-kant-', n. : L. pi. Bacohak- 
TES, -kan'tez. A priest of 
Bacchus; a bacchanal ; a rev- 
eler. — Bacchante, -kanf, 
n. A priestess of Bacchus; a female bacchanal. — 
Bac'chic, -kik, -chical, a. Pert, to, etc.; jovial with 
intoxication ; drunken. 

Bachelor, bach''e-ler, n. A man who has not married; 
"ne who has taken the, first degree at a college or 
university ; a young Ttn'ight. 

Bacillus, ba-siKlus, n. ; pi. Bacilli, -li. A variety of 

Back, bak, n. Th'B upper or hinder part of au animal; 
part opp. to the front; the rear; outward or upward 
part of a thing, as opp. to the inner or lower part; 
part opp. or most remote; part out of sight. — a. In 
the rear ; remote. — adv. To the place whence one 
came; to or toward a former state, condition, etc.; 
away from the front ; again ; in return. — v. t. 
[BACKED (bakt), BACKixG.] To get upon the back 
of; to support or strengthen by aid; to force back- 
ward; to iurnish with a back. — v. i. To move or 
go back. — To back out, orb. down. To withdraw from 
an engagement. — To h. round, said of the wind 
when it shifts against the sun's course, indicating 
more bad weather. — To b. an anchor. (^Naut.) To 
lay down a small anchor ahead of a large one, to 
which it is fastened. — To b. astern. In rowing, to 
manage the oars in a direction contrary to the usual 
method. — To b. the oars, or back water. To row 
backward. — To b. the sails. To arrange them so as 
to take out the wind, and cause the sliip to move 
astern. — To b. up. To support or sustain. — Back'- 
er, n. One who, or that which, backs or supports 
another. — Back' ward, -wards, adv. With the back 
in advance ; toward the back ; on the back, or with 
the back downward ; toward or in past time ; from 

a better to a worse state ; in a reverse manner or 
direction ; contrarily. — Back'ward, a. Unwilling; 
averse ; dull of apprehension ; late or behindhand. 

— Back'bite, -bit, v. t. To speak evil of in the ab- 
sence of the person traduced. — v. i. To revile the 
absent. — Back'biter, n. — Back'bone, -bon, n. The 
spine ; firmness ; spirit ; grit. — ground, n. Ground 
in the rear ; a place of obscurity or shade. (Art.) 
The part of a picture behind, and subordinate to, 
the foreground. — house, n. A building behind a 
mam building ; a privy. — side, n. Hinder part of 
anything; therear. — slide, -slid', v. z. [backslid 
(-sWd),p.p.-SLiD'DEN,-SLiD ; -SLIDING (-slid'ing).] 
To fall back or off ; to apostatize. — slid'er, n. One 
who, etc. ; a renegade. — staff, n. An instrument 
for taking the altitude of heavenly bodies. — stairs, 
-starz, n. pi. Stairs at the back of the house ; a pri- 
vate or indirect way. — stair, a. Indirect ; illegiti- 
mate ; undue. — stays, -staz, n. pZ. {Naut.) Ropes 
from the top-mast heads to both sides of a ship, to 
support the mast. — stream, n. A current flowing 
up-stream. — sword, -sord, n. A sword with one 
sharp edge. — water, -waw-ter, n. "Water held back, 
as in a stream, by some obstruction ; water thrown 
back by the turning of a water-wheel, etc. — ^woods, 
-wfiSdz, n. pi. Forests or partly cleared ground on the 
frontiers of a newly settled country. — woods'man, 
n. An inhabitant of, etc. 

Backgammon, bak-gam'mon, n. A game played by 
two persons, upon a tray, with checkers and dice. — 
V. t. To defeat one's opponent, before he has moved 
his counters from the first quarter of the board. 

Bacon, ba'kn, n. Hog's flesh salted or pickled and 

Bacterium, bak-te'rt-um, n.; pi. Bacteria, -a. 
{Biol.) A microscopic vegetable organism, belonging 
to the Algae, usually in tTie form of a jointed rodlike 
filament and found in putrefying organic infusions. 
Bacteria multiply very rapidly. Certain species are 
active agents in fermentation, while others appear to 
be the cause of certain infectious diseases. — Bacte- 
riology, -oKo-jt, n. The science relating to bacteria. 

Bad, bad, a. [comp. ■worse (wers), superl. worst, 
(werst).] Wanting good qualities ; evil ; vicious. 

— Bad'ly, adv. — Bad'ness, n. 
Bad, Bade. See Bid. 

Badge, baj, n. A distinctive mark worn on the person. 

Badger, baj'er, n. A burrowing quadruped akin to 
the bear. {E. Laiv.) A person licensed to buy and 
sell corn. — v. t. [badgered (baj'erd), -er'ing.] 
To follow up, as the badger is hunted ; to pester or 

Badinage, bad-e-nazh', n. Light or playful discourse. 

Baffle, baffl, v. t. [baffled (-fld), -fling.] To treat 
with mockery; to check by shifts and turns ; to 
balk ; to frustrate, elude, foil. 

Bag, n. A sack or pouch, to hold or convey anything. 

— v.i. [bagged (bagd), bagging.] To put into a 
bag ; to seize or entrap. — v. i. To swell like a 
full bag.— Bag'ging, n. Cloth or materials for bags- 

— B a g ' g y , -gi, a. 
Bulged out, like a bag. 

— Bag'man, n. One 
who carries a bag ; a 
commercial traveler. — 
-pipe, n. A Scottish 
musical instrument, 
consisting of a leathern 
bag, and of pipes, into 
which air is pressed 
by the performer. 

Bagatelle, bag'a-tel, n. A 
trifle ; thing of no im- 
portance; a game 
played with balls on a 
board having holes at 
one end. 


11 VV Lli VJ. , LU t» U,l U. KJl ll-l JJtiOt LXlllC 1 XI UlLl UIIC ClJVJ.. 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; end, eve, term ; In, ice ; Odd, tone, 6r ; 




Baggage, bag'ej, n. The tents, clothing, utensils, etc., 
of an army; trunks, bags, etc., tor travelers; lug- 
gage. A strumpet : a playful, saucy young woman. 

Bagnio, ban'yo, n. A bath'-house : a brothel. 

Bah, ba, inierj. An exclamation of disgust or con- 
tempt; pah. 

BaU, bal, ?-. ?. [bailed (bald), bailing.] {Law.) To 
set free from arrest, becurity being given lor the ap- 
pearance of the person bailed ; to deliver, upon a 
contract that the trust shall be executed. To free 
from water. — n. (Low.) One who procures a pris- 
oner's release bv bccuiniiig surety lor his appear- 
ance in court: the security given. The handle of a 
kettle, etc. — Bailee, bal-c*, «. (Law.) One to whom 
goods are committed in trust. — Bail^er, -or,-er, ?i. 
(Law.) One who delivers goods to another in trust. 
— Bail'iff, n A sheriff's deputy, appointed to make 
arrests, collect fines, summon" juries, etc. — Bail'i- 
wick, n. (Laiv.) The precincts in which a bailiff 
has jurisdiction. 

Bait, bat, fi. Thing used to catch fish, etc.; a lure; 
enticement ; temptation ; refreshment taken on a 
journey. — v. t. To put on or in, as on a hook, trap, 
etc., to allure game; to feed upon the road: to pro- 
voke and harass. — v. i. To stop for refreshment on 
a journey. 

Baize, baz, n. A coarse woolen stuff, with long nap. 

Bake, bak, v. t. [baked (bakt), baking.] To heat, 
drj', and harden; esp. to prepare for food, In a close 
place heated. — y. i. To do the work of baking; to 
be baked. — Ba'ker, n. One who bakes bread, bis- 
cuit, etc. ; a portable tin oven. — Baker's dozen. 
Thirteen in number. — Barkery, -er-I, n. A place 
for baking ; bakehouse. — Backing, n. Quantity 
baked at once. 

Balance, baKans, n. An apparatus for weighing bod- 
ies; what is needed to equalize two quantities; act 
of comparing or weighing; an equipoise or just pro- 
portion; a regulating wheel in a watch. (Astron.) 
A sign in the zodiac , called Libra. [Improperly 
used for reinain/Jer.} — v. t. [balanced (-anst), 
-A.N'CIXG.J To bring to an equipoise; to weigh in a 
balance ; to render equal ; to compare in relative 
force, value, etc.; to settle and adjust, as an account. 
(Dancinij.) To move toward, and then back from, 
reciprocally. — c. (. To be in equipoise; to hesitate. 
( Dunciiig.) To move toward, etc. 

Balcony, bal'ko-nl, n. A gallery on the outside of a 

Bald, bawld, a. Destitute of natural covering, as of 
hair, feathers, foKage, etc.; destitute of ornament; 

.Balderdash, bawKder-dash, n. A worthless mixture, 
esp. badly mixed liquor; a senseless jargon of words; 

Baldric^ bawKdrik, n. A warrior's girdle. 

Bale, bal, n. A bundle of goods corded for transporta- 
tion. — i\ t. [baled (bald), baling.] To make up 
in a ba,le. 

Bale, bal, n. Misery; calamity ; sorrow. 

Bale, V. t. To free from water. See Bail. 

BaJeen, ba-len', ?i. Horny plates in the whale's 
mouth ; whalebone in plates. 

Balk, bawk, «. An unplowed ridge or strip; a great 
beam or rafter ; a hindrance ; disappointment. — 
i\ t. [balked (bawkt), balking.] To leave un- 
touched in plowing; to disappoint, frustrate. — p. i. 
To stop abruptly in one's course. 

Ball, bawl, 91. Any round body; any round or protu- 
berant part of the body; a familiar 
game. — v. i. [balled (bawld), 
balling.] To form, as snow, into 
balls, as on the feet. — Ball and socket 
joint. A joint in which a ball moves 
within a socket, giving motion in 
every direction. — BalK-cartridge, 
-kart-rij, n. A cartridge containing 
a bullet. 
Ball, bawl, n. A social assembly for 
dancing. — Ballad, baKlad, n. A pop- 
ular song in simple verses. — Ballet, 
baKla, n. A theatrical exhibition 
with music, dancing, etc. 
Ballast, baKlast, n. (NaiU.) Any heavy substance 
placed in the hold of a vessel, to steady it. Gravel, 

Ball and 
socket joint. 

broken stone, etc., solidifying the bed of a railroad- 

— V. t. To furnish with, etc. 

Balloon, bal-loon'. n. A bag, of silk or other light 
material, filled with hydrogen gas or heated air, so 
as to rise and float in the atmosphere. (Arch.) A 
ball or globe on the top of a pillar. (Chem.) A 
spherical glass receiver. 

Ballot, baKlot, n. Orig., a ball used in voting; a writ- 
ten or printed vote; act of voting by balls or tickets; 
amount of votes cast. — v. i. To vote or decide by 

Balm, bam, n. An aromatic plant ; resinous sap of 
certain trees; a f ragrf iit ointment; anything which 
heals, or soothes or mitigates pain. — r. t. To anoint 
with balm ; to assuage. — Balsam, bawKsam, n. An 
aromatic resinous substance, containing an essen- 
tial or volatile oil. (Bot.) A species of tree : an 
annual garden plant; balsamine. (Med.) A mix- 
ture of natural balsams and other articles. 

Balmoral, bal-mor'al, n. A thick woolen petticoat; a 
kind of shoe. ~" 

Baluster, baKus-tei, n. (Arch.) A small column or 
pilaster, supporting the rail of a staircase, etc.; the 
lateral part of the volute of the Iimic capital. _rim- 
properly called ban'nister.} — Bal'ustrade, -trad, n. 
A row of balusters, joined bv a rail. 

Bamboo, bam-boo', n. A kind of reed. 

Bamboozle, bam-boo'zl, v. t. To play tricks upon. 

Ban, ban, n. A public proclamation or edict ; inter- 
diction ; curse, ('i)l.) Public notice of a marriage 
proposed. — v. t. lo curse; to execrate. 

Banana, ba-na'na, n. A species of the plantain tree» 
and its fruit. 

Band, band, n. That with which a thins is bound or 
fastened. (Arch.) A flat, low molding; a continu- 
ous tablet or series of ornaments : the molding 
which encircles Gothic pillars and small shafts. See 
Molding. Means of union between persons ; a 
linen neck ornament worn hj clerg^'men; a com- 
pany united in design, esp. a body of armed men, or 
of musicians. — v.t. To bind, tie, or mark with a 
band; to unite in a troop, company, or confederacy. 

— v.i. To confederate.— Band'age, -ej, rt. A fillet 
or swathe, for binding up wounds, etc. — v. t. [band- 
aged (-ejd), -AGING.] To bind with, etc. — Bandeau, 
ban'do, w. ; pi. -deaux, -doz. A narrow band or 
fillet ; a head-dress. 

Bandana, -danna, ban-dan''na, n. A kind of silk or 
cotton handkerchief. 

Bandit, ban-'dit, n.; pi. -dits or -ditti, -diftt. A 
lawless fellow ; brigand ; outlaw. 

Bandoline, ban''do-lin, n. A gumimy preparation for 
holding the hair in place. 

Bandy, ban''dt, n. A hooked club for striking a ball; 
the game played with it. — v. t. [bandied (ban''- 
did), BANDYING.] To beat to and fro, as a ball; to 
give and receive reciprocally ; to exchange, toss 
about, agitate. — Ban'dy-leg, «. A crooked leg. 

Bane, ban, n. A deadly poison : a cause of injury. 

Bang, bang, v. t. [banged (bangd), banging.] To 
beat; to handle roughly. — n. A blow. 

Bang, Bangue, bang, n. A narcotic and intoxicating' 
drug made from Indian wild hemp. 

Bangle, ban'gl, n. An ornamental ring worn upon 
the arm, also upon the ankles in India and Africa. 

Banian, Banyan, ban''yan or ban-j-an', n. A Hindoo 
merchant; a morning gown; 
the Indian fig tree, whose 
branches drop shoots which 
take root and form new 

Banish, ban'ish, v. i. [ban- 
ished (-isht), -isHiNG.J To 
condemn to exile ; to drive 
away ; expel. — Ban'ish- 
ment, n. Act of, or state of 
being, etc. 

Ban'ister. See under Balus- 

Banjo, ban'jo, n. A stringed 
instrument, resembling the guitar and tamborine, 

Sank, bank, n. A ridge of earth ; steep acclivity; a 
flat; a shoal; abench of rowers in a galley. (Com.) 
Money deposited by a number of persons for a par- 
ticular use ; place for depositing money; a com- 

Banian tree. 

siin, cube, full ; moon, iSbi ; cow, oil ; Linger or ink, -ftien, boNboN, chair, get. 




pany concerned in a bank. — r. t. [banked (bankt), 
BANKING.] To raise a mound or dike about; to in- 
close or fortify with a bank; to cover, as a fire, with 
ashes, etc. — ?•. i. To deposit money in a bank; to 
carry on banking. — Bant'er, n. One who keeps a 
bank, receives and remits money, negotiates bills of 
exchange, etc. — Bank'ing, n. Business of a banker. 
— Bank'-blU, n. in Amer., a promissory note of 
a bank payable to bearer on demand; a banknote. 
In Eng., a iiote or bill of exchange, of a bank, pay- 
able to order. — book, n. Book for recording bank 

accounts. note,;;. A promissory note issued by 

a bank, payable to bearer on demand, intended to 
circulate as money. 

Bankrupt, bank'^rupt, n. A trader who breaks or 
fails; one unable to pay his debts. — a. Unable to 
pay debts; insolvent. — r. t. To break in trade; to 
make insolvent. — Bank^ruptcy, -si, n. State of be- 
ing, or act of becoming, etc. 

Sanner, ban''ner, n. A military ensign; standard of 
a prince or state; pennon. 

Banns, banz, n. -pi. Xotice given in church of an in- 
tended marriage. [See Ban.] 

Banquet, bank' wet, n. A least; entertainment. — v. t. 
To treat with, etc. — v. i. To regale one's self, feast. 

Bantam, ban'tam, n. A small variety of fowl, prob. 
fr. Bantam, in Java. 

Banter, ban'ter, v. t. [bantered (-terd), -teeing.] To 
play upon in words and m good humor ; to rally, 
ridicule, deride. — Ji. Humorous railery, pleasantry. 

Bantingism, ban''ting-izm, u. The reducing of corpu- 
lence by diet. 

Bantling,'^ banfling, -a. A small cliild ; an infant. 

Banyan. See Banian. 

Baobab, ba'o-bab, 71. The largest known tree in the 

world, a native of trop- 

ical Africa. 

Baptism, bap'tizm, n. 
Act of baptizing; the 
application of water, as 
an initiation into the 
visible church* of 
Christ. — Bap'tist, n. 
One who administers, 
«tc.; esp. John, the fore- 
runner of Christ. As a 
c o n t r. of Anabaptist, 
one who rejects infant baptism, and considers im- 
mersion essential. — Bap'tistery, -ter-1, «. A place 
where, etc. — Baptist'ic, -ical,_o. Pert, to, etc. — 
Baptize, -tiz', v. i. [baptized (-tizd'), -tizing.] To 
administer baptism to ; to christen. — Bapti^zer, n. 

Bar, bar, n. A long piece of wood, metal, etc., esp. 
as used for obstruction ; any obstacle which hinders 
or defends; a barrier; a bank at the mouth of a riv- 
er or harbor. (Law.) The railing about the place for 
counsel in courts of justice; the place in court for 
prisoners; the legal profession; a special plea con- 
stituting a sufficient answer to the plaintiff's action. 
Any trfljunal; the counter of a tavern, etc., over 
which liquors are sold. (Her.) A horizontal mark 
across the escutcheon. Measure. Measure. 

(Mild.) Alme drawn per- 
pendicularly across the 

staff. — V. t. [BARRED 

<bard), barring.] To 
fasten with a bar ; to 
hinder; prevent ; to ex- 
cept ; to cross with stripes or lines. — Barrage, bar''- 
rej, w. A mound or dyke, to raise the waters of a 
river. — Barricade, bar'rT-kad'', n. (Mil.) A defen- 
sive fortification to check an enemy ; any bar, ob- 
struction, or means of defense. — v. t. To fortify 
with any slight work. — Bar'rier, -rY-er, h. (Fort.) 
A kind of fence, to stop an enemy. A fortress on the 
frontier of a country; any obs'truction : limit or 
boundary. — Bar'rister, 71. A counselor admitted to 
plead at the bar. 
Barb, ba,rb, ri. Beard, or that which resembles it; the 
point that stands backward in an arrow, fish-hook, 
etc.; armor anciently worn by horses, set with iron 
spikes. — 1\ t. To furnish with barbs; to clothe, as a 
horse, with armor. — Bar^'ber, n. One who shaves the 
beard, and cuts and dresses the hair, of others. — 
V. t. To shave and dress the hair of. 




Bar. Double Bar. 

Barb, barb, n. A horse of the breed originating in 
Barbary; a pigeon, orig. fr. Barbary. 

Barbacan, -bican, bar-'bl-kan, 71. '(Fort.) An ad 
ranced work defending the entrance to a castle or 
city. An opening in the wall of a fortress for guns. 

Barbarian, bar-ba'rl-an, n. A man in his rude, unciv- 
ilized state; a cruel, savage, brutal man. — a. Pert. 
to, or resembling savages ; rude. — Bar'^barism, -ba- 
rizm, ?i. An uncivilized state or condition; speech 
contrary to the idioms of a language. — Barbarity, 
-bar'^T-tt, »i. Manners of a barbarian; savageness; 
cruelty. — Bar'barize, -riz, v. i. To become barba- 
rous; to use a foreign or barbarous mode of speech. 

— V. t. To make barbarous. — Bar'^barous, -rus, a. 
Uncivilized ; cruel ; contrary to the idioms of a lan- 
guage. — Bar'barously, ac/i". — Bar''barousness, n. 

Barbecue, bar''be-ku, n. A hog, ox, etc., roasted 
whole; an open-air entertainment at which animals 
are roasted whole. —t). t [barbecued (-kud),-CtJ- 
ING.] To dress and roast whole. 

Barberry, bar'^ber-rl. Berberry, ber^'ber-rY, h. (Bot.) 
A hedge plant, bearing berries used for preserves. 

Bard, biird, w. A Celtic minstrel; a poet. 

Bare, bar, a. Without covering ; naked ; with the 
head uncovered ; destitute ; empty ; mere; simple. 

— r. t. [bared (bard), baring.] To strip off the 
covering of ; to make naked. — Bare'ly, -lY, adv. 
Only; nearly; nakedly. 

Bare. The old preterit of bear ; now bore. See Bear. 
Barege, ba-razh'', 71. A thin dress stuff, of worsted or 

silk and worsted. 
Bargain, bar^'gen, ?i. An agreement concerning the 
sale of propertj"^ ; any agreement or stipulation ; a 
gainful transaction ; contract ; purchase. — v. t. 
[bargained (-gend), -gaining.] To transfer for a 
consideration. — v. i. To make a contract; to agree. 
Barge, barj, 7i. A pleasure boat; a large boat for pas- 
sengers or goods. 
Barium, ba'rT-um, n. The metallic basis of baryta. 
Bark, bark, n. The exterior covering of a tree; "the 
rind. — r. f. [barked (barkt), barking.] To strip 
the bark from; to peel; to cover or inclose with 
Bark, bark, n. The noise made by a dog. — v. i. To 

make the noise of dogs; to clamor. 
Bark, Barque, bark, n. (Kaut.) A three-masted ves- 
sel, having fore and 
main masts rigged 
as a ship, and the 
mizzen as a schoon- 
er ; any small ves- 
seL — Bark'entine, 
-ten, n. A three- 
masted vessel, with 
foremast rigged 
like a ship, main 
and mizzen masts 
like a schooner. 
Barley, bar'lY, n. A 
gram, of the grass Bark. 

family, used for making malt. 
Barm, barm, ?;. Foam rising upon fermenting malt 
liquors, used as leaven in bread. — Barm'y, -Y, a. 
Containing barm or yeast. 
Barn, biirn, w. A building for storing grain, hay, etc.; 

also for stabling cattle and horses. 
Barnacle, bar'^na-kl, w. A shell-fish. — A species of 
goose found in the northern se^s. — pi. (Far.) An 
instrument to put upon a horse's nose, to confine 
him. A pair of spectacles. 
Barometer, ba-rom'e-ter, n. An instrument for de- 
termining the weight of the atmosphere, changes of 
weather, or height of an ascent. — Baromet'ric. 
-rical, a. Pert, to, or made bv, etc. 
Baron, bar'un, n. In Eng. the lowest title of nobility; 
one ranking between a viscount and baronet. (Laiv.) 
A husband. (Cookery.) A double sirloin. — Bar'on- 
age, 11. The whole body of barons or peers; the dig- 
nity of, etc. ; the land which gives title to, etc. — 
Baf^oness, n. A baron's wife or lady. — Baro''nial. 
a. Pert, to, etc. — Bar'ony, «. The lordship, hon- 
or, or fee of, etc. — Bar'onet, n. A dignity next 
below a baron and above a knight. 
Barouche, ba-roosh'', «. A four-wheeled carriage, with 
a falling top. 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, f^re ; 6nd, eve, term ; Yn, Ice ; 6dd, tone, 6r ; 




Barrack, bar'rak, n. {Mil.) A hut or house for soldiers, 

esp. in garrison. 
Barrator, bar'ra-tSr, n. An encoura^er of litigation; 

a shipmaster who commits fraud in its management. 

— Bar'ratrous, -trus, «. {Law.) Tainted with, etc. 
— Bar'ratry, -trt, n. (Luiv.) Practice of encour- 
aging law-suits. (Com.) A fraudulent breach of duty 
by a ship-master or mariners. 

Barrel, bar'rel, n. A round, bulgy vessel or cask; 
the quantity contained in it, — varying from .31.V to 
3(j gallons; any hollow cylinder. — i-. /. ■ [bakeeled 
(-reld), -RELING.] To put or pack in, etc. 

Barren, bar'ren, a. Incapable of producing offspring; 
producing nothing: sterile; dull: empty. — n. Ele- 
vated lands, producing small trees, but not timber. 

Barricade, Barrier, Barrister. See under Bar. 

Barrow, bar'ro, n. A hand-carnage. A hog, esp. a 
male hog castrated. A mound raised over graves, 
esp. of those fallen in battle. 

Barter, bar'ter, v. i. [bartered (-terd), -terixg.] 
To traffic by exchanging one commodity for another. 
— v.t. To exchange, or give in exchange. — n. Act of, 
practice of, etc.; thing given in exchange; dealing; 

Bartizan, bar'tt-zan', n. A small overhanging tur- 
ret, projecting from angles of towers, parapets, etc. 

Baryta, ba-ri'ta, n. (^Min.) The heaviest of the earths. 

— Bary'tum, Ba'rium, -rT-um, n. A metal, the base 
of baryta. 

Barytone, Baritone, bar''I-ton, a. (Mus.) Grave and 
deep. ( Gr. Gram.) jVot marked with an accent 
on the last syllable. — n. {JIi(.<-.^ A male voice be- 
tween bass and tenor. {Greek Gram.) A word 
unmarked on the last syllable, the grave accent be- 
ing understood. 

Basalt, ba-sawlf, n. {3Iin.) A rock of igneous origin, 
usually of a greenish-black color. A kind of black 

Bas-bleu, ba-ble'' or ba-bloo'', n. A literary lady; a 

Base, has, a. Of humble birth and low degree; il- 
legitimate by birth ; low in value or 
estimation ; morally low ; unworthy ; 
mean ; vile ; not refined ; deep or grave 
in sound. {Law.) Not held bv hon- 
orable service. — Base or Bass, bas, «. 
{Mits.) Deep or grave in sound. — n. The 
lowest musical part ; the gravest male 
voice. — Bassoon, bas-soon'', n. {Mus.) 
A wind instrument, resembling a flute, 
having a very low note. — Bass-viol, 
bas'vi'ol, n. (Mus.) A stringed instru- 
ment for the Dass part ; violoncello.^ 
Bas-relief, ba-re-lef. Bass-relief, bas''- 
re-lef, Bas''so-rilie''vo, -re-le-a''vo, n. 
Sculpture, whose figures do not stand 
out far from the ground on which they 
are formed. — Base''ment, n. {Arch.) 
The lowest story of a building. 

Base, bas, n. The bottom; the part of a 
thing on which it stands. {Arch.) The 
part of a column between pedestal and 
shaft ; the lower projecting part of a 
wall. {Cheni.) The principal element 
of a compound. {D/jeinrj.) A substance used as a 
mordant. {Mil.) A protected tract of country, from 
which an army conducts operations. {Surv.) A line 
from which to compute the distances and positions 
of outlying points. — v. t. [based (bast), bas'.xg.] 
To put on a base or basis; to found. — Basis, ba'sis, 
n. ; pi. Ba'ses, -sez. That on which a thing rests ; 
groundwork or first principle. 

Bashaw, ba-shaw'. Pacha, Pasha, pa-shaw'', n. A 
Turkish title of honor; a haughty, imperious per- 

Bashful, bash'ful, a. Having a down-cast look; very 
modest. — Bash^fully, adv. — Bash'fulness, n. 

Basement. See under Base. a. 

Basic, Basis, etc. See under Base. n. 

Basilic, ba-ziKik, Basilica, -ziKl-ka, n. A king's pal- 
ace; a large hall or court of justice; a church, chapel, 
or cathedral. 

Basilisk, baz'i-lisk, n. A fabulous serpent, whose 
breath and look were thought to be fatal. {Jf^at. 
Hist.) A genus of lizards. 


Basin, ba'sn, n. A hollow vessel, to hold water; any 
hollow place containing water [Geol.') A forma- 
tion, where the strata dip inward toward the center. 
(Phf/sical Geoff.) A circular or oval valley; the 
tract of country drained by a river. 

Bask, bask, v.i. [basked (baskt), baskixg.] To lie 
in warmth; to be exposed to genial heat. — v. t. To 
warm with genial heat. 

Basket, bas'ket, n. A vessel made of twigs, rushes, 
etc., interwoven. — Bas'ketfnl, n. The contents of, 

Basque, bask, n. A part of a lady's dress, resembling 
a jacket. 

Bass, bas, n. sing. & pi. A food fish of several species. 
The tiel tree, or its bark, used for mats, etc. 

Bass, Bassoon, Bass-relief. See under Base, a. 

Bast, bast, H. Inner bark of the lime tree; matting, 
cordage, etc., made of the bark. 

Bastard, bas'terd, n. An illegitimate child; an infe- 
rior quality of brown sugar; mold for draining su- 
gar. — a. IllegitimatS*'; spurious ; adulterate. — Bas'- 
tardy, -d1, n. State of being, etc. 

Baste, bast, r. t. To beat ; to cudgel ; to sprinkle 
flour and salt and drip butter or fat on, as on meat 
in roasting. 

Bastile, bas-teK, n. Orig., a wooden tower used in 
warfare ; any tower or fortification ; esp. an old 
fortification m Paris, used as a state prison, but de- 
molished in 1789. _ 

Bastinade, bas-tl-nad', -nado, -na'do, n. A beating or 
cudgeling; esp. the Chinese and Turkish punish- 
ment of beating on the soles of the feet. — v. t. To 
beat with a cudgel, esp. on the soles of the feet. 

Bastion, basfyun, n. {Fort.) A projecting part of the 
main inclosure, consisting of faces and the flanks. 

Bat, bat, n. A club, used in playing ball ; a sheet of 
cotton prepared for filling quilts; a piece of a brick. 
— V. i. To manage a bat, or play with one. 

Bat, n. A winged mammal hav- 
ing a body like a mouse. 

Batch, bach, n. The quantity • 
of bread baked at one time; 
any business dispatched at 
once; any quantity of things 
so united as to have like qual- 

Bate, bat, v. t. To lessen ; to 
abate; to allow by way of deduction. 

Bateau, bat-o'', n.;pl. B.Iteai'x, bat-oz''. Alight boat. 

Bath, biith, n., pi. Baths, bathz. A place to bathe in; 
act of exposing the body to water or vapor. {Chem.y 
A medium, as heated sand, through which heat is 
applied to a body. — Bathe, batlie, ?■. i. [bathed 
(bathd), bathing.] To wash by immersion; to mois- 
ten with a liquid. — v. i. To be, or lie, in a bath; to 
immerse. — n. A bath. 

Bathos, ba'thos, n. {Rhet.) A ludicrous descent 
from the elevated to the mean. 

Baton, ba-tox'', Batoon, ba-toon', n. A staff or trun- 

Batrachian, ba-tra''kt-an, a. Pert, to animals of the 
frog tribe. 

Battalion. See under Battle. 

Batten, bat'n, v. t. [battened (-tnd), -tening.) 
To fatten; to fertilize, as land. — v. i. To grow fat, 
live in luxury. — 7i. A narrow piece of board, or 
scantling ; the movable bar of a loom. — v. t. To 
fasten with battens. 

Batter, bafter, v. t. [battered (-terd), -teeing.] To 
beat repeatedly and with violence ; esp. to attack 
with artillery; to wear with beating or by use. — n. 
{ Cookery.) A mixture of several ingredients, beaten 
up with some liquid. — Bat''terer, n. — Baftery, 
-ter-T, n. Act of battering. {Mil.) Any place where 
cannon are mounted; a body of cannon taken col- 
lectively. {Elec.) A number -of coated jars,_con- 
nected, to be charged and discharged simultane- 
ously. ( Galv.) An apparatus for generating galvanic 
electricity. {Laiv.) Unlawful Beating of another. 

Batting, bat' ting, n. Cotton or wool in sheets; bat. 

Battle, bat'tl, n. A fight between enemies or oppos- 
ing forces; combat; engagement. — v.i. [battled 
(;bat''ld), battling.] To contend in fight. — Battal- 
ion, -taKyun, n. A body of infantry, containing 
several companies, and less than a regiment. 


sfin, cabe, full ; moon, fd&t ; eow, oil ; linger or igk, tiien, bouboN, chair, get. 





Battledoor, bat'i. Jor, n. An instrument -with a 
handle and fiat board, used to strike a shuttle-cock. 

Battlement, baf'-ment, n. (Arch.) An indented 
parapet, orig. ..^ed on 

Battue, baftoo, n. Act of 
beating woods, etc., for 
game ; the game itself. 

Bauble, Bawble, baw'bl, n. 
A trifling piece of finery; 
a gew-gaw. 

Bawd, bawd, n. One who 
keeps a brothel, and con- 
ducts criminal intrigues. 

— V. i. To procure women 
for lewd purposes. 

Bawl, bawl, v. i. [bawled (bawld), rawlixg.] To 
cry with vehemence. — u. t. To proL_iim by outcry. 

— n. _A loud, prolong "(1 cry. 

Bay, ba, a. Red or re^.-ish, inclining to a chestnut 

Bay, ba, n. An inlet of the sea. (Arch.) A division 

in the arrangement of a building ; an inclosed 

place^ in a barn, for hay. 
Bay, ba, «. The laurel tree ; pi., an honorary crown, 

anciently made of laurel branches. 
Bay, ba, n. Act of facing an antagonist when escape 

is impossible. — 2;. i. To bark, as a dog, at his game. 

— v.t. To bark at. 

Bayonet, ba'o-net, n. (Mil.) A dagger fitted upon the 
muzzle of a gun. — r. t. To stab with, or drive by, 

. etc. _ 

Bayou, Woo, n. The outlet of a lake; a channel for 

Bazaar, Bazar, ba-zar^', n. In the East, a market-place, 
or assemblage of shops; a hall or suite of rooms for 
the sale of goods. 

Be-, prefix, has sometimes an intensive force, as he- 
sprinkle. Prefixed to nouns or adjectives, it often 
has the meaning to make, and transforms them into 
verbs : thus Bedim, Befool, mean to make dim, 
to make a fool of. Sometimes it has the meaning of 
hy, as beside. For words beginning with Be- not 
found in this vocabulary, see the original word : thus, 
for Bedaub, Bedim, etc., sep Daub, Dim, etc. 

Be, f. i. and auodliary. [imp. was ; ??. p. beex ; p. pr. 
and r6. n. being.] To exist logically, or actually; 
to exist in some particular state or relation ; to pass 
from one state to another; to become. — Be'ing, n. 
Existence, state, condition; anything existing. 

Beach, bech, w. A sandy or pebbly shore; strand. — 
V. t. To run upon a beach. 

Beacon, be'kn, n. A fire to signal an enemy's ap- 
proach. (N^aut.) A signal or mark near the shore, 
or in shoal water, to guide mariners. That whicli 
warns of danger. — v. t. [beaconed (be'^nd), 
-coxixG.] To give light to, as a beacon. 

Bead, bed, n. A little ball, to be strung on a thread, 
and worn for ornament, or for counting pravers, 
etc.; any small globular bodv. — r. t. To ornament 
■with beads. — Bead'ing, n. "(AYch.) A molding in 
imitationof beads. —Bead -'-roll, -rol, n. (Rom. Cath. 
Church.) A list of those for whom prayers are to 
be counted off on beads; a catalogue in general. — 
Beadsman, bedz''man, n. ; pi. Beadsmen. One em- 
ployed in praying, who drops a bead at each prayer. 

Beadle, be'dl, n. A messenger or crier of a court; an 
officer in a university, who precedes processions ; 
an inferior parish officer. 

Beagle, be'gl, n. A small hound, used in hunting 

3eak, bek, n. The bill or nib of a bird, turtle, etc.; 
anything pointed or projecting like a bea^. 

Beaker, bek'er, n. A large dririking-cup or vessel. 

Beam, bem, n. Any large, long piece of timber: a 
main timber of a building, shjp, loom, plow, etc.; 
the part of a balance, from which the scales hang; 
pole of a carriage; shank of an anchor; a collection 
of parallel _rays from a luminous body. — v. t. 
[beamed (bemd), beam[N(;.] To send forth; to emit. 
— »;. I. To emit rays of light; to shine. 

Sean, ben, w. A leguminous plant, and its seed. — 
Bean'-fly, n. A fly found on bean flowers. — goose, 
n. A migratory goose, feeding on beans. 

Bear, bar, v. t. [imp. bore (formerly b.\re); p.p. 

Black Bear. 

born, BORX"; bearing.] To support or 
sustain, convey; to possess and use; to carry, wear; 
to entertain ; to endure, tolerate, suffer; to be an- 
swerable for; to carry on, o ■ maintain ; to admit or 
be capable of ; to behave, uct ; to supply with ; to 
bring forth, give birth to. — v. i. To produce, be 
fruitful; to press; to take effect; to be situated, 
with respect to something else; to relate or refer to. 

— Bear'er, n. One who, or that which, etc. ; one who 
assists in carrying a body to the gr:ive. (Com.) One 
who holds a cneck, note, draft, etc., lor the payment 
of money. — Bear'ing, n. Manner in which one 
bears himself; deportment; situation of an object, 
with respect to another object; relation; influence; 
tendency; act of giving birth. (Arch.) Span of a 
beam, rafter, etc. (Her.) An emblem or charge in 
an escutcheon. (Much.) The part in contact with 
which a journal moves; part of a shaft or axle in 
contact with suppoits. 

Bear, bar, «. A quadru ped of tlie genus Ursus; a brutal, 
roughly-behaved per- 
son. (Stock Exchange.) 
One who contracts to 
deliver, at some future 
time, stocks which he 
does not own, and 
therefore seeks to pull 
down their value, — 
opp. to a bull, who con- 
tracts to take stocks, 
and seeks to raise their 
value. (Astron.) One 
of two constellations 
in the northern hemisphere, the Greater and Lesser 
Bear, or Ursa Major and Ursa Minor. — v. t. 
[beared Cbard), bearing.] To depress the- value 
of (stocks) ; to depreciate by alarming rumors. 

Beaf d, herd, Ji. The hair on the chin and adjacent 
parts of the face ; the long hairs on a plant ; the 
awn. — V. t. To seize or pull by the beard ; to set at 
defiance. — Beard'ed, a. — Beard'less. a. 

Beast, best, n. A four-tooted animal ; a brute ; a de- 
graded or brutal man. — Beast'ly, -It, Bestial, besf- 
yal, a. Pert, to, having the form or nature of, or 
resembling, a beast ; filthy ; carnal ; depraved. — 
Beasfliness, »?. — Bestiality, -yaKt-tt, m. Brutism; 
beastliness; unnatural connection with a beast. — 
Bes'tialize, v. t. To make bestial. — Bes'tially, adv. 

Beat, bet, w. ^ [beat; beat or beaten; beati.xg.] , To 
strike repeatedly, pound, maul, drub ; to break or 
form by beating; to scour or range over; to overcome 
in contest, conquer, vanquish ; to indicate by beat- 
ing a drum. ^17. i. To strike repeatedly; to throb, 
pulsate; to come or act with violence; to be in agita- 
tion or doubt, (yuut.) To sail against the direc- 
tion of the wind. — w. A stroke; blow; a recurring 
stroke; pulsation. (J/((s.) The rise or fall 0+" the 
hand or foot, in regulating time; a transient grace- 
tone, struck immediately before the one it orna- 
ments. A course frequently gone over; a place of 
habitual resort.— re. Weary; tired; fatigued.— Beaf- 
ing, n. Act of giving blows ; punishment by blows ; 
pulsation ; throbbing. (Xaut.) Sailing against the 
wind by tacks. — Beaten, bet'n, p. a. Smoothed by 
beating; worn by use. — Beat'er, n One who, etc. ; 
an instrument for pounding. 

Beatify, be-at't-fi, v. t. [beatified (-fid), -eying.] 
To pronounce or regard as happy. (Rom. Cath. 
Church.) To declare that one is received into heaven. 

— Beat'itude, -tud, n. Felicity of the highest kind; 
pi. the declarations of blessedness made by our Sav- 
ior in regard to particular virtues. _ 

Beau, bo, n. ; pi. F. Beau.x, E. Beau.s, boz. A man of 
dress: a dandy; a fine, gay man; a lady's attendant 
or suitor. —Beau ideal, -i-de'al. A conception of 
perfect or consummate beauty. [F., beautiful ideal.] 

— Beaumonde.-moNd''. The fashionable world. [F., 
fine world.] — Bel-esprit, bel'', n. ; pi. Beau.k- 
ESPRITS, bo-zes-pre'. A fine aenius; a man of wit. 
[F.] -Belle, bel, n. A young lady, beautiful and ad- 
mired.— Belles-lettres, bel-let'tgr, n. pi. Polite or 
elegant literature, esp. poetry and rhetoric. [F.] 

Beauty, bu'tT, n. An assemblage of graces or pleas- 
ing qualities: a particular grace, feature, excellence,. 
etc.; a beautiful person, esp. a beautiful woman. — 

♦ am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; fend, eve, term ; In, ice ; 5dd, tone, Sr ; 




Beau'tifal, -tT-ful, a. Handsome; prcttv. — Beau'- 
tifully, a(/r. — Beau'tify, v. t. [beautified (-tid), 
-KYi.Mi.] To make beautiful; to adoiu; ornament; 
embellish. — v. i. To become beautitul. 

Beaver, be'ver, n. An amphibious, rodent quadru- 
ped; its fur: a hat made of the fur ; a cloth, some- 
times felted, for makinj; overcoats, hats, etc. Part 
of a helmet which the wearer could raise or lower 
to eat and drink. 

Becalm, Bechance. Becharm, etc. See Be-, prefix. 

Became. See Become. 

Because, be-ka wz', conj. By or for the cause that ; for 
the reason that. 

UecKon, beK'u, v t. [beckoned (bek'nd), -oning.] 
To make a sign by noddinij,. etc. — v. t. To make a 
siguiticant sign to ; to summon. 

Become, be-kum'', v. i. limp, became; p.p. become; 
BECOMING.] To pass from one condition to another; 
to enter into some new state. — v. t. To suit or be 
suitable to, be congruous with, befit. — Becom^ing, 
a. Appropriate or fit ; graceful; befitting. — Be- 
com^ingly, ac/v. — Becom'ingness, /(. 

Becquerel rays, bek-ker-eK. An invisible radiation 
Irum the salts of uranium and a few similar sub- 
stances, capable of producing photographic effects. 

Bed, n. Something to sleep or rest in or on; matrimo- 
nial connection ; marriage ; a plat of ground in a 
garden; bottom of a bodv of water. (GeoL) A 
layer, seam, or stratum. I'lace on which anything 
rests. — V. t. To place in a bed; to plant and inclose 
or cover; to put in a place of rest and security. — v. 
i. Togo to bed. cohabit. — Bed^ding, w. Materia,ls 
for a bed, for man or beast. ( GeoL) Position of 
layers, etc. — Bed'rid, -ridden, -rid-n, a. Confined 
to' the bed by age or infirmity. — Bed'hug, n. An 
offensive bug, infesting beds. — chamber, ??. A 
room for, etc. — clothes, -clotiz, ?i. Sheets, blank- 
ets, etc., for, etc. — fellow, n. One who sleeps with 
another. — piece, -plate, n. (Much.) The founda- 
tion-framing or block ; base-plate ; sole-plate. — 
-room, 11. An apartment for, etc. — side, n. Side of, 
etc. — stead, -sted, n. Frame for supporting, etc. — 
-tick, n. A cloth case, to inclose the materials of, 
etc. — time, n. Hour for going to bed. 

Bedlam, bed'iam, n. A madhouse; scene of uproar. 

Bedouin, bed'oo-en, n One of the nomad Arab tribes 
of Arabia and Africa. 

Bee, be, n. (Entom.) A four-winged insect that makes 
wax and honey; an assemblage to labor for others. 
[Amer.] pi. (Naut.) Pieces of plank bolted to the 
outer end of the bowsprit. 

Beech, bech, n. A tree of the genus Fagus. — Beechen, 
bech'^n, a. Consisting of, or pert, to, the wood or 
bark of, etc. — Beech'mast, ?;. The nuts of, etc. — 
-Oil, n. An oil expressed from the mast. 

I, neck ; 2. shaking-piece; I 10, round; 11, leg; 12, 
3, chine; 4, ribs ; 5, clod; foot ; 13, udder ; 14, shin; 
fi, brisket ; 7, flank ; 8, | 15. cheek, 
loin, sirloin; 9, rump; 

Beef, bef, n. An animal of the genus Bos, including 
the bull, cow, and ox, in their full-grown state; the 
flesh of bovine animals, when killed. — a. Pert, to, 
or consisting of the flesh of, etc. — Beeves, bevz, n. 
pi., when the animals are meant. — Beefsteak, -stak, 
n. A slice of beef for broiling. 

Been. See Be. 

Beer, ber, n. Fermented liquor made from malted 
grain, with hops and other bitter flavoring matters; 

a fermented extract of the roots, etc., of spruce, gin- 
ger, sassafras, etc. 
Beet, bet, n. A plant having a succulent root used for 

todd and for making sugar. 
Beetle, be'tl, n. A heavy mallet or wooden hammer. 
(Zool.) A coleopterous insect having four wing>, 
the outer pair being stiff cases to cover the others 
when folded. A machine to produce figured fabrics 
by pressure from corrugated rollers. — v. t. To pro- 
duce ornamental figures on. — v.i. To hang or ex- 
tend out; to jut. 
Befall, bc-fawK, ?•. t. \iwp. befell; p. p. -fallex; 
-FALLi.vG.J To happen to, occur to. — v i. To come 
to pass, happen. 
Before, be-for', j^irep. In front of ; preceding in space, 
time, dignity, order, right, etc.; in presence or sight 
of; facing; in the power ot. — adv. On the lore 
part; in front: in time preceding; already.— Eefore'- 
hand, adv. In a state of anticipation; bv way of 
preparation or preliminary. — a. In comfortable 
financial circumstances; forehanded. 
Beg, beg or ba, n. An Oriental governor of a town, 

city, or district; a bey. 
Beg, beg, v. t. [begged (begd), begging.] To ask 
earnestly, with humility or in charity; to entreat, 
implore; to take for granted. — r. i. "To ask alms 
or charity. — Beggar, beg^ger, n. One who, etc.; one 
who lives by begging, a mendicant. — v. t. [beg- 
gared (-gerd), -gaking.] To reduce to beggary, 
impoverish, exhaust. — Beg'garly, -ll, a. Extremely 
indigent; mean; poor. 
Beget, be-gef, v. i. [begot or begat; begot or be- 
gotten ; begetting.] To procreate, as a father or 
sire; to generate, produce. 
Begin, be-gin'', v. i [imp. began ; p. p. begun ; be- 
ginning.] To have an original or first existence; 
to take rise, commence; to do the first act, take the 
first step. — V. t. To enter on, commence. — Begin''- 
ner, n. One who, etc.; esp. an inexperienced prac- 
titioner; a tyro. — Begin'ning, n. The first cause; 
origin; that which is first; commencement; the ru- 
diments, first ground, or materials. 
Begone, be-gawn', interj. Go away; depart. 
Begonia, be-go'nT-a, n. A genus of ornamental plants 

with one-sided leaves, often brightly colored. 
Beguile, be-giK, v. t. [beguiled (-gTld'), beguiling.] 
To delude by artifice, impose on ; to cause to pass 
without notice, deceive, cheat, insnare. 
Behalf, be-haf, n. Advantage; interest; support; de- 
Behave, be-hav', v. f. [behaved (-havd'), behaving.^ 
To carry, conduct, Dear, — used reflexivelj^. — v. t. 
To act; to bear or carry one's self. — Behavior, -hav'- 
yer, n. Manner of behaving; conduct; deportment. 
Behead, be-hed'', v. t. To sever the head from. 
Behemoth, be'he-moth, n. An animal described in 

Job, xl. 15-24, supposed to be the hippopotamus. 
Behest, be-hesf, n. Command; injunction. 
Behind, be-hlnd', prep. On the side opp. the front; 
at the back or other side of ; left at a distance by; 
inferior to. — adv. In the rear ; backward ; remain- 
ing; past. — Behind'hand, a. In arrear; in a state 
of backwardness. 
Behold, be-hold'', v. t. [beheld {p. p. formerly be- 
holden), beholding.] To fix the eyes upon ; to 
see with attention. — i'. i. To^irect the eyes to an. 
object; tolook.— Beholden, -hold'n,?). T. Obliged; 
bound in gratitude; indebted. — BehoWer, n. A 
Behoof, be-hoof, n. Advantage; profit; benefit. — 
Behoove, -hove, -hoov', v. t. [behooved (-hoovd'). 
-hooving.] To be necessary for; to be fit or meet for 
Being. See under Be. 
Belabor, be-la''ber, v. t. To work diligently upon ; to 

beat soundly, cudgel. 
Belay, be-la'', v. t. [belayed (-lad'), belaying.} 
(:^ant.) To make fast, as a rope, by taking turns 
with it round a pin, etc. — Belay'ing-pin, n. A 
strong pin round which ropes are wound. 
Belch, belch, v. t. [belched (belcht), belching.] 
To throw up from the stomach with violence ; to 
eruct; to eject violently from within. — ?•. ('. To 
eject wind from the stomach ; to issue violently. — 
ri Act of belching: eructation. 
Beldam, -dame, beKdam. n. An ugly old woman. 

eiin, cube, full ; moon, f(36t ; cow, oil ; liQger or igk, then, boNboN, chair, get. 





3eleagaer, be-le'ger, v. t. [beleaguered (-g5rd), 
-GUEKIXG.] To surround with an army so as to pre- 
clude escape; to besicjre, blockade, environ. 

Bel-esprit. See under Beau. 

■Belfry, bcKfrT, n. Orig., a movable tower, erected by 
besiegers for attack and defense; a bell-tower ; a cu- 
pola or turret, or room in a tower, for a bell. 

'Belie, be-W, r.t. [belied (-lid'), belying.] To give 
the lie to; to show to be false; to give a false account 
of; to slander, counterfeit. 

3elieTe, be-lev', v.'t. [believed (-levd'), -lievixg.] 
To be persuaded of the truth of, place confidence 
in, credit. — v. i. To have a firm persuasion; to 
think, suppose. — Believ'er, n. One who, etc.; e^p., 
one who believes in divine revelation. — Belief, -let'', 
n. An assent of mind to the truth of a declaration, 
proposition, etc.; thing believed; a tenet, or body of 
tenets; credence; trust; faith: confidence. 

JBelike, be-lik'', a':/y. It is likely; probably: perhaps. 

Bell, bel, n. A hollow metallic vessel which rings 
when struck; anytning like a bell. — Bells, belz, n. 
{JVaut.) The half-hours of the watch, indicated by 
strokes on the bell. — Bell 'bird, n. A bird of Brazil, 
also one of Australia, whose notes resemble bells. 

belladonna, bei'la-don'na, n. Deadly nightshade, 
formerly used as a cosmetic. 

Belle, Belles-lettres. See under Beau. 

lellicose, bel'lT-kos, a. Disposed to contention; 
pugnacious. — Belligerent, -lij'er-ent, a. Waging 
war; tending to, or disposed for, war. — n. A na- 
tion, power, or state, carrving on war. 

lellow, bel'lo, v. i. To ma"ke a hollow, loud noise, as 
a bull; to bawl, clamor, roar. —n. Aloud outcry. 

bellows, bel'lus, n. sing, and 'pi. An instrument to 
propel air through a tube. — Bel'lows-fisll, n. A 
fish having a 
long tubular 
snout, like bel- 
lows-pipe; the 

:Belly, beKlT, n. 
The part of 
the body con- 
tain i n g the 
bowels, or in- 
testines ; the 
abdomen; any 
thing resem- 
bling the belly 
i n protuber- 
ance or cavity. 
— V. i. To swell and become protuberant. 

Belong, be-long', v. i. [beloxged (-longd'), beloxg- 
ING.] To be tne property, concern, or proper business 
of; to appertain; to be a part of, or connected with; 
to be native to, or to have a legal residence. 

Beloved, rt.s n pt. be-luvd', as an adj. be-luv'ed. 
Greatly loved; dear to the heart. 

Below, be-lo', prep. Under in place; beneath; not so 
high; inferior to in rank, excellence, or dignity; 
unworthy of; unbefitting, —arfy. In a lower place; 

Belt, belt, n. That which engirdles, restrains, or con- 
fines; a band or girdle, — d. ft To encircle as with a 
belt; to encompass. 

Bemoan, be-mon', v. t. [bemoaned (-mond'), be- 
jfOAXiXG.] To express deep grief for, by moaning; 
to lament, bewail. 

Bench, bench, n. A long seat; a work-table: the seat 
forjudges in court; persons who sit as judges; the 
court ; a collection of dogs, usually put on benches, 
for exhibition. — -war'rant, n. {Law.) .A process is- 
sued by a court against one guilty of contempt, or 
indicted for crime. 

Bend, bend, v. t. [bexded or bext ; bexdixg.] To 
crook by straining: to curve; to turn out of the direct 
course to some certain point: to incline or exercise 
closely or with interest; to exert; to apply; to ren- 
der submissive, subdue. {Nant.) To fasten, as one 
rope to another, or as a sail to its yard. — v. i. To 
be moved or strained out of a straig'ht line; to bow; 
to be inclined with interest, or closely; to be direct- 
ed; to bow in prayer, or in submis.sion. — n. A turn 
or deflection from a straight line or direction ; a 
curve; incurvation. (Naut.) A knot by which a 


rope is fastened. {Her.) One of the honorable or- 
dinaries, made bj^ two lines drawn across from the 
dexter chief to the sinister base point. — Bend'er, n. 

— Bent, n. State of bein" inclined from a straight 
line; flexurej leaning or bias; propensitj'. 

Beneath, be-neth' or -neth', prep. Lower in place, 
with something over or on ; under; unworthy of; 
unbecoming. — adv. In a lower place; below, as 
opp. to heaven, or to anj' superior region. 

Benedict, ben'e-dikt, Ben'edick, n. A married man, 
or man newly married. 

Benedictine, ben-e-dikt'in, a. Pert, to the monks of 
St. Benedict. — n. A monk of the order established 
by St. Benedict in the (Jth century; a Black Friar. 

Benediction, ben-e-dik'shun, n. Act of blessing; bless- 
ing, prayer, or kind wishes; esp. the short pra3'er 
which closes public worship. 

Benefaction, ben-e-fak'shun, n. Act of conferring a 
benefit; benefit conferred, esp. a donation. — Bene- 
fac'tor, -ter, ?j. One who confers, etc. — Benefac'- 
tress, n. A woman who, etc. — Ben'eflce, -rts, re. 
Lit., a benefit, advantage, or kindness. {Church of 
Eng/) An ecclesiastical living. — Ben'eficed, -fist, 
a. Possessed of a benefice. — Beneficence,, -nef- 
t-sens, n. Practice of doing good; active goodness 
or charity. — Beneficent, a. Doing good; bounti- 
ful; generous; munificent. — Benef'icently, arfu. — 
Beneficial, -e-fish'al, a. Conferring benefits; profit- 
able. {Law.) Receiving, or entitled to receive, ad- 
vantage, use, or benefit. — Benefi.'cially, adv. — 
Beneficiary, -fish'T-er-t, a. Holding office or pos- 
session, in subordination to another. — n. A feuda- 
tory or vassal ; one who holds a benefice; one who 
receives a gift, or is maintained by charity. — Ben'- 
efit," n. An act of kindness; favor conferred; what- 
ever promotes prosperity, or adds value to property. 
A performance at a theater, etc., in aid of some 
person or object. {Eng. Law.) Benefit of clergy, 

— the exemption of clergymen from criminal pro- 
cess before "a secular judge, anciently extended to 
all who could read. — v. t. To do good to, be use- 
ful to. — V. i. To gain advantage. 

Benevolence, be-nev''o-lens, n. Disposition to do 
good; benignity; tenderness; charitableness; an act 
of kindness; a tax illegally exacted by arbitrary 
kings of England. See Phrex'Ology. — Benev'o- 
lent, a. Having a disposition to do good; possessing 
love to mankind. — Benev'olently, adv. 

Bengal light, ben-gawl'-llt, Bengola, -gola, n. A fire- 
work, producing a vivid and sustained colored 
light, used for signals at night. 

Bengalee, Bengali, ben-gaw-le', n. _ The language 
spoken in Bengal. — Eengalese, -ez', n. sing, and 
pi. A native, or the natives of, etc. — a. Pert, to 
Bengal or to its people. 

Benight, be-nit', v. t. To involve in night or dark- 
ness; esp. in moral darkness or ignorance. 

Benign, be-nin', a. Of a kind disposition ; mani- 
festing kindness, gentleness, favor, etc.; propitious; 
salutary; gracious. — Beni^'nant, a. Kind. — Be- 
nig'nantly, adv. — Benig'nity, -nT-tT, n. Quality of 
being benign; condescending kindness; gracious- 
ness; salubrity; wholesome quality. 

Bent. See under Bexd. 

Benzoin, ben-zoin', n. A fragrant resin from a tree of 
Sumatra, Java, etc. — Benzo'ic, a. Pert, to, or ob- 
tained from, etc. — Ben'zine, -ziu or-zen, n. A light 
oil of petroleum.— Benzole, -zol', Ben'zoline, -zo-lin, 
n. {Chem.) An oily substance obtained from coal 
tar, and possessing solvent powers. 

Bequeath, be-kwetli', v. t. [bequeathed (-kwetlid), 
-QUE.\THIXG.] To give or leave by will : to hand 
down, devise. —Bequeath'er, n. — Bequest, -kwest', 
n. {Laiv.)_ Something left by will : legacy. 

Berate, be-rat', v. t. To rate, or chide, veliemently; 
to scold. 

Bereave, be-rev', v. t. [bereaved (-revd') or bereft; 
BEEEAViXG.] To make destitute, deprive; to take 
away f rom. — Bereave'ment, ?i. — Bereav'er, n. 

Berg, Derg, n. A large mass or mountain of ice. 

Berun, ber'lin or ber-lin', n. A four-wheeled car- 
riage, like a chariot; a fine worsted for fancy work. 

Berry, ber'T, n. A small pulpy fruit containing seeds- 
an egg of a fish. — v. i. To bear or produce berries 

— V. t. To impregnate with eggs or spawn. 

am, fame, far, pass <»• opera, fare ; 6nd, eve, term ; Tn, ice ; 6dd, tone, 6r ; 




Berth, bSrth, n. The place where a ship lies when at 
anchor, or at a wharf ; a sleeping-iiluce in a ship; 
official situation, position or employment. — v. t. 
To sive an anchorage or place to lie lit ; to furnish 
berths to. 

Beryl, ber'il, n. A hard green or bluish-green min- 
eral, same as the emerald, except in color. 

Beseech, be-sech', r. t. [besought (-sawf), beseech- 
IXG.] To ask urgently; to solicit, supplicate. 

Beseem, be-sem', v. t. To be fit for, or worthy of; to 

Beset, be-set', v. t. [beset; besetting.] To put or 
place, on, in, or around; to stop up, waylay, olock- 
ade; to hem in or press on all sides; to environ, be- 
siege, embarrass, ui'ge. 

Beshrew, be-shroo'', v. t. To wish curses to; to execrate. 

Beside, be-sid', jrrep. At the side of; aside from: out 
of the regular course or order ; out of. — Besides, 
-sidz', adv. More than that; moreover; in addition. 
— prep. Over and above; separate or distinct from; 
in addition to. — To he beside one's self. To be out 
of one's senses, or frantic. 

Besiege, be-sej', i\ t. [besieged (-sejd''), -sieging.] 
To oeset with armed forces, in order to compel to 
surrender; to beleaguer, invest. — Besieg'er, «. 

Besique, -zique, ba-zeli'', n. A game of cards, played 
by two or four persons, with two packs from which 
certain small cards have been removed. [F.] 

Besot, be-sot', v. t. To make sottish bv drink; to 
make dull or stupid. — Besot 'tedly, ack'. — Besof- 
tedness, n. State of being besotted ; infatuation. 

Besought. See Beseech. 

Bespatter, De-spat''ter, v. t. [bespattered (-spaf- 
terd), -tekixg.] To soil by spattering; to sprinkle 
with water or dirt; to asperse with calumny. 

Bespeak, be-spek', v, t. [imp. bespoke ; ;:>. ^i. bespoke 
or BESPOKEN'; bespeaking.] To speak for, or en- 
gage, beforehand; to indicate or show beforehand; 
to speak to, address; to betoken, show. 

Bessemer steel, bes''se-mer stel. Steel made directly 
from cast-iron, by a process invented by Sir Henry 

Best, best, a. (superl. of Good.) Having excellence in 
the highest degree; most good; most advanced; most 
correct or complete. — n. Utmost ; highest en- 
deavor. — adv. (siiperl. of Well.) In the highest 
degree; beyond all other; to the most advantage; 
with the most success, ease, propriety, etc. ; most 
particularly; most correctly. 

Bestow, be-sto', v. t. [bestowed (-stod'), bestowing.] 
To lay up in store; deposit for safe-keeping; to 
make use of, apply: to give, confer, or impart.^ 
Bestow'al, n. Act of, etc.; disposal. — Bestow'er, 
>i. — Bestow^ment, n. Act of, etc.; that which is be- 
stowed; donation. 

Bestride, be-strTd', v. t. [imp. bestrid or -strode; 
p. p. -.strid o/- -stridden ; -striding.] To stride 
over: to stand or sit with anything between the legs, 
or with the legs extended across. 

Bet, n. That whicli is staked, or pledged, in a con- 
test: a wager, — v. t. To stake, or pledge upon the 
event of a contest; to wager. 

Betake_, be-tak', v. t. [imp. betook; p. p. betaken 
(be-tak'n); betaking.] To have recourse to; to 
apply: to resort. 

Bethel, beth^el. n. A chapel for dissenters in Eng., and 
tor seamen in the U. S. 

Bethink, be-tliink''. v. t. [-thought (-thawf), -think- 
ing.] To call to mind, recall, recollect, reflect. 

Betide, be-tid', v. t. [imp. betid or betided ; p. p. 
betid ; betiding.] To happen to, befall, come to. 
— V. i. To come to pass, happen. 

Betime, be-tim', -times, -timz'', adv. In good time ; 
seasonably; in a short time ; soon. 

Betoken, be-to'kn, v. t. [betokened (-tok-'nd), 
-enixg.] To signify by some visible object; to fore- 
show by present signs, presage, portend, note. 

Betray, be-tra', v. t. [betrayed (-trad'), -traying.] 
To give up treacherously; to violate the confidence 
of ; to disclose or discover ; to mislead; to fail in re- 
spect to reliance placed in or upon. — Betray'al, n. 
Act of, etc. — Betray'er, n. One who, etc. ; a traitor. 

Betroth, be-troth', v. t. To contract to any one; to af- 
fiance; to contract with for a future spouse; to es- 
pouse; to nominate to a bishopric, in order to con- 


secration. — Betroth'al, -ment, n. A mutual en- 
gagement for marriage; espousals. 

Better, befter, a. (conip. or' Good). Having good 
qualities in a greater aegree ; preferable in value, 
use, safety, etc.; improved in health. — n. Advan- 
tage, superiority, or victory; improvement; pi. those 
who have claim to precedence; superiors. — adv. 
(cow/), o/' Well). In a superior manner; more cor- 
rectlv: in a higher degree; more. — v. t. [bettered 
(-terd), -TERING.] — To increase the good qualities of; 
to improve, amend, correct, promote. 

Between, be-twen', prep. In the intermediate space of, 
without regard to distance; from one to another of; 
shared by two or both of; in intermediate relation 
to. — Between'-decks, n. (Naiit.) The open space 
between two decks of a ship. — Betwixt, -twikst', 
pj-ep. Same as Between. 

Bevel, bev'el, n. A slant of a surface at an angle 
other than a right angle; an instrument 
for measuring angles. — a. Having the 
form of a bevel; slanting. — v. t. [bev- 
eled (-eld), -eling.] To cut to a bevel , 
angle. — v. i. To slant to a bevel angle, 
or from a direct line. — Bev'el-gear, n. 
(3Iach.) Wheelwork in whicli one wheel 
drives another moving in a different plane. — wheel, 
n. A wheel having teeth set at an angle greater or 
less than half a right angle. 

Beverage, bev'gr-ej, n. Drink ; liquor for drinking. 

Bevy, bev^i:, n. A flock of birds; a company ; an as- 
sembly of persons, esp. ladies. 

Bewail, be-waK, v. t. [bewailed (-wald'), -wailing.] 
To express sorrow for, as by wailing; to mourn, la- 
ment. — V. i. To express grief. 

Beware, be-war', v. i. To restrain or guard one's 
self; to be cautious, take care. 

Bewilder, be-wil'der, v. t. [bewildered (-wiKderd), 
-dering.] To lead into perplexity ; to perplex, 
entangle, confuse, confound, puzzle. — Bewil'der- 
ingly, adv. — Bewilderment, n. State of being, etc. 

Bewitch, be-wich', v. t. [bewitched (-wichf), 
-WITCHING.] To gain an ascendency over by clmrms; 
to affect by witchcraft or sorcerj^; to fascinate. 

Bewray, be-ra', v. t. [bewrayed (-rad'), -wrayixg.] 
To disclose perfidiously, betray. 

Bey, ba, n. A governor of a Turlcish town or district; 
in some places, a prince; — same as Beg. 

Beyond, be-yond', prep. On the further side of; before, 
in place or time; further than; past; above, in dig- 
nity, excellence, etc. — adv. At a distance; j'onder. 

Bezant. See Byzant. 

Bezel, bez'el, n. The part of a ring encompassing and 
fastening the stone. [F.] 

Bezique. See Besique. 

Bias, bi'as, n. A weight on the side of a bowl which 
turns it from a straight line; a leaning of the mind; 
propensity towards an object: bent: prejudice; in- 
clination; a wedge-shaped piece taken out of a gar- 
ment to diminish its circumference. — adv. In a 
slanting manner; crosswise; diagonally. — v. t. [bi- 
ased (bi-'ast), -asing.] To incline to one side; to 
give a particular direction to, prejudice, prepossess. 

Biaxal, bi-aks'al, Biax'ial, -1-al, a. {Opt.) Having 
two axes. 

Bib, n. A cloth worn by children over the breast. — 
Bibacious, bi-ba'shus, a. Addicted to drinking. — 
Bibacity, -bas'T-tT, n. Love of, etc. — Bib^ber, n. 
One addicted, etc.; a tippler. — Bib'ulous, -u-lus, a. 
Absorbincr moisture; spongjs porous. 

Bibasic, bi-ba'sik, a. (Ckem.) Capable of combining 
with two parts or equivalents of a base; or contain- 
ing two equivalents of a base to one of acid. 

Bible, bi'bl, ji. The Book; the volume containing 
the Scriptures. — Biblical, bib^lT-kal, a. Pert, to 
the Bible. — Bib'lically, adv. — Bib'licist, -iT-sist, 
Bib'list, n. One who makes the Scriptures the sole 
rule of faith; a Biblical scholar. 

Bibliographer, bib-lT-og^ra-fer, n. One versed in 
bibliography. — BibUog'raphy, -ra-f 1, w. A descrip- 
tion of books and manuscripts. — Bibliograph'ic, 
-ical, a. Pert, to bibliography. — Bibliograph'ically. 
adv. — Bibliol'ogy, n. A treatise on books; biblical 
literature. — Bib'lioma'nia, -ma'nT-a, n. A rage for 
possessing curious books. — Bib'liopbile, -fll, n. One 
who loves books. 

sQn, cube, fyll ; moon, f(56t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, then, boNboir, «hair, get. 




Bicapsular, bi-kap'su-ler, a. (Bot.) Having two seed 

capsules to each flower._ 
Bicarbonate, bi-kar'bo-nat, 7?. (Chevi.) A carbonate 
having 2 equivalents of carbonic acid to 1 of base. 

Bice, Bise, bis, ?i. (Paint.) A pale blue color, prepared 
from blue carbonate of copper, or from smalt. 

Biceps, bi'seps, n. (Anat.) A muscle having two 

Bicker, bik'er, w. ?. [bickered (-erd), -being.] To 
skirmish; to contend in v^ords or petulant alterca- 
tion; to quarrel, wrangle; to move quickly; to be 
tremulous, like flame or water; to quiver. 

Bicolor, bi-kuKer, -ored, -erd,_a. Of two colors. 

Bicuspid, bi-kus^pid, -pidate, -at, a. Having two points. 

Bicycle, bi'sT-kl, n. A two-wheeled velocipede. 

Bid, V. t. [imp. BID or bade (bad); p. p. bid or bid- 
den; BIDDING.] To ofter; esp. to ofter to pay; to 
declare, as a wish, greeting, defiance, etc.; to order, 
command, invite. — n. An offer of a price, esp. at 

Bide, bid, v. i. To dwell permanently; to inhabit. 
— V. t. To endure, suffer, wait for. 

Biennial, bi-en'nT-al, a. Continuing for two years, 
and then perishing; occurring once in two years. — 
n. (Bot.) A plant that lasts for two years, and then 
perishes. — Bien'mally, adv. Once in, or at the re- 
turn of, two years. 

Bier, ber, ii. A frame for conveying the dead to the 

Bifurcate, bi-fgr^kat, -cated, -ka-ted, a. Forked; di- 
vided into two branches. — Btfurca'^tion, n. A fork- 
ing.— Bifurcous, -fer-'kus, a. (Bot.) Two-forked. 

Big, a. Having largeness of size, bulk, etc. ; great 
with young; pregnant; full of something porten- 
tous; proud; arrogant. 

Bigamy, big'a-mt, n. (Law.) The crime of having 
two wives or husbands at once. — Big'amist, n. One 
guilty of, etc. 

Biggin, big'gin, w. A child's cap or hood. A piggin, 
or small wooden vessel; a contrivance for holding 
coffee-grounds (a bag or perforated metallic vessel) 
through which boiling water is poured. 

Bight, bit, n. ( Geog^ A bend in the sea-coast forming 
a bay. (N'aut.) The double part of a folded rope; 
a round, bend, or coil anywhere except at the ends. 

Bigot, big''ot, n. One unreasonably wedded to some 
relirfous creed, practice, ritual, etc.: a devotee.— 
Big'otry, -rT, n. Perverse or blind attachment to, 
etc.; the practice or tenet of a bigot. 

Bilateral, bi-lafer-al, a. Having two sides; pert, to 
the two sides of a central orsran or axis. 

Bilberry, bil'ber-rT, n. A shrub of the whortleberry 
family, and its fruit. 

Bile, bfl, n. A yellow, greenish, bitter, viscid fluid 
secreted by the liver; ill-humor. —Biliary, biKya-rT, 
a. {Med.) Pert, to, or conveying, etc. — Bil'ious, 
•yus, a. Pert, to, or disordered in, the bile; having 
an excess of bile. 

Bile. See Boii., n. 

Bilge, bilj, n. The protuberant partof a cask. (Naiit.) 
The broadest partof a ship's bottom, —v. t. [bilged 
(biljd), bilging.] (Kaut.) To suffer fracture in 
the bilge: to spring a leak. 

Bilingual, bi-lin'gwal, -guar, -gwar, a. Containing 
two languages. — Bilin'guous, -gwus, a. Having 
two tongues, or speaking two languages. 

Bilk, bilk, u. f. [bilked (bilkt), BILKING.] Todisap- 
point, deceive, or defraud, by non-fulfillment of 

Bill, bil, n. The beak of a fowl; note of a bird. — ?;. 
t. To join bills, as doves; to caress. 

Bill, bil, n. A hook-shaped cuttina: instrument : an 
ancient battle-ax; a pickax, or mattock. (JVaut.) 
The point of the fluke of an anchor. 

Bill, bil, n. (Law.) A written declaration of wrong 
suffered, or fault committed ; an obligation given 
for money; a promissory note; a proposed law. An 
advertisement posted publicly; an accnuntof goods 
sold or services rendered, with price annexed ; any 
paper containing a statement of particulars. 

Billet, biKlet, n. A note in writintr. or short letter; a 
ticket from a public officer directing soldiers where 
tolodge. — V. t. (Mil.) To direct, by ticket, where 
to lodge; to quarter, as soldiers in private houses, 
— Billet-dous, bil'le-doo', n. A love letter. 

Billet, bil'let. n. A small stick of wood. 

Billiard, biKyard, a. Pert, to the game of billiards. 

— Bil'^liards, -yardz, n. pi. A game played with balls, 
on a rectangular table. 

Billingsgate, Dil'lingz-gat, n. Foul or profane lan- 
guage; ribaldry. 

Billion, biKyun, n. According to French numeration, 
a thousand millions, or 1,000,000,000 ; according to 
the English method, a million of millions, or 1,000.- 

Billow, biKlo, n. A great wave or surge of the sea. 

Billy, biKlY, n. A watchman's club. 

Bilobed, bi'lobd, -lobate, -lo'bat, a. (Bot.) Divided 
into two lobes. 

Bimanous, bi-ma'nus, a. (Zool.) Having two hands. 

Bimensal, bi-men'sal, -mestrial, -mes'trT-al, -monthly, 
-munth^lt, a. Occurring once in two months. 

Bimetalism, bi-mefal-izm, n. The use as legal ten- 
der of coins of two metals at a fixed relative value. 

— Bimetal'lic, a. — Bimet'allist, n. One who advo- 
cates, etc. 

Bin, n. A box or inclosed place, used as a repository. 

Binary, bi'na-rT, a. Compounded of two; double. — 
Binary arithmetic. That in which two figures only, 
Oand],are used, in lieu of ten. —Binary compounds. 
(Ckem.) A compound of two elements. — Bi'^nate, 
-nat, a. (Bot.) Double or in couples ; growing in 

Bind, bind, r. t. [imp. bound (bownd); p.p. bound, 
formerly bounden ; binding.] To tie together or 
confine with cord, bands, etc. ; to restrain or hold ; to 
protect or strengthen by a band, or cover; to place 
under legal obligation to serve. — v. i. To contract; 
to grow hard or stiff ; to be restrained from mo- 
tion; to be obligatory. — n. A stalk of hops, which 
winds round a pole or tree. — Bind'er, n. One who, 
etc., esp. who binds books; anything that binds; a 
bandage. — Bind'^ery, -er-T, n. A place where books, 
etc., are bound. — Bind'ing, a. Having power to 
bind or oblige; obligatory. — n. Act of fastening 
with a band; anything that binds, as a bandage, the 
cover of a book, or something to secure the edge of 
cloth from raveling. 

Binnacle, bin 'na-kl, M. (yaut.) A box containing a 
ship's compass and a light to -show it at 

Binocle, bin'o-kl, n. A telescope fitted with 
two tubes joining. — Binoc'ular, -u-ler, a. 
Having two eyes; with, or pert, to both 
eyes; adapted to the use of, etc. — Binoc'- , 
uiate, -lat, a. Having two eyes. i® 1 

Binomial, bi-no'ml-al, n. (Alg.) An ex- f 


ression consisting of 2 terms connected \j 
n plus or minus; as a -I- 6, or 7 — ^ 

ly the sign pli 
S. — a. Consisting of 2 terms; pert, to bi- Binnacle, 

Biograph, bi''o-graf, n. A device for reproducing 
upon a screen a moving scene. 

Biography, bi-og'ra-fT, n. History of the life of a 
person; biographical writings in general. — Biog'- 
rapher, -ra-fer, n. One who writes, etc — Biograph'- 
ic, -ical, -grafik-al, a. Pert, to, or containing, etc. 
— Biograph''ically, adv. 

Biology, bi-oKo-jT, n. The science of life and living 
things, animal'and vegetable. 

Biophagous, bi-ofa-gus, a. Consuming living creat- 
ures, — said of insectivorous plants. 

Biparous, bi-pa'rus or bip'a-rus, a. Bringing forth 
two at a birth. 

Bipartible, bi-par'tT-bl, -tile, -til, a. Capable of being 
divided into two parts. — Bipartite, bi-par'tlt or 
bip''ar-tit, a. Having two correspondent parts, as a 
contract, one for each part}'; divided into two parts, 
as a leaf. — Biparti''tion. n. Act of dividing; etc. 

Biped, bi'ped, n. An animal having two feet. 

Bipennate, hi-pen'nat, -nated, a. Having two wings. 

Bipetalous, bi-pef'al-us, a. (Bot.) Havmg 2 petals or 

Eiplicate, bi-pli'kat, a. Twice folded together. 

Biquadrate, bi-kwod''rat, -rat'ic, H. (Math.) The 4th 
power, arising from the multiplication of a square 
number or quantity by itself. 

Birch, berch, ii. A forest tree of several species; a rod 
of birch. —Birch. Birchen, berch'n, a. Consisting 
of, or pert, to, etc. 

fim, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; 6ud, eve, term ; In, Ice ; fidd, tone, 8r ; 




M*i, b5rd, n. A two-legged, featliered, flying animal. 

— V. i. To catch or shoot birds. — Bird's'-eye, a. 
Seen from above, as if by a flying bird; general; not 
in detail. — Bird'8''nest,'rt. The nest in which a bird 
lays eggs. — r. L To hunt for birds' nests. 

Birth, berth, n. Act of coming into life, or being 
born; lineage; extraction; natural state or position; 
act of bringing forth; that which is produced, ani- 
mal or vegetable ; origin ; beginning. — yeiv birth. 
(Theol.) Regeneration, or the commencement of a 
religious life. — Birth'day, n. The day in which 

one is born ; its anniversary. mark', w. Some 

mark or blemish on the body at birth. place, «. 

Tlie place where one is born ; place of origin. — 
-right, -rit, n. Any right or privilege to which a 
person is entitled bv birth. 

Biscuit, bis''kit, n. iJnleavened bread baked hard; a 
small loaf of leavened and shortened bread; a thin, 
crisp cake or cracker ; earthen ware after its first 
baking, before glazirig. 

Bisect, bi-sekf, v. t. To cut into two parts. (Geom.) 
To divide into two equal parts. — Bisection, -sek'- 
shun, 71. Act of, etc.— Biseg-'ment, ;;. One part of 
a line, or other magnitude, divided into two equal 

Bisexual, bi-seks''u-al, a. {Bot.) Of both sexes. 

Biserial. bi-se'rl-al, a. Arranged in a double series. 

Bishop, l)ish'up, »,. An overseer; a spiritual sujierin- 
tendent: in Episcopal usage, the highest of the 'i or- 
ders of the Christian ministry; a piece in' the game 
of chess. — Bish'opric, n. A diocese; district over 
which a bishop has Jurisdiction; office of, etc. 

Bismuth, biz'muth, n. A reddish-white metal, harder 
than lead, and brittle. 

Bison, bi'son or bi''sn, n. A quadruped of North 
America, popularly, but in- 
correctly, called tlie buifalo. 

Bisque, Bisk, bisk, n. A soup 
made of crayfish, or by boil- 
ing together several kinds of 
flesh. [F.] 

Bissextile, bis-seks/'til, n. 
Leap year; every 4th year, in 
which a day is added in the 
month of February.— «. Pert, 
to, etc. 

Bister, Bistre, bis'ter, n. A dark-brown p! 
traded from wood-.soot. 

Bistort, bis''t6rtj_«. A plant, called also snake-weed. 

Bistoury, bis'too-rT, n. A surgical instrument tor 
miking incisions. _ 

Bisulcate, bi-sUKkat, a. Two-furrowed. {Zo'61.) 
Cloven-footed. — Bisul''cous, -kus, a. Cloven-footed, 
as swine or oxen. _ 

Bisulphate, bi-suKfat, w. (Cfiem.) A sulphate having 
two equivalents of sulphuric acid to one of the base. 

— Bisul'phuret, -f u-ret, )i. {Chein.) A sulphuret 
with two atoms of sulphur, as the electro-negative 

Bit. See under BrxE. 

Bitch, bich, n. The female of the canine kind, as of 
the dog, wolf, and fox ; a name of reproach for a 

Bite, bit, V. t. [BIT or bittev (bit'tn), bttixg.] To 
cut, crush, or seize with the teeth ; to cause sharp 
pain or smarting to; to cheat, trick; to take hold of, 
adhere to. — y. i. To seize or wound with the teeth 
or mouth; to cause hurt, pain, or injury. — n. Act 
of biting; the wound made by the teeth; a morsel; 
mouthful; the hold or purchase of a tool; a cheat; 
trick; sharper. -Bi'ter, /?. One who, or that which, 
hites. — Bi'ting, a. Sharp ; severe ; sarcastic ; 
caustic— Bi''tingly, ar/d.— Bi'ting-in, w. (Etching.) 
Process of corroding metallic phites, by means of 
acid. — Bit, bTt, n. A mouthful ; morsel ; bite ; 
hence, a small piece of anything; a small coin iu 
several countries ; small in- 
strument for boring. — The 
mouth-piece of a bridle, to 
■which the reins are fastened. 

— V. t. To put a bit in the 
mouth of. — Bif-stock, n. A 
brace or handle, to hold the 
bit in boring, 

American Bison. 

'ment ex- 

Carpenter's bits. 
Bitt, bTt, V. t.'XN'aut.) To put round the bitts.— Bitts, 

bitz, n. 2^1- A frame of timbers to hold a ship's ca- 

Bittacle, bit'ta-kl. n. The box for the compass on 
board a ship. [See Binnacle.] 

Bitter, bit'ter, o. Having a peculiar, acrid, biting 
taste ; causing pain, smart, or distress ; character- 
ized by sharpness, severity, or cruelty; mourntul; 
distressing: pitiable. — Bit^terish. «. Somewhat bit- 
ter. — Bit'terishness, 7i. — Bit'terly, adv. — Bit'ter- 
ness, ?(. — Bit'tern, -tern, n. The brine remaining 
in salt works alter the salt is concreted; avery bitter 
compound of quassia, eocculus indicus, etc. — Bit'- 
ters, -terz, n. pi. Liquor, generally spirituous, in 
which bitter herbs or roots have Seen steeped.— 
Bit'ter-spar, -spar, n. A mineral consisting of car- 
bonate of lime and carbonate of magnesia, — the 
soluble salts of the magnesia being l)itter. — Bit'- 
ter-sweet, n. {Bot.) A climbing plant, whose root, 
when chewed, produces a bitter, then a sweet taste. 
— Bifterwort, -wert, H. {Bot.) Yellow gentian. 

Bittern, biftern, n. A wading bird of Europe, re- 
lated to the heronr- 

Bitumen, bi-tu'men, n. Mineral pitch, a substance 
smelling like pitch and burning with a bright flame, 
without residue. [L.] — Bitu'minate, v.t. To im- 
pregnate with, etc. — Bitu'rainize, -niz, v. t. [bitu- 
MixiZED (-nizd), -NiziNG.] To form into or impreg- 
nate with, etc. — Bitu'minouB, -uus, a. Having the 
qualities of, compounded with, or containing, etc. 

Bivalve, bi'valv, n. (Zobl.) A moUusk having a shell 
in two parts. (Bnt.) A pericarp 
in which the seed-case opens or 
splits into two parts. — Bi'valve, 
-valved. -valvd, -valvous, -valv'- 
us. -valv'ular, -u-ler, a. 

Bivouac, biVwak, n. {Ml.) The 
guard or watch of a whole army; 
an encampment without tents. — 
V. t. [BIVOUACKEU ( - w a k t ), 
-VVACKIXG.] To be on guard; to 
encamp without covering. 

Biweekly, bi^wek^ll, a. Occurring 
once in every two weeks. 

Bizarre, be-zar', a. Odd; fantasti- 
cal; whimsical. 

Blab, blab, v. t. [blabbed Cblabd), blabbing.] To 
tell unnecessarily, or indiscreetly. — i'. i. To talk 
thoughtlessly; to tattle. — m. One who blabs; a 

Black, blak, a. Destitute of light, or incapable of re- 
flecting it; very dark or gloomy; dismal or forbid- 
ding; destitute of moral light or goodness. — w. The 
darkest color, or rather a destitution of all color; 
a negro; a black dress, or mourning. — v. t. [blacked 
(blakt), blacking.] To make black; to blacken. — 
Blacken, blak'n, u. t. [blackened (-nd), -ening.] 
To make black or dark; to sully, defame, make in- 
famous. —v. i. To grow blact or dark. — Black'- 
ing, n. A preparation for blacking shoes, etc.— 7 
Black'^ish. a. Somewhat black. — "Black'ly, adv. 
Darkly; gloomily; atrociously. — Black'^ness, n. — 
Black art. Conjuration; magic. — amoor, v. A 
negro. — ball, n. A composition for blacking shoes, 
etc.; a ball of black color, used as a negative in 
voting. — ?;. «. [-balled (-bawld), -balling.] To 
reject by putting black balls into a ballot-box. — 
-band, n. A valuable iron ore, containing enough 

coaly matter for its own calcination. berry, -ber- 

rl, w. A species of bramble; its edible fruit. — bird, 
n. In Eng. a species of thrush : in Amer. the name is 
given to different birds. — board, 11. A board used 
to write or draw on with chalk. — book, n. A book 
for registering misdemeanors ; a book on necro- 
mancy. browed, -browd, a. Threatening; dis- 
mal. — cattle, -kaftl, M. Cattle reared for slaugh- 
ter, of whatever color. [Eng.] A breed of Dutch 
cattle of a blaqk color. —. -cock, n. The heath- 
cock; black grouse; black game. — currant, n. A 
garden fruit. drop, n. {Med.) A liquid prep- 
aration of opium in vinegar. — fish, n. A iish caught 
off New England, the tautog ; a small kind of 

whale. flux, n. A compound used to assist in 

melting metals. friar, m. A friar of the Domin- 
ican order. — guard, blog^gard, n. Orig. the lower 
menials of a court; hence a scurrilous person of loW 


sun, cube, full ; moon, fd&t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, then, boNboN, chair, get. 




character. — v.t. To revile in scurrilous language. 
[Orio-. the guard of tlic devil; thence, a fit attendant 
on the devil.] — guardism, ?i. Conduct or language 

of a blackguard. hole, n. A dark dungeon for 

refractory prisoners. — -jack, n. A' mineral ore, 
false galena, which is the sulphuret of zinc, or zinc 
blende; a species of oak, called also barren oak; a 
small, heavy bludgeon. — lead, -led, w. A mineral 
composed of carbon ; plumbago ; graphite. [From 
its color and its markinjr paper like lead.] ^ -leg, n. 
A gambler and cheat; a disease of sheep and calves. 
— letter, n. The old English or modern Gothic let- 
ter, used in early manuscripts and the first printed 
books. — a. Written or printed in black-letter; stu- 
dious of old books. — mail, n. A rate of money, 
cattle, etc., anciently paid to robbers for exemption 
from pillage ; extortion of money by threats. — 

-martin, n. A bird of the swallow family. pud- 

diag, -pud'^ding, n. A kind of sausage made of 
blood, suet, etc. — rod, n. The usher of the order 
of the Garter, who carries a black rod. [Eng.] — 

-rust, n. A disease of ^\'heat. smith, n. A 

smith who works in iron. snake, n. A ser- 
pent of a black color : two species are found in 
America. — -strap, n. A mixture of spirituous 

liquor and molasses. tail, n. A kind of perch. 

thorn, M. A spiny plant bearing a small black 

fruit, used for hedges ; the sloe. vomit, n. A 

vomiting of dark-colored matter: or the substance 
so discliarged, a symptom in yellow fever. — wal- 
nut. An American tree having dark-colored wood. 

Bladder, blad'der, «. {Anat.) A bag or sac in animals, 
containing some secreted fluid; the air bag in fish. 

Blade, blad, n. The leaf, or flat part of the leaf, of a 
plant, esp. of gramineous plants; the cutting part of 
an instrument; broad part of an oar. (Anat.) The 
scapula. A sharp-witted, dashing fellow; a rake. — 
v.t. To furnish with a blade. — v. i. To have, etc. 

Blain, blan, n. An inflanunatory swelling or sore; 
a pustule; blister. 

Blame, blixm, r. t. [blamed (blamd), blamixg.] To 
censure, find fault with. — n. Expression of disap- 
probation ; that which deserves censure ; fault; 
wrong-doing. — Blam'able, -a-bl, n. Deserving of 
censtire; culpable; reprehensible. — Blam''ableness, 
w.— Blam'ably, nc/i'.— Blame^ful, a. Meriting iDlame. 

— Blame''less, a. Witliout fault; innocent: irre- 
proachable. —Blame'lessly, ac!i\— Blame'lessness, 
n. — Blam'^er, 7i. One who, etc. — Blame'wor'thy, 
-wer'tliT, a. Same as blaniable. — Blame'wor'thi- 
ness, n. 

Blanch, Blanc-mange. See under Blank. 
Bland, bland, a. Pleasing by soothing qualities; mild; 
gentle ; courteous. — Blanda'tion, n. Gross flattery. 

— BlandiKoquence, n. Fair, nnld, flattering speech. 

— Bland'ish, r. «. [blaxdished (-isht), -ishing.] To 
flatter by kind words or affectionate actions ; to 
soften, caress. — v. i. To act or speak affection- 
ately. — Bland'isher, n. — Bland'ishment, n. Words 
or actions of affection; artful caresses. 

Blank, blank, a. Of a white or pale color; pale from 
fear; dispirited; lacking something; empty; with- 
out mixture with anything else; pure. — n. Avoid 
space; a ticket in a lottery which draws no prize; 
a paper unwritten; a blank ballot; a document, 
with vncant spaces left to be filled with names, date, 
etc. The white spot of a target at which ainr is 
taken. {Mech.) A piece of metal prepared to be 
made into something by a further operation. — 
Blank'ly, ndr. With p'aleness; confusedly ; vacantly. 

— Blank'ness, 71. — Blanch, blanch, i-. t. [blanched 
(blancht), blanching.] To take out the color and 
make white; to wliiten; to make white by stripping 
off the peel; to give a favorable appearance. — v. i. 
To grow or become white. —Blanc-mange, blaN^- 
maNzh', -manger, -maN'zha, n. A preparation of 
dissolved isinglass or sea-moss, milk, sugar, etc., 
boiled till thick. 

Blanket, blink'et, w. A loosely woven woolen cover, 
to protect from cold; a kind of pear. — v. t. To 
cover with a blanket. 

Blare, blar, ?•. I. To sound loudly; to roar. — n. Noise; 
loud sound. 

Blarney, blar^'nT, w. Smooth, deceitful talk ; flattery. 

— V. t. To deceive or flatter by smooth talk. 

Blas^, bla-za', a. Surfeited; incapable of further en- 

joyment. [F.] 
: Blaspheme, •blas-fem', v. t. [blasphemed (-femd'), 
-I'UEMING.] To speak reproachfully or impiously 
of; to utter abuse or calumny against. — v. i. To 
utter blasphemy. — Blas'phemous, -fe-mus, a. Con- 
taining blasphemy ; impiouslv irreverent or re- 
proachful toward God. — Blas'phemy, n. An indig- 
nity offered to God by reproachful, contemptuous, 
or irreverent words. 

Blast, blast, n. A destructive or pernicious wind; 
a forcible streanf of air from an orifice ; exhaust 
steam from an engine, or the draught through the 
Are produced thereby; the sound made by blowing 
a wind instrument; the rending of rocks, etc., by 
explosives, or the charge used for tliis purpose; a 
blight; a flatulent disease of sheep. — v.t. To in- 
jure, as by a noxious wind; to blight; to affect with 
sudden violence; to confound, or strike with force, 
by a loud blast; to split, as by explo.sion. 

Blatant, bla'tant, a. Bellowing, as a calf; noisy. 

Blather, blatli''er, «. Foolish chatter. — r. i. To talk 
idly. — Blath'erskite, -skit, n. An obtrusive bab- 
bler, or his talk. — Blatter, blat'ter, v. i. To patter; 
to make a senseless noise; to rail. 

Blaze, blaz, n. The stream of light and heat from a 
burning body; flame; light, as from flame; a white 
spot on a horse's face; a spot made on a tree by 
chipping off bark. — v. i. [blazed (blazd), bla- 
zing.] To shine with flame; to send forth bright 
light; to be conspicuous. — v. t. To mark, as by chip- 
ping a tree. 

Blaze, blaz, v. t. To publish far and wide, proclaim. 
— Blazon, bla''zn, v. t. [blazoned (bla'znd), -zon- 
ing.] To display, exhibit conspicuously, embellish, 
adorn; to explain in proper terms, as the figures on 
armorial ensigns. — n. Art of drawing, or "explain- 
ing coats of arms; the representation on coats of 
arms; ostentatious display; publication. 

Bleaberry, ble'ber-rf, n. A plant having leaves like 
box, and purple berries. 

Bleach, blech, v. t. [bleached (blecht), bleaching.] 
To make white, or whiter, by removing the original 
color; to blanch. — v.i. To grow white. 

Bleak, blek, a. Orig., without color; pale; hence, des- 
olate and exposed"; cold ; cheerless. — n. The blay, 
a small, white, river fish. 

Blear, bier, a. Dim, or sore with rheum, — applied to 
the_eyes; causing dimness of sight. — v. t. [ble.\red 
(blerd), uleaking.] To affect with soreness of 
eyes, or a watery humor; to make dim. 

Bleat, blet, v. i. To cry as a sheep. — n. The noise of, 

Bleed, bled, v. i. [bled (bled), bleeding.] To lose 
blood; to die by slaughter; to. drop, as blood, from 
an incision; to lose sap, gu:n, or juice; to pay or 
lose money. — v. t. To take blood from by opening 
a vein; to'draw money from. 

Blemish, blem^ish, v. t. [blemished (-isht), -ishing.] 
To mark with deformity; to mar, or make defec- 
tive; to tarnish; defame. — h. A mark of deform- 
ity; spot; flaw; taint; imputation. 

Blench, blench, v. i. [blenched (blencht), blench- 
ing.] To shrink; to start back, from lack of cour- 
age or resolution; to flinch. — v. t. To baffle, dis- 
concert, break. 

Blend, blend, v. t. [blended or blent, blending.] 
To mix together. — v. i. To be mixed; to be united. 

Blende, blend, n. An ore of zinc, consisting of zinc 
and sulphur. 

Bless, bles, v. t. [blessed (blest) or blest, blessing.] 
To make happy; to invoke a blessing upon. (Bib.) To 
praise, or glorify, for benefits. —Bless'ed, a. Enjoy- 
ing happiness or bliss; favored with blessings; im- 
parting happiness; hallowed by associations; heav- 
enljf. — Bless'edness, n. State of being blessed; be- 
atitude; felicity; heavenly joys. 

Blew. See Blow. 

Blight, blit, n. Mildew; decay; what frustrates plans 
or withers hopes ; a species of plant-louse, destruc- 
tive to fruit trees. — v. t. To affect with blight ; to 
blast, frustrate. 

Blind, blind, a. Destitute of the sense of seeing; un- 
able to discern, understand, or judge; morally de- 
praved ; indiscernible; hidden; unseen. — r. t. To 

am, fame, far, pass o?- opera, fSre ; end, eve, term ; In, Ice ; Sdd, tone, 6r } 





deprive of siorht or discernment; to obscure; to de- J 
ceive. — n. Something to hinder sight or keep out 
light; a screen; something to mislead the eye or un- 
derstanding.— Blind'fold, a. Having the eyes cov- 
ered; undibcerniiig. — v. t. To cover the eyes of; to 
hinder from seeing. — Blind'ly, adv. — Blind''-inaii'8- 
buff', n. A plav in which a blind-folded person 
hunts others. — 6lind'ness,n.—Bliiid''-8ide, u. Side 
on which one is most easily assailed; foible. — Blind''- 
worm, -werm, h. A small reptile, like a snake, whose 
eyes are nearly imperceptible; the slow-worm. 

Blink, blink, r. i. To wink; to see with eyes half shut; 
to glimmer. — v. i. To shut out of sight, avoid or J 
evade, conceal. — n. A glimpse or glance. (.Vaw^) I 
Dazzling whiteness about the horizon reflected from ! 
fields of ice at sea. ; 

Bliss, blis, 11. Tlie highest degree of happiness; felici- i 
ty; joy. — Bliss'fnl, a. Full of, etc. —Blithe, blTtiie, t 
a. Gay : sprightly. — Blithe'ly, fK/c. — Blithe'ness, 
n. — Blithe 'some," o. Blithe. — Blithe-'someixess, n. 

BUster, blis'ter. n. A thin watery bladder on the • 
skin ; a tumor made by a separation of the tilm or i 
skin, as on plants, or by swelling of the substance 1 
at the surface, as on steel; a vesicatory; a piaster' 
applied to raise a blister. — c. t. [blistered (-terd), 
-TERIXG.] To raise blisters upon; to give pain to, 
as if by a blister. — r. i. To rise in blisters. 

Blithe, etc. See under Bliss. 

Blizzard, bliz'zerd, n. A sudden, violent snowstorm, 
with high wind and extreme cold. 

Bloat, blot, V. t. To cause to swell or become turgid; 
to puff up, make vain; to smoke, as a herring. — v. 
i. To grow turgid, as by affusion of liquid in the 
cellular membrane; to puff out; to swell. — Bloat'- 
er, n. A small fish, usually a herring, partially dried 
or smoked. 

Blobber-Up, blob^ber-lip, n. A thick lip. 

Block, bloK, n. A solid mass of w^ood, stone, etc.; the 
mass of wood on which criminals are beheaded; the 
mold on which hats, bonnets, etc., are shaped ; a 
mass or row of buildings; a system of pul- 
leys arranged in a frame; any obstruction; 
a section of a railroad, having a telegraph- 
ic signal at its end, so that no train can 
enter it until it is reported clear of preced- 
ing trains, —r. t. [blocked (blokt), BLOCK- 
ING.] To hinder egress or passage from 
or into; to stop, obstruct; to secure or sup- 
port by means of blocks. — Block''head, ?;. 
A stupid fellow; a dolt. — house, n. {Mil.) 
A structure of heavy timber or logs for defense, 
loop-holed for musketry. — 
-tin, n. Tin in blocks or in- 
gots. — Blockade, blok-ad', n. 
The shutting up of a place 
by troops or ships, to compel 
a surrender from want, with- 
out regular attacks. — v. t. To 
shut up by troops or ships, ^^ 
etc.; to contine. — Blockad''er 
n. Block-house. 

Blomary. See under Bloom. 

Blonde, blond, ii. One having fair complexion and 
light hair and e}'es. — a. Of a fair color or com- 
plexion; fair. 

Blood, blud, n. The fluid in the arteries and veins; rela- 
tion by natural descent ; kindred ; lineage, — esp. 
honorable birth ; the shedding of blood ; murder; 
temper of mind; disposition; excited feeling; pas- 
sion; a man of fire or spirit; juice of anything, 
esp. if red. (Stock breeding.) Descent from parents 
of recognized breed, — in horses, descent from Arab 
stock. — v.t. To let blood from; to bleed; to stain 
with blood; to inureto blood, as a hound. — Bloodi- 
ed, a. Having pure blood; of the best stock.— 
Blood'y, -t, a. Stained with, 6r containing, blood; 
attended with bloodshed; murderous. — 1\ t. To 
stain with blood. — Blood'ily, -'i-\X,adv. — Blood''i- 
ness, n. State of being, etc.; bloodthirstiness. — 
Blood'less, o. Without blood; dead; without shed- 
ding blood; without spirit. — Blood'lessly, adi: — 
Blood'bought, a. Procured at the cost of blood- 
shed. — gTult'y, a. Guilty of murder. guilt'i- 

ness, n. — heat, n. Heat equal to the temperature 
of blood, — about 98° Fahr. — horse, n. A horse of 

Arab stock. — hot, a. As warm as blood. — hound, 
71. A ferocious variety of dog, of acute smell, em- 
ployed to track men or animals. let'ter, «. One 

who lets blood, as in diseases ; a phlebotomist. — 
-let'ting, n. (Med.) Act of letting blood by opening 
a vein ; venesection. — money, -mun'l, «'. .Sloney 
paid to the next of kin to one killed by another, or 
to one instrumental in cawsiiig another's death. — 
-rela'tion, »(. One connected by blood or descent. — 
-root, n. A plant, named froni the color of its root; 

bloodwort. shed, /(. The shedding of blood ; 

slaughter; w-asteof life. — shed'der, n. — shed^ding, 
n. The crime of, etc. — shot. -shoVten, a. Red 
and inflamed by a turgid state of the blood-vessels, 
as in diseases of the eye. — spav^in, ?(. (Far.) A 
dilatation of the vein 'inside the hock of a horse, 
forming a soft swelling. — stone, n. (3Iin.) A green 
silicious stone sprinkled with red jasper; hematite, 

a brown ore of iron. snek'er, n. An animal that 

sucks blood; esp. the leech. —-thirst'y. ti. Desir- 
ous to shed blood, -Huirderous. thirsViness, ?i. — 

-Tes'sel, 71. A vessel in which blood circulates; an 
artery or a vein. warm, a. Warm as blood; luke- 
warm. — wood, n. Logwood,— so called from its 

color. — Blood'y flux. Dysentery. mind'ed, a. 

Having a cruel, ferocious disposition. sweat, 

-swet, )}. The sweating sickness, in which a dis- 
charge of_blood accompanies a profuse perspiration. 
Bloom, bloom, n. A mass of crude iron from the 
puddling furnace, undergoing the first hammering. 

— Blom'ary, -ery, bloom'er-i, n. The first forge 
through which iron passes after it is melted from 
the ore. — BIoom''ing, n. Process of making blooms, 
or of converting cast into malleable iron. 

Bloom, bloom, n. A blossom ; the flower of a plant; 
the opening of flowers ; an opening to higher per- 
fection, like that of buds into blossoms ; powdery 
coating upon newly-gathered fruits. — r. i. [bloomed 
(bloonid), BLOOMING.] To produce blossoms ; to 
flower; to be in a state of growing youth and vigor; 
to show beauty and freshness, as "of flowers. 

Bloomer, bloom-'er, n. A man-like costume for 
women; a woman who wears it. 

Blossom, blos'sum, 7i. The flower of a plant, or the 
organs of reproduction, with their appendages. — 
V. I. [blossomed (-sumd), -somixg.] To put forth 
blossoms; to bloom; to flourish and prosper. 

Blot, blot, I', t. To spot or bespatter; to stain with in- 
famy, disgrace, disfigure ; to obliterate, expunge, 
efface, destroy. — n. A spot or stain; blur; an ob- 
literation; a spot in reputation; disgrace; blemish. — 
Blofter, ?i. One who, or that which", blots. (Com.) A 
book for registering current mercantile transactions. 

Blot, n. In the game of backgammon, a man left un- 
covered and liable to be taken up. 

Blotch, bloch, V. t. [blotched (blocht), blotching.] 
To blacken; to spot. — w. A spot on the skin; a pus- 
tule or eruption. 

Blouse, Blowse, blowz, n. A loose over-garment; 

Blow, bio, 71. A blossom; a flower; a bed of flowers. 

— V. i. To flower or bloom; to produce, cause to 

Blow, bio, n. Act of striking ; stroke ; a sudden or 
severe calamity. 

Blow, bio, V. i. \imjy. blew ; p.p. blown; blowing.] 
To produce a current of air with the mouth; to 
move, as air; to breathe hard or quick, pant, puff; 
to sound on being blown into ; to bra";. — v. t. To 
drive a current of air upon, or drive by a current 
of air; to sound, as a wind instrument; to spread 
by report, publish; to deposit, as eggs by flies; t(i 
form by inflation; to swell by injecting air ; to put 
out of breath. — n. An egg deposited bj' a fly ir 
flesh; the act of depositing it. (JV^avt.) A violent 
wind; a gale. —Blowy, bloM, a. Wind v. — Blow'!", 
n. One who blows; ;t smelteV. (3Iech.) A contriv- 
ance for driving a current of air into something; a 
steam-jet to partially exhaust a chimney and crt - 
ate a blast-draught. A screen of metal to increase, 
the draught through a fire or in a flue. 

Blowse. See Blouse. 

Blowze, blowz, ?i. A ruddy, fat-faced woman. — 
Blowzed, blowzd, Blow'zy, a. Coarse, fat, and 

sun, cube, full ; moon, idtt ; oow, oil ; ligger or ink, tiien, boa^boN, chair, get. 




Blabber, blub^bgr, n. The fat of whales, etc., yield- 
ing oil. —r. ;. [BLl'BBEKED (^-bSrd), -BEEIXG."] To 
weep noisily, or so as to disfigure thu lace. — v. t. 
To swell the face with weeping. 

Blndgeon, bluj^un, n. A short cudgel with one end 

Blue, blu, n. The color of the clear sky; one of the 
primary colors, (pi-') Low spirits: "melancholy ; 
blue-deN-ils. — a. Of the color called blv/i ; low in 
spirits; over-strict in morals. — r. t. [blued (blud), 
BLL"IXG.] To make blue: to dye of a blufe color; to 
temper (iron) until it is blue. — "Blue'ly, oxlv. With a 
blue color. — Blue'^neas, n. — Blu'ish, a. Somewhat 
blue. — Blu'ing, n. Act of rendering blue: something 
to give a blue tint, as indigo. — Blue''bell, n. A 

plant bearing blue bell-shaped flowers. berry, n. 

A kind of whortleberry. bird, n. A small Amer- 
ican bird, resemblin;; t"he English robin. book. n. 

A parliamentary publication, so called from its blue 
paper covers. [^Eng.'] A list of persons in govern- 
ment employ. [Anier.'] — ^bot'tle, n. A plant which 
grows among corn, and has blue bottle-shaped flow- 
ers; a fly, with a large blue belly. — ^breast, n. A small 
European bird, —-"devils, -dev'lz, n. pi. Lowness of 

spirits ; hj-pochondria. fish, n. An edible salt 

water ganie fish; a name sometimes applied to the 
dolphin. grass, n. A valuable pasture-grass, in- 
digenous to the limestone region of Kentucky. — 
-gurc tree, ?;. The Eucahiptus rjlobulns. of Austra- 
lia yielding a resin resembling kino. — light, -lit, n. 
A composition burning with a blue flame, used as a 

firework or a night signal at sea. mass, n. (J/ec/.) 

A preparation of mercury and conserve of roses, 
from which blue pills are made. pe'ter, n. {Brit- 
ish ilarine). A blue flag with a white square in the 
center, used as a signal for sailing. — pill, n. {Jied.) 
A pill of prepared mercurj', used as an aperient, etc. 
— stock'ing, n. A literary lady: a female pedant. — 
-stone, -vit'riol. n. {Cfieni.) 'Sulphate of copper, 
used as a caustic. 

Biuff, bluf , a. Rude or coarse ; blustering ; roughly 
frank; outspoken: steep; bold. — n. A bank pre- 
senting a precipitous front; a game of cards. — 1\ t. 
To frighten or deter; to repel by gruffness. — Bluff'- 
ness, n. — Bluff'y, a. Having Bluffs. 

Blunder, blun'der, r. i. [bluxdeeed (-derd), -der- 
iXG.] To mistake grossly; to err through want of 
care. — iv t. To confuse, mix together. — n. A ^ross 
mistake; error; bull. — Blun'derer, n. — Blun'der- 
bead, -hed, n. A stupid fellow. 

Blunderbuss, blun''der-bus, n. A short gun, with large 
bore for a number of balls, not requiring exact aim; 
a stupid, blundering fellow. 

Blunt, blunt, a. Having a thick edge or point; dull; 
dull in understanding; abrupt in address; uncere- 
monious. — r. t. To dull the edge or point of ; to 
repress or weaken, as appetite, desii-e. etc. 

Blur, bier, n. That which obscures without effacing; 
a stain; blot;_adim, confused appearance. — v.t. 
[blurred (blerd), blurrixg.] To obscure without 
quite effacing; to cause imperfect vision in; to dim; 
to blemish, disgrace, sully. 

Blurt, blert, r. t." To utter* suddenly or unadvisedly; 
to divulge inconsiderately. 

Blush, blush, V. i. [blushed (blusht), blushixg.] To 
have a rosy color; to redden in the face, as from 
shame, confusion, or modesty. — n. A rosy tint: a 
red color suffusing the face"; sudden appearance ; 
glance; view. 

Bluster, blus'ter, )-. i. 

[BLUSTERED (-terd), -TER- 

IXG.] To blow fitfully 
with violence and noise'; 
to talk noisih', swaggei-. 
— n. Xoise aiid violence; 
threatening talk; boister- 
o u s n e s s ; turbulence : 
boasting; bullying. — 
Blus'terer, n. A swag- 
gerer: a bully. 
Boa, bo'a, n. 'A. genus of _ 

serpents; a round fur tip- isoa-constnctor. 

pet, shaped like a boa-constrictor. — BD'a-constric'- 
tor, -kon-strik'ter, n. A large serpent of tropical 
America, which crushes its prey in its coils. 

Boar, bor, n. The male of swine not castrated; the 
wild hog. — Boar'ish, o. Swinish; brutal. 

Board, bord, n. A piece of timber sawed thin; a table 
to put food upon: food; entertainment, — usually 
as furnished for pay; a council, or any authorized 
assembly or meeting. {Naut.) The deck of a ves- 
sel; interior of a vessel; side of a ship; line over 
which a ship runs between tack and tack. A table 
for a game: paper made thick and stiff like a board. 
{pi.) The sta^e in a theater. — v.t. To lay. spread, 
or cover with boards; to go on board of, or enter; to 
furnish with food for compensation; to place at 
board, for compensation. — r. i. To obtain food 
statedly for compensation. — Board'er, n. One who 
takes and paj-s for meals at another's table. {Nau*..) 
One who boards a ship. — Board'ing, n. A casing 
made of boards. — Board/'ing-house, a. A house fo •• 

boarders. school, -skool, m. A school where pu 

pils have board and lodging. — Board'wa'ges, n. pi 
An allowance to servants to purchase their own 
' food. 

: Boast, host, r. i. To vaunt one's self; to brag. — v. t. 
To speak of with pride, vanity, or exultation; to mag- 
nifj- or exalt one's self. — n. " Expression of ostenta- 
tion, etc.; the cause of boasting. — Boasfful, -ful, a. 
Given to boasting. — BoasffuUy, -ingly, adi: — 
Boast_^fulness, n. 

Boat, bot, ?i. A small open vessel; any vessel. — v.t. 
To transport in a boat.^?-. i. To go in a boat. — 
Boat'^-bill, n. Awading-bird of South America, hav- 
ing a bill like a boat keel uppermost. — book, -hfiOk, 
71. (yaut.) A hook on a pole, to pull or push a 
boat. — man. u. One who manages a boat. — swain, 
bo'sn, n. An officer who has charge of a ship's boats, 
sails, rigging, etc. 

Bob, bob, ?'i. Anything that plays loosely, or ■with 
jerks; bait used in angling; the ball of a pendulum 
or pluml)-line. — i-. t. [bobbed (bobd), bobbixg.] 
To move in a short, jerking manner; to strike with 
a quick, light blow ; to gain by fraud, delude ; to 
have the haircut short. — r. i. To have a jerking 
motion; to angle with a bob, or with jerks of the 

Bobbin, bob'bin, n. A kind of spool on which thread 
is wound; round tape. — Bobbinet, bob-bin-et'' or 
bob''bin-et, n. A kind of lace wrought by machines. 

Boblincoln, bob-lin''kun, Bob'olink.w. The rice-bird, 
rice-bunting, reed-bird; an American singing-bird. 

Bob-white, bob'whit'', n. The American partridge or 
qu.iil, — named_from its note. 

Bock-beer, bok^ber, 7i. A strong kind of lager beer. 

Bocking. bok'^ing, n. A kind of baize or drugget. 

Bode, bod, v. t. To indicate by signs; to portend, 
foreshow. — )•. i. To foreshow, presage. 

Bodice, Boddice, bod'^is, yi. Stays; a corset. 

Bodkin, bod''kin, n. A dagger; a pointed instrument 
for making holes, etc., or lor drawing tape through 

Body, bod'T, n. The material substance of an animal; 
the principal part, in distinction from parts less im- 
portant; a person; a collective mass of individuals; 
a corporation ; a number of particulars taken to- 
o;ether; a system; any mass or portion of matter. 
(Paint.) Consistency': thickness.^ r. t. [bodied 
(bod'id), BODYIXG.] 'To produce in definite shape; 
to embody. —Bod'ily, a. Having a body: corpo- 
real; pert.'to the body. — «c?r. Corisoreally; entirely; 
completely. —Bod'y^lothes, -klotiiz, n. pi. Clothing 

for the body. color, -kuKer, n. {Paint.) Color 

that has body, or consistence, in distinction fr. a 
tint or wash, —-guard, -gard, n. A guard to protect 
the person; life-guard. — ^poKitic, n. A state in its 

political capacity. snatcher, -snach'er, n. One 

who robs graA'es'of bodies. 

Boeotian, be-o'shan. a. Pert, to Boeotia : to its bad 
climate; or to its dull and stupid inhabitants. 

Boer, boor, n. A Dutch colonist of South Africa. 

Bog, n. A quagmire : marsh ; morass. — r. t. To 
whelm or plunge, as in mud and mire.— Bog'gy, a. 
Containing bogs; swampy. 

Bogey, Bogy, bo'gT. Bogle, bo'gl. Boggle, bog'gl, n. 
A hobgoDlin: bugbear: specter; a nursery demon. 
— Bo'gie, Eo^'g'". n. A small hand-car on railroads; 
a four-wheeled' track under a locomotive; an iron 
box to receive slagfrom a puddling furnace. — Bog'- 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; end, eve, term ; In, ice ; Odd, tOK?, ur , 




gle, r. t. [BOGGLED (-gld), BOGGLING.] To hesitate 
as if frightened; to waver, vacillate, shrink. 

Bogus, bo'gus, a. Spurious ; counterleit. 

Bohea, bo-he', n. An inferior kind ot black or green 
tea ; black tea in general. 

Bohemian, bo-he''mT-an, a. Pert, to Bohemia or its 
inhabitants, to gypsies, or to hack-writers for the 
press. — n. A native of Bohemia; a gypsy; a needy 
v/riter, politician, artist, etc., who lives by hi? wits. 

Boil, boil, V. i. [boiled (boild), boiling.] To be agi- 
tated by the action of heat ; to bubble, effervesce; 
to be hot or fervid; to be excited; to suffer boiling 
in liquid.— v. t. To cause to bubble by heat; to 
form by boiling; to subject to the action "of heat in 
a boiling liquid. — Boil'er, n. One wlio boils ; a 
vessel in which anything is boiled. (Mvch.) A me- 
tallic vessel in which steam is generated. — Boil'- 
ery, n. A place and apparatus for boiling. — Boil''- 
ing, n. Act or state of agitation by heat; ebullition; 
act of subjecting to the action of neat. 

Boil, boil, n. A small inflamed tumor, which com- 
monly suppurates, — formerly written bile. 

Boisterous, bois'ter-us, a. Tumultuous; turbulent; 
noisy 1^ roaring^— Bois'terousness, n. 

Bold, "bold, a. Forward to meet danger ; exhibiting 
or requiring spirit and daring; audacious; forward; 
impudent; taking liberties in expression; markedly 
conspicuous ; steep or abrupt. — Bold'ness, n. 

Bole, bol, n. The body or stem of a tree. A kind of 
fine, compact, or earthy clay. 

Bolero,_bo-la''ro, n. A Spanish dance. 

Boll, bol, n. The fiod or capsule of a plant ; a peri- 
carp; a Scotch measure, containing 2, 4, or 6 bush- 
els. — V. i. To form into a seed-vessel. 

Bologna sausage, bo-lon-'ya-saw-saj. A sausage of 
various meats and pork suet. 

Bolster, boKster, n. A long pillow or cushion; a pad; 
compress. — D. t. [bolstered (-sterd), -sterino.] 
To support with a bolster ; to hold up, maintain. 

Bolt, bolt, n. An arrow; dart; a strong pin, to hold 
something in place ; a thunder-bolt ; 
shackle ; 28 ells of canvas. — v. t. To 
fasten with a bolt, restrain; to blurt out; 
to swallow without chewing. — v. i. To 
start forth like a bolt, move abruptly, 
spring suddenly aside ; to desert, as a 
party or organization. — adv. With 
sudden meeting or collision ; perpen- 

Bolt, bolt, V. t. To sift ; to separate, as- 
sort, or purify; to examine closely. 

Bolus, bo'^lus,?!. {Med.) A rounded mass ; 
a large pill. 

Bomb, bum, n. (Mil.) A hollow iron ball 
filled with explosives to be discharged 
from a mortar. — Bombard, bum-bard'", 
v.t. To attack with bombs. —Bombard '- 
ment, n. An attack with bombs. 

Bombast, bnm'bast, n. Orig., cotton or 
soft material used as padding; hence, an 
inflated style; fustian. — (^'. High-sound- 
ing ; turgid. — Bombasfic, a. Characterized by, 
etc.— Bombasfically, adv. 

Bombazet, -zette, bum'ba-zef, Bom'bazine'', -sine, 
-sin, -zen', n. A twilled fabric, with silk warp and 
worsted weft. 

Bona fides, bo'nd fi'dez. Good faith; sincerity. — 
Bona fide, -fi'de. In good faith ; really. [L.] 

Bonanza, bo-nan'za, n. A sudden widening in a 
vein of silver; a successful venture, — esp. in gold 
or silver mining. 

Bonbon, boN-'boN, n. Sugar confectionery ; a sugar- 

Bond, bond, n. That which r-i < , < > r— i — 
binds, fastens, or con- 
fines; a binding force or 
influence. (Law.) A 
writing by which one 
binds himself, his heirs, 
executors, etc., to pay a 
sum. (Arch.) Union or 
tie of stones or bricks in a 
wall. — a. In a state of 
servitude or captivity. — 
V. t. To secure payment 

Bolt and 

A, bolt; 

B, head; 
C, nut: 

X), check- 



English Bond. 

Flemish Bond. 

of, by giving a bond. — Bond'age, n. State of being- 
under restraint; obligation. (Old Eng. Law.) ViC- 
lenage. — Bonded goods. Goods left in charge of cus- 
toms officers, — bonds being given for the paj-mcnt 

of duties upon them. ware-'houBe, n. A" place 

where bonded goods are stored. — Bond-'maid, n. A 

female slave. man, ?«. A man slave. (Old Eng. 

Law.) A villain, or tenant in villenage. serv'ant, 

n. A slave. — serv'ice, /). Slavery. — slave, n. One 
in slavery. — stone, /'■ (Masonri/.) A stone running 
through the thickness ot a wall to bind it together. 
— tiin''ber, n. A beani'worked into a wall to tic or 
strengthen it longitudinally. — Bondsman, bondz'- 
man, «.; 7^Z. -MEN. A bondman. (Law.) A surety; 
one who gives security for another. — wom^an, n. A 
woman slave. 

Bone, bon, ?i. (Anat.) A hard whitish substance, com- 
posing the skeleton; an integral portion of the skele- 
ton. — a. Made of bone — v. t. [boned (bond), 
boning.] To take out bones from; to put whalebone 
into. — Bo'ny, -nT, a. Consisting ot, full of, or pert, 
to, bones ; having large or prominent bones. 

Boneset, bon'set, M. A medicinal plant; thoroughwort. 

Bonfire, bon'fir, n. Afire to express public exultation, 
or for amusement. 

Bonito. bo-ne'to, n. A fish of the tunny kind. 

Bonmot, boN'mo, n. A witty repartee ; a jest. [F.] 

Bonne, bon, «. A child's nurse. [F.] 

Bonnet, bon'net, n. A covering for the head. 

Bonny, bon-'nT, a. Handsome ; gay ; plump ; well- 
formed — Bon'nily, adv. 

Bonny-clabber, bon^nT-klaVber, n. Sour buttermilk; 
the thick part of soured milk. [ionable society. I 

Bon ton, box toN. The height of the fashion ; fash-| 

Bonus, bo''nus,M (Laiv.) A premium given for a loan, 
charter, etc. ; an extra dividend paid out of ac- 
cumulated profits ; a sum paid to an agent, above a. 
share in_profits or stated compensation. [L.] 

Booby, boo'bT, n. A water-fowl ; a dunce. 

Boodle, boo^'dl, n. Money given in payment for votes 
or political influence ; bribe mone.v. \ Slang.] 

Book, bd&k, n. A collection of sheets of paper, etc., 
bound together; a literary composition, written or 
printed; a subdivision of a literary work. (Mer.) 
A volume in which accounts are kept. ^*?'. t. 

. [booked (b66kt), booking.] To enter, or register 
in a book. — Book''ish, a. Given to reading ; more 
acquainted with books than with men. — Book'- 

bind'er, n. One who binds books. ^bind'ery, n. 

A place for binding, etc. bind'ing, w. Art or 

practice of, etc. case, n. A case with shelves 

for holding books. (Bind.) A book-cover. cov'- 

er, w. (Bind.) A case for a book; a cover of cloth 
or other material prepared for casing a book. — 
-keep'er, n. One who keeps accounts. — keep'ing, 
n. Art of recording mercantile transactions and 

keeping accounts. learned, -lernd, a. Versed in 

books; Ignorant of life. leam'ing, n. Learning 

acquired by reading,— esp. as opp. to practical knowl- 
edge. — mak'er, n. One who writes and publishes 
books; a compiler; a sporting man who makes a rec- 
ord of bets. — mak'ing, n. The practice of, etc.; com- 
pilation : systematized betting. mark, n. Some- 
thing placed in a book by which to find a particular 
place. — plate, n. A label indicating ownersnip, place 
in a library, etc., usually on the inside ot the cover of 
a book. — post, 71. The post-office arrangement by 

which books are mailed. sell'er, n. One who 

sells books. — shelf, n. A shelf to hold books. — 
-shop, -stall, -store, n. A place for selling books. — 
-stand, w. A stand for selling books in the streets; 
book-stall; a support to hold books. — worm, n. A 
worm or mite that eats holes in books ; one exces- 
sively addicted to study. 

Boom, boom, n. A spar for extending the bottom of 
sails; a chain cable or connected line of spars, cross- 
ing a river or other water; a pole set up in shallow 
water, to mark out the channel; in business, a strong 
demand for a commodity; an earnest popular in- 
terest in behalf of some measure. — v. i. [boomed 
(boomd), booming.) To rush violently, as a ship 
under press of sail. 

Boom, boom, n. A hollow roar; the cry of the bittern. 
— ; )'. I. To make a hollow sound, roar, or cry. 

Boomerang, boom-'er-ang, n. A missile weapon of 

bQu, cube, full ; moon, fciftt ; cow, oil ; linger or igk, tiien, boNboN, chair, get. 




the natives of Australia, which describes remark- 
able curves, and falls near the thrower. 

Boon, boon, n. Gift; benefaction; grant; prayer or 
petition. — a. Gay ; jovial ; kind ; bountiful. 

Boor, boor, n. A countryman : peasant ; clown; a 
rude and illiterate person. — Boor'ish, a.. Like a 
boor: clownish: illiterate. — Boor'ishness, n. 

Boose, Booze, Boaze. booz, r. i. To drink excessively; 
to guzzle. — Boo''sy, -zy, -zl, a. Intoxicated; silly; 

Boost, boost, V. t. To lift or push from behind. 

Boot, boot, f. ?. To profit; to advantage. — n. Differ- 
ence given to equalize an exchange; profit. — Boof- 
less, a. Unavailing ; unprofitable. — Booflessly, 
adv. — Boot'lessness, n. 

Boot, boot, /(. A covering for the foot and leg; a rack 
for the leg, to torture criminals; a leather-covered 
receptacle on a coach; a cover for a carriage, against 
rain and mud; (p7.) a servant who blacks boots. — 
v.t. To put boots on. — Boot'-crimp, n. A frame for 
shaping boots. — -jack, n. An instrument for drawing 
off boots. tree, -last, n. A block to stretch boots. 

Booth, booth, n. A temporary shelter ; slight hut. 

Booty, boot'I, n. Spoil taken in war, or by violence; 

Bopeep, bo-pep', n. A children's play. 

Borax, bo''raks, n. (Chem.) Biborate of soda; a salt 
formed by combination of boracic acid with soda. 

— Bo'rate, w, A salt formed by combination of 
boracic acid with a base. — Bo'^ron, n. An elemen- 
tary substance, allied to carbon, the base of boracic 

Border, b6r''der, n. The outer part or edge of any- 
thing ; verge; brim; boundary. — v.i. [boedeked 
(-derd), -DEEiXG.] To touch at the edge; to be ad- 
jacent; to come near to. — r. t. To make, or adorn 
with, a border; to touch at the edge. — Bor''derer, ?i. 
One who dwells on a border. — Bor''der-land, 71. 
Land on the frontiers; debjitable land. 

Bore, bor, r. t. [bored (bord), boring.] To perfo- 
rate or penetrate; to form a round hole in; to wearj' 
by tedious iteration or dullness; to vex. — 1\ i. To 
pierce or enter by boring ; to be pierced or pene- 
trated by a turning instrument; to carry the nose to 
the ground, — said of a horse. — n. Tfie hole made 
by boring; cavity of a fire-arm ; caliber ; one who, 
or that which, wearies by repetition or dullness. 
(Physical Geog.) A tidal flood at the mouths of 
some rivers ; a high and rapid flow. 

Bore, Bom. See Bear. 

Boreal, bo''re-al, a. Northern; pert, to the north or 
north wind. 

Borough, bur^ro, n. An incorporated town ; in Eng., 
a town that sends members to parliament; in Scot., 
a body corporate, with certain jurisdiction. 

Borrow, bor''ro, v. t. [borrowed (-rod), -rowixg.] To 
take on trust, with the intention of repaying; to 
take from another for one's own use; to appropriate. 

Bosh, bosh, n. Mere show; empty talk; folly. 

Bo?om, bd^zum, n. The breast of a human being; 

■ the seat of the passions, affections, etc.; embrace; 
affectionate inclosure; inclosed place; interior; the 
part of the dress over the breast. — a. Intimate ; fa- 
miliar; dear. —i-. i. [bosomed (-zumd),-0MiNG.] To 
inclose in the bosom, keep with care, hide from 
view, embosom. 

3oBS, bos, n. A protuberant ornament ; stud ; knob. 
(3t€c7i.) The enlarged part of a shaft, on which a 
wheel is keyed, or where it is coupled to another; 
a swage or (lie for shaping metals. — v. t. To orna- 
ment with bosses; to stud. 

Boss, bos, n. A master workman or superintendent. 

— r. i. & *. To direct, superintend. 

Botany, bofa-nt, n. Science of the structure, classifi- 
cation, etc., of plants. — Botan'ic, -ical, bo-tan'ik-al, 
o. Pert, to botany: relating: to, or containing, plants. 

— Botan^ically, adr. — Botanist, bofan-ist, n. One 
skilled in, etc. — Bofanize, v. i. [botanized (-izd), 
-iziXG.] To seek for and investigate plants. 

Botch, boch, n. An ulcerous affection. A patch of 
a garment ; work done biinglingly ; a clumsy per- 
formance. — l\t. [botched (fiobht), BOTCHING.] 

To mend or patch clumsily ; to express or perform 
Both, Doth, 'a. & j)ron. The one and the other; the 

two. — conj., used before the first of two coordinate 
words or phrases, followed by and before the other. 

Bother, both'Sr, v. t. [bothered (-erd), -erixg.] To 
tease or perplex. — n. One who, or that which, 
bothers ; state of perplexitj' or annoj'ance. — Both'- 
era-'tion, n. Act of, or state of being, etc. — Both'- 
ersome, -er-sum, a. Causing bother. 

Bots, Botts, bots, «. jf:iZ. (Entom.) Small worms found 
in the intestines of horses. — Bof-fly. The insect 
whose egws produce bots. 

Bottle, boKl, n. A narrow-mouthed vessel for hold- 
ino^ liquors; the contents of one. — r. t. [bottled 
(-tld), -TLING.] To inclose in bottles. 

Bottom, bofum, n. The lowest part of a thing; foun- 
dation; base; low alluvial land along a river: aval- 
ley. (Naut.) The keel of a vessel; the vessel itself. 
Power of endurance: stamina: dregs or grounds. — 
V. t. [bottomed (-tumd), -toming.] To found or 
build; to furnish with a seat or bottom. — v. i. To 
be based. — Bot'tomless, a. Without a bottom ; 
fathomless. — Bot'tomry, -rl, n. (liar. Law.) A 
contract by which a ship is bound as security for re- 
payment of money. 

Boudoir, boo'dw6r, n. A lady's private room. 

Bough, bow, 71. An arm of large branch of a tree. 

Bought. See Buy. 

Bougie, boo-zhe', ?;. (Surg.) A long, flexible instru- 
ment, introduced into the urethra, esophagus, etc., 
to remove obstructions. 

Boulevard, boo-le-var'', m. Orig. a bulwark; a broad 
public walk or street. 

Bounce, bowns, v. i. [bounced (bownst), bouncing.] 
To leap or spring suddenly; to beat or thump. — r. 
t. To drive violently against anj-thing. — «. A sud- 
den leap or bound; a heavy, sudcien blow or thump; 
a bold lie. — Boun^'cing, a. Plump and healthy ; 

Bound, bownd, w. External line of any object or 
space, limit, confine, boundary. — v. t. To limit, 
terminate, restrain, circumscribe ; to give the boun- 
daries of. — Bound'ary, -a-rT, 7i. That which fixes a 
limit, — esp. a visible mark. — Bound'^less, a. With- 
out bounds ; unlimited ; infinite. 

Bound, bownd, n. A leap; spring; jump. — r.f. To 
move forward by leaps; rebound, as an elastic ball. 

Bound, bownd, a. Destined; tending; going, or in- 
tending to go, etc. 

Bound, Bounden. See Bind. 

Bounty, bown'tl, n. Goodness ; liberality ; munifi- 
cence; that which is given liberally; a premium to 
encourage some object. — Boun'^teous, -te-us, a 
Disposed to give freely ; generous. — Boun-'tiful, 
-ful, a. Free in giving. 

Bouquet, boo-ka'', n. A nosegay ; bunch of flowers ; a 
perfume or aromatic odor. 

Bourgeois, bur-iois'', «. (P«nt.) A kind of type, m 
size between long primer and brevier. 

]^^ This line is in bourgeois type. 

Bourgeois, bobr-zhwaw', n. In France, a man oi 
middle rank in society ; a citizen. — Bourgeoisie, 
boor-zhwaw-ze', h. The middle classes, — esp. 
those concerned in trade. 

Bourgeon, ber-'jun, v. i. To put forth buds; to shoot 
forth, as a branch. _ 

Bourn, Bourne, born o?- boom, n. A bound; Umit; 
goal. A stream ; rivulet ; bum. 

Bourse, boors, n. A mercliants' exchange; in France, 
the money market. 

Bout, bowt, n. A conflict ; trial ; as much of an ac- 
tion as is performed at one time ; a turn. 

Bovine, bo'vin, a. Pert, to cattle of the ox kind. 

Bow, bow, V. t. [bowed (bowd), bowing.] To bend, 
inflect, make crooked or curved; to turn from a nat- 
ural condition; to bend in respect, homage, conde- 
scension, etc.; to depress, subdue. — r. i. To bend, 
in token of reverence, civility, etc. — «. An incli- 
nation of the head or bodv, in token of respect, etc. 

Bow, bow, n. (Nant.) The curving forepart of a 
ship; prow; the bow-oar. —Bow'er, w. (3rt«/.) -\n 
anchor carried at the ship's bow, the second in size. 
— Bowline, bo''lTn, ??. A rope which keeps the 
weather edge of a sail tight forward when the ship 
is close-hauled. — -oar, boWor, n. The oar 
e St the bow of a boat; the one who pulls it. sprit. 

Sm, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; 6nd, eve, term ; TCn, ice ; 5dd, tone, 8r ; 




bo- or bow-, n. A spar projecting from the bow of 
a ship, — sometimes called boltsprit. 

Bow, bo, n. Anything bent; a weapon by which an 
arrow is propelled; an instrument having a curved 
form, as a fiddle-stick. — Bow-com^passes, -kum'- 
pas-ez, Com- 
passes with an <^^^^^a@ 
arched plate on """V-/ ^ g fg 

one leg, upon „ 

which the other Bow-compass, 

leg slides; compasses furnished with a bow-pen. — 
-drill, n. A drill revolved bv a bow and string. — 
-hand, n. {Archery.) The liand holding the bow, 
the left hand. ( J/«.s.) The hand drawing the bow, 

right hand. knot. -not. «. A knot tied with a bow 

or loop of string, and readily loosened. —-legged, 
-legd, a. Having legs curved outwards. — man, n. 
One who uses a bow; an archer. — net, «. An ar- 
rangement of wicker baskets for catching lobsters, 
etc. — pen,7i. A kind of ruling-pen. — shot, n. The 
distance a bow shoots an arrow. — string, n. The 
string which bends a bow. — v. t. To strangle with 
a bow-string. 

Sowel, bow'el, n. One of the intestines; an entrail; 
the interior part of anything; the seat of pity; com- 
passion. — i\ t. To take out the bowels of. 

Sower, bow'er, n. One of the two highest cards in 
euchre, — the highest bein^ the Right bower, the 
knave of the trump suit; the next the Left bower, 
the other knave of the same color as the trump. A 
chamber; a country-seat: cottage; acovered place in 
a garden ; arbor. '— Bow'ery, a. Covering, as a 
bowerj containing bowers. 

Bowl, bol, n. A concave vessel to hold liquids; the 
hollow part of anvthing. 

Bowl, bol, 71. A ball. — v. t. [bowled (bold), bowl- 
ing.] To roll, as a bowl ; to pelt with anvthing 
rolled. — ?;. t. To play with bowls; to roll the baU 
on a level plain ; to move rapidly, smoothly, and 
like a ball. 

Bowlder, Boulder, boKder, n. A large pebble. (Geol.) 
A mass of rock that has been transported by nat- 
ural agencies from its native bed. 

Box, boks, n. A case or receptacle; the quantity that 
a box contains; an inclosed space with seats in a 
theater, etc.; a money-chest; a small house. (Jfach.) 
A cylindrical, hollow iron, in which an axle-tree 
runs; a tube in a pump, closed with a valve; the 
bucket of a lifting pump. The driver's seat on a 
carriage; a present. (Bot.) A tree or shrub, the 
dwarf variety of which is used for borders in gar- 
dens. —i'.<. [BO.XED(bokst), BOXING.] To inctose 
in a box; to furnish with boxes. 

Box, boks, n. A blow with the hand on the ear or 
head. —v. t. & i. To fight with the fist. 

Boxhaul, boks^hawl, x\ t. [boxhauled (^-hawld), 
BOXHAULiNG.J (Nciut.) To wear, as a ship, when 
close-hauled, short round on to the other tack. 

Boy, boi, n. A male child; a lad. — Boy'hood, -h(5Sd, 
n. State#f a boy, or immaturity of age. — Boy'ish, 
a. Like a boy ; childish ; puerile. — Boy'ishly, adv. 
— Boy'lshness, n. 

Boycott, boi^kot', v. t. To combine against (a land- 
lord, tradesman, employer, or other person), to 
withhold social or business relations from him, and 
to deter others from holding such relations. — n. The 
process, fact, or pressure of boycotting. 

Brace, bras, n. A' prop or support. {Carp.) A tim- 
ber crossing a corner from one timber to another. 
{Print.) A curved line connecting words or lines: 
thii<! ^°^^' \ (''^'^'"'•) ji^ rope reeved through a block 
* ' bowl.} attheendof a yard. A pair or couple ; 
astrap, supporting a carriageon wheels; a bit-stock; 
state of being braced or tight, {pi.) Straps to sus- 
tain pantaloons, etc.; suspenders. —i\ t. [braced 
(brast), BRACING.] To furnish with braces, support, 
prop; to tighten. {Naut.) To move around by 
means of braces. 

Bracelet, bras'let, n. A wrist ornament ; defensive 
armor for the arm. 

Bracken, brak'en, n. Fern. 

Bracket, brak^'et, n. (Arch. & Engin.) A support 
projecting from a wall or other surface, (pi) 
(Naut.) Short, crooked timbers, resembling knees. 
(.Print.) Hooks [ ] used to inclose a reference, ex- 

planation, note, etc.; crotchets. — r. t. To place 
within, connect, or support by, brackets. 

Brackish, brak'ish, a. Saltish. 

Brad, brad, n. A naU with little or no head. — Brad'- 
awl, n. An awl to make holes for inserting 

Brag, brag, v. i. [bragged (bragd), -ging.J To 
praise one's self, or one's belongings, ostenta- 
tiously: to boast, bluster, vaunt. — n. A boast 
or boasting: thing boasted of; agame at cards. 

— Brag'gado'cio, -do'sliT-o, n. A braggart ; 
boaster; empty boasting. — Brag'gart, n. A 
boaster. — a . Boastful. — Brag'ger, n. 

Brahma, bra'ma. n. {Mtjth.) The first person 
in the trinity of the Hindoos; the creator.— 
Brah'man, -min, n. One of the upper or sa- 
cerdotal caste among the Hindoos. 

Braid, brad, r. t. To weave or entwine to- 
gether; to plat; to mingle by rubbing in some- 
thing fluid orsoft. — w. A string, cord, etc., Brad- 
woven from different strands. 

Brail, bral, w. {Falconry.) A piece of leather to 
bind a hawk's wing;, pi. {Naut.) Ropes to haul 
up, or truss up, sails, for furling. — v. t. [brailed 
(braid), brailing.J To haul up into, or truss up 
with, the brails. 

Brain, bran, n. {Anat.) The whitish, soft mass in 
the upper cavity of the skuU, which is considered 
the center of sensation and perception; the anterior 
or cephalic ganglion in invertebrate animals. The 
understanding. — v. t. To dash out the brains of; 
to destroy. — Brain'^less, a. Without understanding. 

Brake, brak, n. (Bot.) A fern of different genera. 
A place overgrown with brakes, canes, brambles, 
etc.; a thicket. 

Brake, brak, n. An instrument to break flax or hemp; 
the handle for working a pump or fire-engine ; a 
frame for confining horses while oeing shod; an in- 
closure for cattle, horses, etc.; a heavy harrow for 
breaking clods after plowing ; an appliance for 
checking motion of wheels, machinery, etc., by 
friction ; a light wagon used in breaking horses. — 
V. t. To apply brakes, — esp. to wheels of a railroad 

Bramble, bram^'bl, n. A shrub of the genus Rubus, 
including the raspberry and blackberry; any rough, 
prickly snrub. 

Bramin. See Brahman, under Brahma. 

Bran, bran, n. The coat of the seed of wheat, rye, 
etc., separated from the flour by bolting ; refuse 
sifted out of flour or meal. — Bran'-new, corrupt, of 

Branch, branch, n. A limb; a bough growing from a 
stem, or from another bough; a part extended from 
the maiii body of a thing, as a stream running into 
a larger one; a ramification ; a section or subdivis- 
ion ; department; a line of family descent, in dis- 
tinction fr. other lines fr. the same stock. {Law.) 
A warrant or commission given to a pilot. — r. t. 
[branched (brancht), branching.] To spread in 
branches, ramify; to divide into subdivisions. — w. 
t. To divide as into branches. 

Brand, brand, n. A burning or partly burnt stick; a 
sword, so called from its glittering brightness; an 
iron used for burning a mark; a distinctive mark 
made by burning with hot iron ; quality; kind; 
a mark of infamy; stigma. — ?•. t. To impress a 
mark with hot iron ; to stigmatize as infamous. 

— Brand'ing-iron, Brand''iron, -i'ern, n. An iron 
used to brand with. — Brand'-new, a. Quite new, 
as if fresh from the fire, — written also bran- and 
brent new. — -goose, n. See Brant. 

Brandish, brandish, v. t. [brandished (-disht), -dish- 
ing.] To wave, as a weapon; to shake or flourish. 

— n. A flourish, as with a weapon, whip, etc. 
Brandy, bran'dT, n. An ardent spirit distilled from 

wine or other liquors 
Branlin, bran''lin, n. A fish of the salmon kind. 
Brant, brant, n. A species of wild goose, called also 

brand-goose and brent-goose. — Brant'' -fox. n. A 

kind of Swedish fox. — Bran'tail, n. The red 

start, a bird similar to the nightingale. 
Brash, brash, a. Hasty in temper. Brittle, as wood. 

— n. Refuse boughs of trees; truck; trash. {Geol.) 
Broken fragments of rocks underlying alluvial de- 

Biin, cube, fi^ ; moon, fdt»t ; cow, oil ; Mflger or iQk, tihen, boNboN, chair, get. 




posits. Broken fragments of ice. (Med.) A rash 
or eruption. 
Brass, bras, n. A yellow alloy of copper and zinc; 
impudence; a brazen face. 2)t. Utensils, ornaments, 
etc., made of brass; esp. plates attached to monu- 
ments, bearing figures. — Bras8''y, a. Of, or pert, 
to, etc.; hard as, etc.; of the color of, etc.j impu- 
dently bold. — Brass'lness, n. — Braze, braz, v. t. 
To solder, or cover or ornament with, etc. ; to harden 
to impudence. — Brazen, bra''zn, a. Pert, to, or 
made of, brass; impudent, —v. t. To be impudent 
or defiant. — Bra'zenly, acZy. — Brassier, Bra''zier, 
-zher, n. An artificer in brass; a pan to hold coals. 

— Brass band. A company of performers on brass 
musical instruments. — leaf, n. Brass in thin sheets. 

Brat, brat, «. A contemptuous name for a child. 

Brave, brav, a. Of noble courage; bold, with gener- 
osity and dignity ; excellent ; beautiful. — n. A 
brave person ; esp., an Indian warrior; a hector ; a 
bully. — V. t. [braved (bravd), BRAViXG.] To en- 
counter with fortitude; to defy, challenge, dare. 

— Brav'ery, -er-l, n. Quality of being, etc.; fear- 
lessness; showy appearance; ostentation. — Bra'vo, 
n.;x>l. JSea^voes, -voz. A daring villain ; bandit; 
assassin or murderer. — Bravo, bra'^vo, interj. Well 
done, excellent ! — Brava'do, n. Ostentation of 
bravery ; boast or brag ; threatening behavior ; a 
boasting fellow. 

Brawl, brawl, v. i. To quarrel noisily and indecently; 
to scold, wrangle, squabble ; to roar, as water. — n. 
A noisy quarrel; loud contention; scurrility; uproar. 

Brawn, brawn, n. The flesh of a boar; full, strong 
muscles; strength; the arm. — Brawn'y, -T, a. 
Strong ; big. — Brawn-'iness, n. 

Bray, bra, i-. t. [bkayed (brad), beaying.] To pound, 
beat, or grind small. — v. i. To utter a harsh cry, as 
an ass; to make a harsh, grating noise. — r. t. To 
utter with a harsh sound. — n. The sound of an ass; 
any harsh, grating sound. 

Braze, Brazen, Brazier. See under Brass. 

Brazil-wood, bra-ziFw6&d, n. A very heavy wood, of 
Brazil and other tropical countries, used for dyeing 

Breach, brech, n. Act of breaking, or state of being 
broken; the opening broken; rent; gap; a breaking, 
as of a law, obligation, etc.; a breaking up of ami- 
cable relations; quarrel. — r. t. (Mil.) To make a 
breach in the walls of, by artillery. 

Bread, bred, n. Flour or meal baked in loaves, cakes, 
etc.; provisions in general. — Bread'-frait, n. The 
fruit of a tree of the isles of the Pacific, which re- 
sembles bread, when baked, and is eaten as food. — 
-stuff, n. Bread-corn; meal; flour. 

Breadth, bredth. n. Distance from side to side; width. 
(Paint.) Quality of having colors and shadows 
broad and massive, and an arrangement of objects 
suggesting largeness and simple grandeur. 

Break, brak, v. t. [imp. broke (brok) or (ohs.) brake 
(brak); p. p. broke or brokex; breaking.] To 
strain apart; to lay open by breaking; to disclose or 
divulge; to infringe or violate; to interrupt, termi- 
nate; to destroy the completeness of ; to dash, .shat- 
ter, or crush; to bruise; to weaken or subdue; to im- 
part cautiously; to tame; to make bankrupt; to de- 
stroy the official character of; to cashier. — r. i. To 
come to pieces, burst asunder; to open from within; 
to come to view; to dawn ; to burst f orth violentlj^ ; 
to become weakened ; to lose health or strength ; to 
fail in business; to change the gait; to exceed the 
natural power, as the voice; to fall out; to termi- 
nate friendship. — n. An opening made by frac- 
ture; an interruption; a pause; in writing or print- 
ing, a dash, or a blank or imfinished Une; the dawn; 
an interruption of continuity; a large carriage. — 
Break'^able, a. Capable of being broken. — Break''- 
age, -ej, n. A breaking ; allowance for things brok- 
en in transportation. — Break'down, n. Act of 
breaking down, as of a carriage; a riotous dance, 
terminating a ball. — Break'er, n. One who, or that 
which, breaks. (Naut.) A small water-cask for 
boats. — pi. Waves breaking into foam against the 

Breakfast, brek'fast, n. The first meal in the day. — 
v.i. To break one's fast in the morning. — v.t. To 
furnish with the morning meal. 

Bream, brem,n. A name for three kinds of fish, found 
respectively in Europe, North America, and the sea. 

Breast, brest, n. The part of the body between neck 
and belly; protuberant glands, in females, in which 
milk is secreted ; the seat of consciousness, aft'ec- 
tions, and passions ; the heart. — v. t. To bear 
the breast against ; to oppose. — Breast'ing, n. 
(Engin.) The curved channel in which a breast- 
wheel turns. — Breast'-bone, n. The bone of the 
breast; sternum. — hook, n. (Naut.) A knee-shaped 
timber in the stem of a ship, to keep the bows to- 
gether. knot, -not, n. A knot of ribbons worn 

on the breast. pin, n. A pin for fastening Or 

ornament; a brooch. — plate, n. Defensive armor 
worn upon the breast; a strap across a horse's breast. 
(Jewish Atitiq.) A part of the high priest's vest- 
ment. — plow, -plough, n. A plow, driven by the 

breast, to cut turf. rail, n. The upper rail of a 

balcony or of the breastwork on a quarter-deck. 
— wheel, n. A water-wheel, which receives the 
stream at about half its height. See Watee-wheel. 
— work, -werk, w. (Fort.) A defensive earth-work 
breast-high. (Naut.) A railing on the quarter-deck 
and forecastle. 

Breath, breth, n. Air respired ; act or power of breath- 
ing naturally; life; time to breathe; respite; a sin- 
gle respiration, or the time of making it; a single 
act; a slight breeze.— Breath'less, a. Out of breath; 
dead, expired. — Breathe, breth, v. i. [breathed 
(brethd), breathing.] To respire; to live; to take 
breath, rest; to pass, as air ; to exhale, emanate. — 
V. t. To respire; to infuse by breathing; to emit by 
the breath, utter sof tlj'^, exhale ; to cause to, sound by 
breathing; to promote free respiration in; to exer- 
cise; to' suffer to take breath; to put out of breath; 
to give air or vent to ; to open. — Breath'er, n. — 
Breath'able, a. That may be, etc. — Breath''ing, n. 
Respiration ; air in gentle motion ; aspiration ; secret 
prayer; exercise; utterance; breathing-place; vent. 

Breech, brech, n. The lower part of the body behind; 
hinder part of anything, esp. the part of a fire-arm 
behind the bottom of the bore. — v.t. [breecheId 
(brecht), breeching.] To put into; to fur- 
nish with a breech; to fasten with breeching.— 
Breeches, brich^'ez, n. pi. A garment for men, cov- 
ering the hips and thighs; used in the sense of pan- 
taloons. — Breeching, brich'^ing, n. The part of a 
harness round a horse's breech. (Naut.) A rope to 
check the recoil of a cannon. — Breech'-load^ing, 
brech''lod'ing, a. (Mil.) Receiving the charge at 
the breech instead of the muzzle. — load'er, n. A 
gun which, etc. 

Breed, bred, v. t. [bred; breeding.] To procreate; 
beget; hatch; to bring up ; nurse and foster ; to in- 
struct ; form bj^ education ; to occasion ; to give 
birth to. — V. i. ' To bear and nourish young; to be 
generated, or to grow ; to raise a breed. — n. A 
progeny from the same parents or stock; a race al- 
lied by nativity or some distinctive qualities in com- 
mon; progeny; offspring, — applied to o^ber things 
than animals. — Breed''ing, ??. Formation of man- 
ners; education; nurture; training; deportment; be- 

Breese, Briz, Breeze, brez, Breeze'-fly, n. A buzzing 
fly of various species, which torments animals; also, 
the bot-fly. 

Breeze, brez, n. A light wind; gentle gale; an excited 
state of feeling; quarrel. — r. t. To dIow gently. 

Breeze, brez, Briss, bris, Brist, ?i. Cinders; dust, rub- 

Brent. See Beant. 

Brethren, breth-'ren, n., pi. of Beother, used in sol- 
emn and Scriptural language for brothers. 

Brett, bret, n. A four-wheel carriage, with calash top. 

Breve, brev, n. (Mus.) A note, I ^ i equivalent to 
two semibreves, or four minims, i ' (Laiv.) A 
brief. (Print.) A curved mark [--^'] over a vowel, to 
indicate that its quantity is short. — Brev'ity, n. 
Shortness of time or extent; conciseness. 

Brevet, bre-vet'', n. A warrant, granting a favor, title, 
dignity, etc. (Mil.) A commission in the army at 
large, but not with a particular command. — v. t. 
To confer rank upon by brevet. — a. Taking rank 
by brevet, — designating rank conferred for merit or 
special cause, and not in course of promotion. 

Km, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; Snd, eve, tSrm ; In, ice ; 8dd, tone, 6r ; 




Breviaxy, bre'vt-a-rt, n. An abridgrment : epitome; 

summary ; book containing the service of the Rom. 

Cath. or Greek church. 
Brevier, bre-ver', n. {Fnnt.) A kind of type, in size 

between bourgeois and minion. 

2^= This line is printed in brevier type. 

Brevity. See under Brevk. 

Brew, broo, v. t. [bkewed (brood), brewing.] To 
boil or seethe; to prepare, as a hquor, troiii malt and 
hops, etc., by steeping, boiling, and fermentation; 
to contrive; plot. — v. i. To perform the business of 
brewing; to be in a state of preparation: to be form- 
ing or gathering. — Brew'age, n. Malt liquor. 
— Brew'er, «.— Brew'ery, -er-l, Brew'-houBe, u. A 
house where brewing is done. — Brew'ing, u. Act 
or process of, etc. ; quantity brewed at once. 

Briarean, bri-a'rl-an, a. Pert, to, or resembling, Bri- 
areus, a giant with a hundred hands. 

Bribe, brib^/i. Something given to pervert the judgment 
or corrupt the conduct ; that which seduces; allure- 
ment. — r. t. [BRIBED (bribd), bribing.] To influ- 
ence or corrupt by gifts: to gain by, etc. — v.i. To 
give, etc. — Bri'Tiery, n. Act or practice of giving or 
taking, etc. 

Bric-a-brac, brik'a-brak, n. A collection of antiqua- 
rian or artistic curiosities. [F.] 

Brick, brik, n. Clay and sand, tempered with water, 
molded into form, dried, and usually burnt; bricks 
collectively; a good fellow. 

Bride, brld, n. A woman recently married, or en- 
gaged to be married. — Bri'dal, a. Pert, to a bride, 
or to a wedding ; nuptial. — ;(. Nuptial festival ; 
marriage. — Bride'-chamber, -cham''ber, n. The 
nuptial apartment. — groom, n. A man newly mar- 
ried, or about to be married. — maid, -man, n. At- 
tendants on the bride and groom at a wedding. 
[These words are also spelled bridesmaid, brides- 

Bridge, brij, n. A structure forming a roadway over 
a watercourse, ravine, etc. ; a support similar to a 
bridge, as for strings of a violin, the bony part of 
the nose, etc. ; a game resembling common whist, 
m whicn. the trump, if any, is made by the dealer 
or his partner, and the hand of the latter is played 
as a dumni}': — called also hri'Uje irhv-t. — v. t. 
[bridged (brijd), bridgijjg.] To build a. bridge 

Bridle, bri^'dl, n. An instrument to restrain a horse; 
a restraint; curb; check; part of a gun-lock. (^Naut.) 
A cable, to enable asliip, when moored, to veer with 
■wind and tide.— r. t. [bridled (bri'dld), bridling.^ 
To put a bridle upon ; to restrain, or control. — v. i. 
To hold up the head, and draw in the chin, as an 
expression of pride, scorn, or resentment. 

Brief, href , a. Short in duration or expression; using 
few words ; concise; succinct. — n. An epitome; a 
statement in few words. (Law.) An abridgment 
of a client's case; writ summoning one to answer to 
an action. — r. f. (Lair.) To make a brief of. 

Brier, Briar, bri'er, n. A prickly plant. (Hot.) The 
sweet-brier and wild-brier, species of the rose. 

Brig, brig, n. A vessel with two masts, square-rigged 
— Hermapltrodite brig. 
A two-masted vessel, 
square-rigged forward 
and schooner-rigged 
aft.— Brig''antine, -tin 
or -tin, n. A small 

Brigade, brT-gad', n. 
(JId.) A division of 
troops, larger than a 
regiment, commanded 
by a general officer. — 
V. t. To form into a 
brigade. — Brigadier, t, . 

brig-a-der'. Brig 'a- ^"S- 

dier-gen'eral, n. The officer commanding a brigade, 
in rank next below a major-general. — Brigade 
major. An officer who assists the brigadier in his 

Brigand, brig'and, n. A lawless fellow who lives by 
plunder ; a robber, freebooter. — Brig'andage, n. 
Theft ; robbery ; plunder. 

Bright, hrit, a. Shedding light: .^ihining; brilliant; of 
a quick intellect; sparkling with wit; manifest to 
the mind, as light to the eyes ; clear. — Brighten, 
brit'n, v. t. [-ened (-nd), -exing.] To make 
bright or brighter ; to make illustrious, or more dis- 
tinguished, shed light upon, make cheerful, make 
fciite or witty. — v.i. To grow bright of brighter. 

brilliant, briKyant, a. Sparkling with luster; ght- 
terinii; splendid: shining. -?(. A diamond so cut as 
to reflect and refract the light. (Print.) The small- 
est type used in English printing. 

t^ Tiiis line is printed in the type called Brilliant. 

Brim, brim, n. Rim, or border, of anything; edse, 
margin. — ?•. i. To be full to the brim.— Brim 'ful, 
-ful, Brim'ming, n. Full to the top: completelv full. 

Brimstone, brim'ston, n. A hard, brittle, inflamma- 
ble substance; sulphur. 

Brinded, brin'ded, a. Having diiferent colors; varie- 
gated: streaked. — Brin'dle, -dl, n. State of being 
brinded; spottedness. — Brin'dled, -did, a. Spotted; 

Brine, biTn, n. Water_^ impregnated with salt: the 
ocean or sea ; tears ; pickle. — Bri'ny. a. Pert, to 
brine, or to the sea; salt. — Brine'-pan, n. A pit of 
salt water, for evanoration. 

Bring, bring, v. t. [brought (brawt), brevgixg.] To 
convey to a person or thing; fetch; to make to come; 
procure; induce; influence; to convej', carry. 

Brink, brink, n. Edge, margin, or border of a steep 
]3lace; verge. 

Briqaet, brl'ket''', n. A block of compacted coal dust, 
or peat, etc., for fuel; a block of artificial stone, 
cement, etc., in the form of a brick. 

Brisk, brisk, a. Full of liveliness and activity, of 
spirit or life; effervescing, as liquors; alert; nimble; 
quick; gay. — v. i. To appear with animation,— 
with up. 

Brisket, bris'ket, n. The breast of an animal or that 
part of the breast next the ribs. See Beef. 

Bristle, bris'l, n. A short, stiff , coarse hair. (Bot.) A 
species of pubescence on plants. — r. t. [bristled 
(bris'ld), BRiSTLiXG (bris'ling).] To erect the bris- 
tles of, fix a bristle to. — v. i. To rise or stand erect, 
like bristles. 

Britannia, brT-tan'nT-a, n. A compound of block- 
lin alloyed with antimony, bismuth, and copper. 

British, brifish, a. Pert, to Great Britain or its in- 
habitants, or to its original inhabitants. — Brifon, 
n. A native of, etc. — Brit'icism, -sizm, n. A habit 
,or idiom peculiar to, etc. 

Brittle, brit'tl, a. Easily broken; apt to break. 

Britzska, bris'ka, n. A long carriage, with calash top. 

Broach, broch, 7i. A 
steel tool for 
smoothing or en- 
larging holes in 
metal ; a brooch. 


(brocht;, broach- _ 
IXG.] To pierce.^g 
as with a spit ; to ""^ — _ . — 
tap ; to pierce, as riritzska. 

a cask, in order to draw liquor ; to let out : to open 
for the first time, as stores; to make public, give out. 
Broad, brawd, a. Wide ; extended in breadth, or 
from side to side; diffused; having a large measure 
of any thing or quality; ample; comprehensive; 
gross; obscene. — Broad'^cast, 7i. (Agric.) A sowing 
of seed by casting it at large from the hand. — adv. 
Diffusedly; at large. — a. Dispersed, as seed thrown 
by the hand: widely spread. — Broaden, biawd^n, 
V. i. To grow broad. — v. t. To make broad, ren- 
der more comprehensive. —Broad''ish, a. Rather 
broad. — Broad^ly, adv. — Broad'ness, n. — Broad' 
ax, -axe, n. A broad-edged ax for hewing timber. 

brim. n. A kind of hat worn bj- the I riends or 

Quakers; a Quaker. cloth, n. " A fine woolen 

cloth for garments, exceeding -29 inches in width. — 
-piece, n. A gold coin broader than a guinea. — 
-side, n. Simultaneous discharge of all guns on one 
side of a ship. (Naut.) A ship's side above water, 
from bow to quarter. (Print.) A sheet of paper 
containing one large page, or printed on one side 
only. — sword, -sord, n. One with broad blade and 
cutting edge; a claymore. — B. Church. (Eccl.) A 

san, cube, full ; moon, fd&t ; eow, oil ; linger or ink, tiien, boifboN, chair, get. 




body of men holding liberal or comprehensive views 
of Christian doctrine and fellowship, — applied esp. 
to a portion of the church of Eng. — B. gauge, gaj. 
A distance between the rails of a railroad greater 
than the standard gauge of 4 ft. 8h in. — B. pen'- 
nant, n. (^JS^aut.) A square flag at a commodore's 
mast-head. — B. seal. The public seal of a state. 

Brocade, bro-kad', ?*. Silk stuff, variegated with gold 
and silver, or with patterns of flowers, etc.; other 
stuffs similarly wrought. — Bro'catel', -tel'lo, n. 
Coarse brocade for tapestr}% carriage linings, etc.; 
marble, clouded and veined with various colors. 

Brocage. See under Bkokee. 

Broccoli, brok^ko-ll, n. A variety of cabbage. 

Brogan, bro^gan or bro-gan', Brogue, brog, n. A stout, 
coarse shoe. — Brogue, n. A coarse manner of pro- 

Broider. See Embroider. 

Broil, broil, n. A noisy quarrel; fray; tumult. 

Broil, broil, v. t. [broiled (broild), broiling.] To 
cook over coals or on a gridiron. — v. i. To be 
greatlj^ heated. 

Broker, bro^'ker, n. One who does business for anoth- 
er ; an agent to effect contracts for a compensation. 

— Broke, v. i. To act as agent, esp. in love affairs. 

— Bro'^cage, -kage, -kej, -kerage, v. The fee for act- 
ing as broker ; a commission on sales. 

Broma, bro''ma, n. A preparation of cacao seeds, or 
drink made from it. 

Bromine, bro''niin, n. (CJiem.) One of the elements, re- 
lated in chemical qualities to chlorine and iodine. — 
Bro'mate, 7i. Broniic acid compounded with a base. 

— Bro'^mic, a. Compounded of bromine and oxj^gen. 

— Bro'mide, -mid, n. A compound of bromine with 
a metallic or combustible base. — Bro''mite, -mit, n. 
An ore of silver; bromic silver. — Bro'^mism, -mizm, 
n. A cachectic condition caused b^' using bromine. 

Bronchi, bron'ki, -cMa, -kl-a, -chiae, -kT-e, n. pi. 
(Anat.) The ramifications of the windpipe in the 
lungs. — Bron''cliial, -kl-al, a. (Anat.) Pert, to, 
etc. — Bronchitis, -ki-'tis, n. Inflammation of the 
bronchial membrane. 

Bronze, brSnz or bronz, n. An alloy of copper with 
tin, sometimes with other metals, esp. zinc; a statue, 
medal, etc., cast in bronze; a brown color; the color 
of bronze. — i\ t. [BRONZED (br5nzd or bronzd), 
BROXZiXG.] To give the appearance of bronze ; to 
m.ake brown; to make hard or unfeeling; to brazen. 

— a. ^lade of, or resembling, etc. 

Brooch, broch, n. An ornament, with a pin to attach 
it to a garment. (Paint.) A painting all of one 
color. — V. i. To adorn with jewelry. 

Brood, brood, i\ i. To sit on and cover eggs or young; 
to sit quietly; to remain longin anxious thought; to 
muse. — V. t. To sit over, cover, and cherish. — n. 
Offspring; progeny. 

Brook, brdbk, w. A small stream of water. — v.t. To 
bear, endure ; to be contented with. 

Broom, broom, n. A genus of leguminous plants; a 
besom, or brush, to sweep floors, etc., — orig. made 
of the broom plant. 

Broth, broth, n. Liquor in which flesh or anything 
else is boiled. 

Brothel, broth'el, n. A house of ill-fame. 

Brother, brutli'^er, n. ; pi. Broth'^ers o;"Bretheex, 
bretii''ren (used in the solemn stj'le). He who is 
born of the same parents with another, or of one of 
them only; one closely united to another by some 
common tie ; one who resembles another. — Broth''- 
erly, a. Pert, to; kind; affectionate. — Broth^erhood, 
-hO&d, n. State of being, etc.; an association ; a fra- 
ternity ; a class of individuals of the same occupa- 
tion. — Broth'' er-in-law, n. Brother of a husband 
or wife; sister's husband. 

Brougham, broo^am or broom, n. A light close carriage. 

Brow, brow, n. The ridge over the eye, with the hair 
ui)on it; the forehead; the edge of a steep place. 

Brown, brown, n. A dark color inclining to red or 
yellow. — a. Of a brown color. — v. t. [browned 
(brownd), browning.] To give abrown color to. 

Browse, browz, v. t. Fbrowsed (browzd), brows- 
ing.] To eat or nibble off, as the ends of branches 
of trees, etc. — v. i. To feed on shoots of shrubs or 
trees. — Browse, brows, n. Tender branches or twigs 
of trees, etc. 


Bruin, broo'in, n. A bear. 

Bruise, brooz, v. t. [bruised (broozd), bruising.] To 
injure or crush; to contuse; to reduce to fragments; 
to fight_with the fists : to box. — n. A contusion. 

Bruit, broot, n. Report; rumor ; fame. (Med.) A 
sound heard on percussion or auscultation. — r. t. To 
report; to noise abroad. 

Brunette, broo-net', n. A woman of dark complex- 

Brunt, brunt, n. Tlie heat, or utmost violence, of an 
onset: force of a blow; shock; sudden effort, con- 
tact, or engagement. ' 

Brush, brush, n. An instrument of bristles, etc., for 
removing dust, laying on colors, etc.; branches of 
trees lopped off ; brushwood; a thicket; a skirmish; 
a slight encounter; anything resembling a brush. — 
V. t. [brushed (brusht), brushing.] To applv a 
brush to; to pass lightlj' over; to remove or gather 
by brushing. — v.i. To move nimbly in haste; to 
skim over with slight contact. — Brush''y, -1, a. Re- 
sembling, etc. ; rough. — Brnsh''iness, »i. — Brush''- 
wheel, n. A wheel 
without teeth, re- 
volving another by 
friction; a revolving 
brush for polishing. 
■ — ^wood, n. A thick- 
et or coppice; small 
branches cut from 

a. Blunt ; rough ; 
rude. _ 

Brute, broot, a. Not having sensation or reason; 
senseless; irrational ; unintelligent ; animal ; bes- 
tial; rough. — n. A beast; a low-bred, unfeeling 
person.— Bru'tal, a. Pert, to, or like, etc.; cruel; in- 
human. — BrutaKity, n. — Bru'talize [-talized 

(-tzd). -IZING], BrU'tify [-TIFIED (-tT-iid), -fyixg], 
V. t. To make a brute of, make brutal. — Bru'tish, 
a. Having characteristics of, etc. ; ignorant: stupid; 
gross ; carnal : bestial. — Bru'tishly.^rfc. — Bru''tisli- 
ness, n. — Eru'tism, -tizm, a. The nature, qualities, 
or actions, of a brute. 

Bubble, bub'^l, »i. A bladder of water or other fluid 
inflated with air ; anything empty ; a delusive 
scheme. — v.i. [bubbled (buo'ld), bubbling.] To 
rise in bubbles, run with a gurgling noise. — v.t. 
To cheat, deceive. 

Buccaneer, Bucanier, buk-a-ner', n. A pirate ; freC' 

Bucentaur, bu-sen'tawr, n. (Myth.) A fabulous 
monster, half ox and half man. — The state barge 
of Venice, used in the ceremony of espousing the 

Buchu, bu'ku, n. (Bot.) A plant used for diseases of 
the bladder. 

Buck, buk, n. Lye for soaking cloth, in bleaching; 
also liquor in which clothes are washed: cloth or 
clothes washed, —r. t. To steep in lye; to wash in 
lye or suds. (Mining.) To break up or pulverize, as 
ores. — Buck-basket, -bas^'ket, n. A basket for ear- 
rving clothes to the wash. 

Buck, buk, 11. The male of the fallow deer, goat, 
sheep, rabbit, and hare, 
— also applied to male 
Indians and negroes ; a 
gay, dashing, young fel- 
low. — V. I. To ]ump 
viciouslj-, with the head 
down, as if butting, — 
said of mules, etc. — v. t. 
To confine, by passing a 
stick under the bent 
knees, and over the 
wrists, the hands being 
tied together before the 
shins. — Buck'shot, n. Coarse shot used for large 
game. skin, n. Leather of deer, goats, etc. 

Buckboard, buk'bord, -wag'on, n. A rude vehicle, 
having a board resting on two axletrees. 

Bucket, buk'^et, ??. A vessel to hold liquids, etc. 
(Mack.) One of the cavities on the rim of a water- 
wheel ; the float of a paddle-wheel. See Water- 
wheel. — Buck'^etfnl, ?«. Contents of, etc. 


Sm, fame, far, pass or opera, fSre ; 6nd, 5ve, term ; In, ice ; 8dd, tone, 6r : 




Backeye, buk'I, n. A tree indigenous in the Western 
States; a nickname for a resident of Ohio. 

Buckle, biik^l, n. A frame with tongue or catch to 
fasten things togetlier; a curl, or state of being curled 
or crisped, as hair. — r. t. [bickled (buk'ld), bl'ck- 
LIXG.] To fasten with a buckle ; to prepare for ac- 
tion ; set stoutly at work. — v. i. To bend, bow ; to 
struggle, contend. — Buck'^er, n. A kind of shield. 
(3'a«<.) A cover fitted to the hawse-holes, to exclude 

Buckram, buk'ram, /}. A coarse linen cloth, stiffened 
with irlue. — a. Alade of buckram ; stiff, precise. 

Buckthorn, buk'thfirn, n. {Bot.) A genus of plants. 

Buckwheat, buk''hwet, ti. A plant, whose seed is 
used as grain. 

Bucolic, bu-koKik, -ical, a. Pert, to a shepherd; pas- 
toral ; rustic. —Bucol''ic, n. A pastoral poem. 

Bud, bud, n. An undeveloped branch or flower ; a 
prominence on certain animals, which grows into an 
animal, as a bud in a plant grows into a flower. — 
V. i. To put forth buds; to begin to grow, or issue 
from a stock like a bud, as a horn; to be in bloom, or 
growing. — r. t. To insert, as the bud of one plant, 
under bark of another, to raise a fruit different from 
the stock. 

Buddhism, bud'izm, ?;. The doctrine taught by the 
Hindu sage", Buddha, in the 6th century B. c, and 
adopted as a religion in Central and Eastern Asia, 
etc. — Buddhist, bud'ist, 71. A votary of Buddhism.! 

— Bud'dhist, -ist'ic, a. 

Buddie, bud'dl, u. {Mining.) A wooden fratne for 
washing ore. — v. t. To wash ore with, etc. 

Budge, buj, r. t. [budged (bujd), budgijtg.] To 
move off, stir, wag. — n. Lamb-skin fur, used as an 
edging of scholastic habits. — a. Lined with budge; 
hence, scholastic ; austere or stiff. — Budg'et, w. A 
bag or sack, with its contents ; a stock or store ; a 
governmental financial statement. 

Bim, buf, n. A sort of leather, from the skin of the 
buffalo, also of other animals, dressed in oil ; a mili- 
tarj' coat, made of buff-skin ; the color of, etc. ; the 
bare skin. {Med.) A grayish, viscid crust observed 
on blood. {Mech.) A wheel covered with buff 
leather, for polishing. — a. ?ilade of buff leather ; 
of the color of, etc., — between light pink and light 

Buffalo, buf ■'a-lo, n. ; pi. Buf'faloes, -loz. A kind of 
wild ox of the eastern conti- 
nent ; a buffalo-robe ; applied 
improperly to the bison. See 

Bufiar, buffer, n. (Mech.) An 
apparatus to deaden concussion 
bj' moving bodies. — A foolish 
fellow ; good-natured old fel- 

Buffet, boof-a' or buffet, w. A Buffalo, 

sideboard or closet, for plate, china, etc. 

Buffet, buffet, w. A blow with the hand ; cuff ; vio- 
lent resistance, as of winds and waves. — r. t. To 
box, beat, slap: to contend against. — v. i. To play 
at boxing ; to make one's way by buffeting. 

Buffo, buf fo^??. The comic actor in an opera. [It.] — 
Buffoon, -foon', n. One who amuses by tricks, iokes, 
and iilcasantries ; a mimic ; mountenank ; clown. 

— BuJEEoon''ery, -er-T, ??. The arts of, etc. : pranks. 
Bug, bug, n. An insect of many species ; esp. a 

hemipterous insect which infests_beds, etc. — Bug, 
Bug'bear, -bar, Bug'ahoo, -a-boo, n. Something 
frightful ; a specter : hobgoblin. . 

Bugger, bug^gSr, n. One guilty of buggery ; a vile 
creature. — Bug'gery, -T, n. A crime against na- 
ture ; sodomy. 

Buggy, bug'gf, ?;. A light four-wheel vehicle, with 
or without a Cfilash top. 

Bu'gle, Bugle-horn, bu''gl-h6rn, ??. A wind instrument 
for liunting or for military music. 

Bugle, bu^gl, H. An elongated glass 

Buhl, bul, n. A figure of brass, un- 
burnished gold, etc., set into sur- 
faces of ebony, tortoise-shell, etc. 

Buhr-stone, ber'ston, n. (Min.) A 
flintv quartz, used for mill-stones. 
See Bur. 


Build, bild, v. *. [built (bilt) o?* (antiquated) builded; 
BUiLDi>'G.] To frame, construct, and raise, as an 
edifice; to fabricate; to raise on any fouudation ; to 
increase and strengthen. — r. i. To practice build- 
ing ; to construct, rest, or depend. — /(. Form, or 
mode of construction. — Build'er, n. — Build'ing, n. 
Act or business of, etc. ; tiling built. 

Bulb, bulb, n. (Hot.) A bud growing from a plant, 
(usually below ground), and producing a stem 
above and roots below. (Aiiat.) A part shaped 
like bulbous roots. A protuberance on a stem, as 
the bulb of a thermometer. — r. i. To form bulbs. 

Bulge, bulj, «. The protuberant part of a cask, etc. 
(^A'aut.) ' The bilge of a vessel. — v. i. [bulged 
(buljd), BULGING.! To swell out; to be protuberant; 
to bilge, as a ship. 

Bulk, bulk, n. Magnitude of material substance; si.te; 
mass ; the majority ; the principal portion. (Ifaut.) 
The whole cargo of a ship when stowed. — r. i. To 
appear of great size or importance. — Bulkier, lu 
(Naut.) One who ascertains the capacitj' ot goods, 
to fix the freight or shore-dues upon them. — Bulk'y, 
-T, a. Large. — Bulk'^ess, n. 

Bulkhead, bulk'hed, u. (JS'imt.) A partition in a ship, 
etc., made with boards, etc. 

Bull, bul, n. The male of any bovine quadruped, also 
of any large quadruped, as the elephant. (Astron.) 
Taurus, one of the twelve signs of the zodiac. (Stock 
Exchange.) One who buys stock on time, agreeing 
to take a certain amount at a future day at a stated 
price, beyond whicli he seeks to raise the market 
value. See Bear. — r. t. To endeavor to raise the 
price of.— Bul'lock, n. A young bull; an ox, or cas 
trated bull. — Bull' -dog, n. A variety of dog, of re 
markable ferocity and courage, — named prob. fr^ 
being used to bait bulls or fr. the size of the head. — 
-fight, -fit, n. A combat with a bull. — finch, n. A 
thick-necked singing-bird allied to the grossbeak. — 
-frog, n. A large species of frog, which makes a loud, 

croaking noise. head, n. A fish of the genus 

coitus; also the cat-fish, or horned-pout; a stupid fel- 
low; lubber. — head'ed, -necked, -nekt, o. Unjield- 
ing; dogged. — rush, n. A large, strong rush, grow- 
ing in swamps or water. — trout, n. A large species 
of trout, ascending rivers periodicalh' to spawn. 

Bull, bal, V. The seal appended to the edicts and 
briefs" of the pope ; an edict, or rescript of the pope. 
A blunder; use of language self-contradictorj' or ex- 
pressing ideas entirely different from those in- 

Bulldoze, buKdoz, v. t. To intimidate by violence. 

Bullet, buK'let, n. A small ball; esp. one of lead for 

Bulletin, buKle-tin, n. A statement respecting some 
event, issued by authority for public information; 
public notice, es'p., of news recently received. 

Bullion, buKyun, n. Uncoined gold or silver in the 
mass; precious metal, coined or uncoined, when 
reckoned by weight and in mass. 

Bulls'-eye, bulz^I, n. (Naut.) A wooden block with- 
out sheaves, having a groove around it, and a hole 
through it. A thick piece of glass in a deck, roof, 
etc., to let in light; any circular opening for air or 
light; a policeman's lantern; the center of a target; 
a knob left on a sheet of plate-glass by the blow- 
pipe; a thick, old-fashioned watch. 

Bully, buKT, n. A blustering fellow. — a. Jovial; 

merrj'."— v. <. [BULLIED (buKlid), BULLYING.] To 

insult with blustering menaces; to treat with inso- 
lence. — V. i. noisy and quarrelsome; to 
swagger, crow, domineer. 

Bulwark, bufwerk, n. (Fort.) An outwork for de- 
fense; a bastion. A means of defense; screen; shel- 
ter, pi. (Nmit.) A ship's sides above the deck. — 
V. t. To fortify with a rampart; to protect. 

Bumble-bee, bum^bl-be, n. A large bee; humble-bee. 

Bumkin, bum'kin, n. (Ncmt.) A piece of timber to 
which stays, sails, etc., are fastened. 

Bummer, bum^'mer, n. A vagrant; foraMr; soldier 
seeking food and plunder ; dissipated fellow. 

Bump, bump, n. A thump; heavy blow; swelling or 
protuberance. — i-. t. [bumped "(burnt), bumping.] 
To strike, as against anything solid. — v. i. To 
make a loud, heavy, or hollow iioise, as the bittern. 

Bumper, bum-'per, n. A cup filled to the brim. 

sun, cube, full ; moon, fd&t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, tSien, boNboN, chair, get. 




Bumpkin, bum''kin, n. An awkward, heavy rustic; a 
clown, or country lout. 

Bun, Bunn, bun, n. A small sweet-cake. 

Bunch, bunch, n. A protuberance; hunch; knob or 
lump; a collection, cluster, or tuft. — v. i. To swell 
out. — V. t. To form or fasten into a bunch. 

Buncombe, Bunkum, bun^kum, n. A body of constit- 
uents; speech-making- for the gratification of con- 
stituents. " 

Bundle, bun'dl, n. A number of things bound to- 
gether, esp. into a package for handling or convey- 
ance; a paj-cel; roll. — f. t. [bundled (bun-'dld), 
BUNDLING.] To tie Or bind in a bundle or roll. — 
V. i. To set off in a hurry. 

Bung, bung, n. The stopper of the orifice in the bilge 
of a cask; the hole itself. — v. t. To stop, as the ori- 
fice, etc. ; to close. — Bung^'hole, n. The hole in 
the bilge of a cask. 

Bungalow, bun''ga-lo, n. In India, a one-story house. 

Bungle, buTi'^gl, v. i. [bungled (buTi''gld), bung- 
ling.] To act or work awkwardly. — v. t. To make 
or mend clumsily; to botch. — Bung^ler, n. A clumsy 

Bunk, bunk, n. A wooden case, for a seat by day and 
a bed at night; one of a series of berths in vertical 
tiers. — V. i. To go to bed in a bunk. — Bunk''er, n. 
A tub, box, etc., to hold coal, etc. 

Bunyon, Bunion, bun-'yun, n. {Med.) Enlargement 
and inflammation of the membranous sac at tne ball 
of the great toe. 

Bunt, bunt, n. {Naut.) The middle part or belly of a 
sail. — V. i. To swell out, as a sail; to push with the 
horns; to butt. — Bunt'line, 11. A rope to haul up 
the body of a sail when taking it in. 

Bunting, bunfing, n. A bird allied to finches and 
sparrows. Thin woolen stuff, of which flags are 

Buoy, booT, n. A float; esp. a floating mark to indicate 
objects beneath the water.— 

V. t. [BUOYED (b(X)Td), BUOY- 
ING.] To keep afloat; to keep 
from sinking into ruin or de- 
spondencj'; to fix buoys to; to 
mark by buoys. — r. ?'. To 
float; to rise by specific light- 
ness. — Buoy'ant, a. Having _ 
the quality of i-ising or floating; -Buoy, 
bearing up, as a fluid; cheerful; vivacious. — Buoy'- 
ancy, -an-sT, n. Quality of floating; specific light- 
ness; cheerfulness. (Ptiiisics.) Weight just sutficient 
to submerge a floating body. — Buoy'antly, adv. 

Bur, Burr, ber, n. A prickly envelope of the seeds of 
plants; the rough edge left by a tool in cutting 
metal; a guttural mispronunciation of the letter r. — 
V. t. To pronounce with a burr; to talk or whisper 
hoarsely. — Bur'dock, n. A genus of prickly-fruited 

Burbot, ber'^bot, n. A fish shaped like an eel, haying 
beards on the nose and chin. 

Burden, ber''dn, Bur'then, -tiien, n. That which is 
borne or carried; what is grievous, wearisome, or 
oppressive; the contents or capacity of a ship. — v.t. 
[BURDENED (-dend), -DENING.] To lay a load upon; 
to oppress.— Bur''denous, -us, -some, -sum, a. Griev- 
ous to be borne. — Bur'densomely, adv. 

Burden, ber'dn, n. The verse repeated in a song; 
chorus; refrain; that which is often repeated; the 
main topic. 

Burdock. See under Bur. 

Bureau, bu''ro, n.; pZ. Bu''re.4.ux or -reaus, -roz. 
Orig., a desk with drawers for papers; the place 
where a bureau is used, or business transacted; a 
department for transaction of public business; the 
body of subordinate officers under the direction of 
a department chief ; a chest of drawers for clothes, 
etc. — Bureaucracy, bu-ro''kra-sT, n. A system of 
conducting government business by departments, 
each under a chief. 

Burg, berg, n. Orig., a fortified town ; a borough. — 
Burgess, ber-'jes, n. A freeman of a borough; a rep- 
resentative or magistrate of, etc. — Burg''grave, Bur''- 
frave, n. In Ger., orig., one in command of a hurg ; 
ut the title and domain became hereditary. — Burgh, 
berg, n. Same as hurg and borough. — Burgh'al, a. 
Pert, to, etc. — Burgh''er, n. An inhabitant of, etc. 

— Burg'o-mas'ter, n. A chief magistrate of a mu- 
nicipal town in Holland, Flanders, and Germany. 
(O)-nith.) An aquatic bird; the glaucous gull, of 
arctic regions. 

Burgeois. See Bourgeois. 

Burgeon. See Bourgeon. 

Burglar, berg'^ler, n. (Law.) One who breaks and en- 
ters a house, to commit a felony. — Burg^lary, -la-ri, 
n. Act of, etc. — Burgla'rious, -rl-us, a. Pert, to, 
or constituting, etc. — Burgla'riously, adv. 

Burgundy, ber'gun-dl, n. A kind of wine made in 
Jiurgu7iily, France. — Bur'gundy-pitch, -pich, n. 
Turpentine from which the essential oil has been 
distilled off. 

Burial. See under Bury. 

Burin, bu'rin, n. An engraver's tool having a sharp cut- 
ting point ; 
a n engrav- 
er's style df 1— iBBSfflSW^ 

execution. ^^ 

Burke, bSrk, 

l-.<. [BURKED „ . 

(berkt), -Burm. 

BURKING.] To murder, without marks of violence, 
to obtain a body for dissection; to dispose of quietly 
or indirectly. 
Burl, berl, r.i. [burled (berld), BURLING.] To dress, 
as cloth, by fulling; to pick knots, loose threads, 
etc., from. — n. A Knot or lump in thread or cloth. 

— Burlier, w. A dresser of cloth. 

Burlap, ber'^lap, n. A coarse fabric of linen, jute, or 

Burlesque, ber-lesk'^, a. Provoking laiighter by ludi- 
crous images; jocular, ironical. — n. Ludicrous rep- 
resentation ; exaggerated parody ; satirical compo- 
sition intended to ridicule anything; caricature. — 
V. t. [burlesqued (-leskt'),-LESQuiNG.] To turn into 
ridicule. — Burlefta, -lefta, 7i. {Mus.) A comic 
opera ; a musical farce. 

Burly, ber^lT, a. Of great bulk; stout; lusty; coarse 
and rough. — Bur'Hness, n. 

Burn,, bern, v^t. [burned (bernd) or burnt; burn- 
ing.] To consume with tire ; to injure by heat; to 
change by exposure to heat; to produce an effect akin 
to that of heat. {Surg.) To cauterize. {Chem.) To 
combine with oxygen. — v.i. To be on fire; to be 
injured by excess of heat; to have tlie appearance 
of fire; to be hot or in a passion ; to act with de- 
structive violence; to be akin to fire in the effect pro- 
duced. — n. A hurt or injury caused by fire; the op- 
eration of burning or baking. — Burn''er, n. One 
who burns or sets on fire; an appendage to a lamp 
or gas-fixture, to promote combustion. 

Burn. w. xV brook. See Bourn. 

Burnish, ber'nish, v. t. [burnished (-nisht), -nish- , 
ING.] To polish by rubbing with .something hard 
and smooth ; to render bright. — v. i. To grow or 
become smooth or glossy. — n. The effect of bur- 
nishing; gloss ;Juster. 

Burnoose, ber'^noos, n. A loose hooded cloak for 
women, imitated from a garment of the Arabs. 

Burr. See Bur. 

Burrow, ber''ro, n. A hole in the ground made by 
rabbits, etc., for shelter. (Ifining.) Aheap or heaps 
of rubbish. — r. t. [burrowed (-rod), -rowing.] 
To excavate or lodge in a hole in the earth; to hide. 

Burse, bers, n. Orig., a purse; a fund to maintain 
poor scholars; a student so maintained; a public 
meeting place for merchants ; an exchange. [Also 
written hoursp..} — Bur'sar, -ser, n. A cash-keeper; 
purser; a student to whom a stipend is paid.— Bur'- 
sary, -ser-T, n. The treasury of a college, etc. ; a 
charitable foundation in a university. 

Burst, berst, v. i. [burst ; bursting.] To fly or 
break open violently; to make any sudden change 
from restraint, invisibility, absence, etc., to an oppo- 
site state; to issue by a sudden removal of obstacles; 
to crack, split, sever. — v. t. To break or rend vio- 
lently; to open suddenly, —n. A breaking forth; 
disruption ; sudden explosion. 

Burt, bert, n. Aflat fish of the turbot kind. 

Burthen. Sep Burden. 

Bury, ber'T, n. A borough ; manor; used as a term, 
of names of places, as, CantP.rhury. —v. t. [buried 
(ber''id), burying.] To conceal by covering; esp. ^to 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, f^re ; Snd, eve, term ; TCn, ice ; Sdd, tone, 6r ; 





cover out of sight, as in a grave, the ocean, etc.; to 
hide in oblivion.— Bur'ial, -T-al, n. Act of burying; 
interment. — Bur'ying-ground, -place, n. A grave- 
yard; church-yarcl. 
Bus, bus, n. An omnibus. [Abbrev. fr. omnibus.] 
Busby, buz'bT, n. A military cap or bear-skin. 
Bush, bush, 71. A thicket, or place abounding in trees; 
a branching shrub; a cluster of shrubs; a bushy 
branch cut from a tree; a branch of ivy (as sacred 
to Bacchus); hence, a tavern sign, or the tavern it- 
self. — V. i. To grow thick or bushv. — v. t. To set 
bushes for, as for peas; to use a bush-harrow on, 
or for covering. — Biish'y, -T, a. Full of bushes; 
full and spreading, like a bush. — Bash''inesB, n. 

— Bush'^-beaji, n. The common, low garden-bean; 
kidney-bean: French bean. — fighfing, n. Irregu- 
lar warfare in a woody country'. — -har'^row, n. 
{Afjric.) A harrow made of bushes, for covering 
seeds, etc. — man, u. A settler in the backwoods of 

■ Australia. {Geog.) One of a tribe of savages near 
the Cape of Good Hope. — whackier, n. One ac- 
customed to beat about bushes ; a raw country- 
man; a scythe for cutting brush; one engaged in 
predatory excursions against an enemy. — whack'- 
ing, n. Traveling, or working a wav, through bush- 
es; pulling by the bushes, as in hauling a boat along 
a stream; irregular or predatory warfare. 

Bosh, bush, n. {Mach.) A metal ring or lining let 
into an orifice. — v. t. To furnish with a bush, or 
line with metal. — Bush'^ing, n. A metal lining for a 
hole; a thimble. 

Bushel, bush-'el, n. A dry measure, containing 8 
gallons; "a vessel of the capacity of a bushel, used in 
measuring; the circle of iron in the nave of a wheel. 

— BusheKage, -ej, n. A duty payable by the bushel. 
Busily, Business, etc. See under fiusY. 

Busk, busk, n. A thin piece of metal, whalebone, or 
wood, worn in corsets. 

Buskin, bus'kin, n. A covering for the foot and leg, 
for hunters and actors in tragedy ; tragedy, as dis- 
ting. fr. comedy. 

Buss, bus, n. A kiss; a rude or playful kiss. A two- 
masted herring-boat. — «;. t. [bussed (bust), buss- 
IXG.] To kiss. 

Bust, bust, n. A piece of statuary representing the 
upper part of the human figure; the portion of the 
human figure between the head and waist. 

Bustard, bus'tard, n. A bird of the Ostrich family. 

Bustle, bus'^l, V. i. [bustled (bus''ld), bustling.] I'd 
stir quickly, be very active. — n. Great stir; tumult 
from excitement. — Bus'tler, n. 

Bustle, bus'l, n. A kind of cushion to expand ladies' 
skirts behind. 

Busy, biz''T, a. Engaged in business; occupied; con- 
stantly active; restless: active in what does not 
concern one; officious: pragmatical.— ?;, t. [busied 
(biz'id), BUSYiN'G.] To make or keep busy, employ, 
occupy. — Business, biz-'nes, n. That winch busies 
one; employment; particular occupation for a liveli- 
hood or gain; traffic in general: concern; right or 
occasion of making one's self busy: affair; transac- 
tion; trade; profession; duty. — Bus'inesslike, a. 
Properly done; thorough; straightforward. — Busy- 
body, biz''I-bod-T, n. One who "officiously concerns 
himself with others' affairs, a meddling person. 

But, but, })rep. & con?. Except ; besides ; unless ; save 
that ; were it not that ; otherwise than that : that 
not; only; solel}'; merely; on the contrary; on the 
other hand ; yet ; still ; nevertheless. 

But, n. and v. 'See Butt. 

Butcher, buch''er, n. One who slaughters animals 
for food '; one who kills cruelly ; one given to 
slaughter. — f. «. [butchered (-erd), -erixg.] To 
kill, as animals, for food; to murder, esp. barba- 
rously.— Butch ''ery, -er-T, n. Business of a butcher; 
great slaughter ; massacre. 

Butler, bufler, n. A servant in charge of liquors, etc. 

Butt, But, but, n. The larger end, as of a piece of tim- 
ber; an end; limit: bound: unplowedlandat the end 
of a field; a mark to be shot at; object of aim; one 
at whom ridicule or contempt is directed ; a thrust 
given in fencing or by the head of an animal; the 
stoutest part of tanned ox-hides. ( Carp.) A kind 
of hinge, screwed to the edge of the door, which 

hutts against the casing. The metal ring at the ends 
of fire-engine hose. — v. i. To join at the butt, end, 
or outward extremity; to be bounded; to abut; to 
thrust the head forward, —v. t. To strike by thrust- 
ing the head against. — Butte, but or bit, n. An iso- 

' lated peak or abrupt elevation of land. — Buftock, 
n. The rump, or protuberant part of the body be- 
hind. {Xaut.) The convexitj' of a .ship behind, 
under the stern. 

Butt, but, n. A pipe or large barrel, containing from 
108 to I2(J gallons. 

Butter, buffer, n. An oily, unctuous substance ob- 
tained fiom cream by churning. — v. t. [buttered 
(-terd), -terixg.] To cover with butter. — Bufter- 
ine, -in, n. A substitute for butter, made from ani- 
mal fat ; oleomargarine. — But'tery, -ter-T, a. Hav- 
ing the qualities, consistence, or appearance, of but- 
ter. — n. A place for keeping butter, milk, provis- 
ions, etc. ; a room in some colleges, etc., for the 
sale of refreshments ; a cellar in which wine is 
kept. — Buftercup, n. A plant having bright yel- 
low flowers ; crowfoot. fingered, -fln'gerd, a. 

Apt to drop thingsras if from greasy fingers. — fly, 
n. A lepidopterous insect of different species. — 
-fly-valve, n. {Mech.) A valve consisting of two 
semi-circular clappers or wings hinged to a cross- 
rib. — man, n. One who sells butter. — milk, n. 
Milk remaining after the butter is separated from 
it. — nut, n. An American tree and its fruit, which 
contains oil; the nut of a South American tree, — 
called also the Savuari nut. — scotch, n. A candy 
made from sugar and butter. — tree, ?i. A tropical 
tree whose seeds yield a butter-like substance. 

Butteris. See under Buttress. 

Buttock. See under Butt. 

Button, bufn, n. A small ball; knob; a catch, to 
fasten together parts of dress, or to hold a door 
closed ; a bud; germ of a plant. (Assaying.) A 
round mass of metal remaining in the cupel after 
fusion. — r. t. [buttoxed (but'nd), -toxixg.] To 
fasten with, etc. — r. i. To be fastened by, etc. — 
Bufton-hole, n. The hole in which a button is 
caught. — I', t. To hold by the button or button- 
hole ; to detain in conversation ; to bore. mold, 

-mould, -mold, n. A disk of bone, wood, etc., which 
is made into a button by covering it with cloth. — 
-wood, n. The North American plane-tree, produ- 
cing rough balls ; the button-ball. 

Buttress, buftress, n. (Arch.) A projecting support 
to the exterior of a wall ; a prop. — 
r. t. To support by a buttress ; to 
prop. — But'teris, -ter-is, n. (Far.) 
An instrument to pare horses' hoofs. 

Buxom, buks'um, a. Orig., obedient 
or yielding ; healthy ; jolly ; frolic- 

Buy, bi, i\ t. [bought (bawt), buyixg.] 
To purchase ; to acquire by paying 
for ; to procure by a consideration 
given. — V. i. To negotiate about a 
purchase. — Buy'er, n. 

Buzz, buz, V. i. [buzzed (buzd), buz- 
zixG.] To make a low, continuous. ^ 
humming sound, as bees ; to speak 
with a low, humming voice. — v. t. 
To make known by bvizzing ; to 
spread, as report, by whispers. — n. A continuous; 
humming noise ; whisper ; report spread cautiously^ 

Buzzard, bui'erd, n. (Ornith.) A bird of prey, of the 
falcon family. A blockhead ; a dunce. 

By, bi, prep. Near or next to ; from one to the other side 
of ; past ; with, as instrument, means, way, etc. ; 
through means of ; with aid of ; through. — adv. 
Near ; present ; passing near; going or gone past. — 
a. Out of the common path ; aside ; — in composi- 
tion giving the meaning of something incidental, 
collateral, or private. 

Bye, bi, n. A dwelling ; in certain games, the station 
of a player. 

By-law, lii'law, n. A law of a city, town, corpora- 
tion, etc. 

Byzant, biz''ant, Byz''antine, -tin,??. (Niimis.) A gold 
coin, worth $2.5, coined at Byzantium. — Byzantine, 
bi-zan'tin or biz''an-tin, a. Pert, to Byzantium. 


sttn, cube, full ; moon, f 66t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, tiien, boNboif, chair, get. 




C, se,the 3d letter in the English, alphabet, has 2 sounds, 
one close (represented in the phonetic respellings in 
this vocabulary by k), the other a sibilant (repre- 
sented by s). The digraph ch has 3 sounds, the 1st 
as in church (represented by ch), the 2d as in chaise 
(represented by sh), the 3d as in chorus (represented 
by K). — (Jlus.) C after the clef is the mark of com- 
mon time, in which each measure is a semibreve, cor- 
responding to 4-. C is also the name of a note in the 

scale; the key note major, and the third minor, of 
the natural scale. — C is used as a contr. for L. cen- 
tum, a hundred. 

Cab, kab, n. Abbr. of Cabkiolet, q. v. — A Hebrew 
dry measure of 2 5-6 pints. 

Cabal, ka-bal', n. A number of persons united to pro- 
mote their private ■N'iews bj' intrigue: a junto; fac- 
tion ; plot ; intrigue, r- v. i. [caballed (-bald'), 
-BALLING.] To plot, conspire. — Cabal', Cab'ala, 
kab'a-la, n. Secret tradition, or a mysterious science 
among Jewish rabbins; mysterj'. 

CabaUine, kab'al-lin, a. Pert, to a horse. — n. A kind 
of aloes, used in medicine for horses. 

Cabas, ka'ba, ?i. A reticule; satchel. 

Cabbage, kab'ei, n. A garden vegetable, the head of 
which is edible. — v. i. To form a head in growing. 

Cabbage, kab'ej, V. t [cabbaged (-ejd), -baging.] lo 
purloin. — n. Cloth retained by tailors when cut- 
ting out garments. 

Cabin, kab'in, n. A small room ; a cottage; hut; an 
apartment in a ship. — v. i. [cabined (-ind), cab- 
ining.] To live in a cabin, lodge. — v. t. To con- 
fine in a cabin. 

Cabinet, kab'in-et, n. A small room; closet; room for 
consultations ; secret council of a government ; a 
piece of furniture with drawers and doors; a place 
for valuables. — Gab'inet-coun'cil, -kown'sil, n. Con- 
fidential council of a prince, etc. — marker, n. A 
maker of furniture ; a joiner. 

Cable, ka'bl, n. A rope or chain to retain a vessel at 
anchor, suspend weights, contain and protect a tel- 
egraph wire, etc. — r. t. To fasten with a cable. — v. 
i. and t. To telegraph through a cable. — Ca'ble- 
gram, n. A message sent through a telegraphic ca- 
ble. — Cables-length. 720 feet. 

Caboose, ka-boos', n. (Xaut.) A galley, or cook-house 
on deck; a box covering the chimney in a ship. A 
railroad tool-car. 

Cabriolet, kab'rT-o-la, n. A one-horse two-seated car- 
riage with calash top, and covering for the legs. 

Cacao, ka-ka'o or ka'ko, n. The chocolate tree of So. 
Amer. and the W. Indies. 

Cachalot, kash'a-lot, n. The sperm whale. 

Cachexy, ka-kek'sT, n. A depraved condition of the 
system. — Cachec'tic, -tical, a. 

Cachinnation, kak'in-na-shun, n. Loud or immod- 
erate laughter. 

Cackle, kak'l.r. i. [cackled (kak'ld), cackling.] To 
make a noise like a goose or hen; to laugh yith a 
broken noise, giggle ; to talk 
in a silly manner, prattle. — 
n. The noise of a hen, etc.; 
silly talk. 

Cactus, kak'tus, n. ; pi. Cac'- 
TUSES, -ez, or C a c ^ 1 1, -ti. 
A genus of tropical Amer- 
ican plants, ha'V'ing thick, 
fleshy stems, often armed 
with spines. 

Cad, kad, n. In Eng., the con- 
ductor of an omnibus ; an 
errand-boy; a low-bred, ob- 
trusive fellow; a snob. 

Cadaverous, ka-dav'er-us, a. 
Resembling a corpse ; pale; 
wan; ghastly. 

Caddice, -dis, kad'dis, n. The 


larva of the caddice-fly, — used as bait in fishing.— 
Cad' dice-fly, n. An" insect, frequenting marshy 

Caddis, kad 'dis, n. A kind of worsted lace or ribbon. 

Caddy, kad'dl, n. A small box for keeping tea. 

Cade, kad, n. A barrel: cask. 

Cadence, ka'dens, n. A fall of the voice in reading 
or speaking ; a modulation of sound. iMil.) A 
uniform time and pace in marching. {Miis.) A 
pause at the end of an air; a closing embellishment. 

— V. t. To regulate by musical measure. 

Cadet, ka-det', n. {Mil.') A gentleman who serves as 
a private, to obtain a commission; a j'oung man in a 
military school. 

Cadew, ka-du', Cade-worm. Same as Caddice. 

Cadi, ka'dl,n. ;p^. CA'Dis,-dlz. A Turkish local mag^ 

Cadmean, kad-me'an, Cadmian, kad'mT-an, a. Pert 
to Cudmus, prince of Thebes, said to have intra 
duced into Greece 16 letters of the alphabet. 

Cadmia, kad'ml-a, n. {Min.) An oxide of zinc: for- 
merly, the ore of zinc, called calamine. — Cad'mium, 
n. CChem.) A white, ductile, and malleable metal 
related to zinc. — Cal'amine, -min, n. Silicate, for- 
merly' carbonate, of zinc. 

Caduceas, ka-du'se-us, n. (JI>/th.) Mercury's rod, — 
a wand entwined by serpents, and sur- 
mounted by wings. 

Caducous, ka-du'kus, a. {Bat.) Falling 
off quickly or easily. 

Caesar, se'zar, n. An emperor. — esp. of 
Germany, as being the successor of Au- 

fustus Caesar and the Roman emperors ; 
aiser. — Caesa'rean, Cesa'rean, a. Pert, 
to Csesar. — Cesarean section. {Surg.) An 
incision through the parietes of the ab- 
domen and uterus, to extract the fetus. 

Caesura, se-zu'ra or -su'ra, n. ; E. pi. C^'e- 
su'ras, -raz : L. pi. -e.e, -re. (Pros.) A 
pause or division in a verse ; a separation, 
by ending of a word or pause in the sense, 
of syllables rj'thmicalljr connected. 

Cafe, kaf'a, n. A coffee-house; lunch-room. 

— Caffeic, -fe'ik, a. (Chem.) Pert, to, or obtained 
fr., coffee. — Caffeine, -fe'in. ;;. A white, bitter, 
crystallizable substance, obtained from, etc. 

Cag, kag, ?i. A small cask or barrel; keg. 

Cage, kaj, ?i. A box or inclosure, for confining birds, 
animals, criminals, etc. (Mining.) A hoist for rais- 
ing ores, persons, etc., from a pit. — v. t. [caged 
(kajd), caging.] To confine in a cage. 

Caiman. See Cayman. 

Caique, ka'ek or ka-ek', n. A Turkish skiff or light 

Cairn, karn, n. A rounded or conical pile of stones. 

Caisson, kas'son, n. (Mil.) A chest containing am- 
munition ; wagon for conveying militarj' stores. 
(Arch.) A wooden frame used in submarine Ijuild- 
ing: a panel sunk below the surface. 

Caitiff, ka'tit, n. A mean, despicable person. — a. 
Base : vile. 

Cajeput, kaj'e-put, n. An essential oil from the East 

Cajole, ka-joi'. v. t. [cajoled (-jold'), cajoling.} 
To deceive or delude by flattery: to wheedle, coax, 
entrap. — Cajo'lery, -ler-t, n. A wheedhng; coaxing 
language; flattery. 

Cake, kak, n. A composition of flour, butter, sugar, 
etc., baked: a mass of matter concreted and flattened. 

— r. i. and t. [caked (kakd), caking.] To form 
into a cake, or mass. 

Calabash, kal'a-bash, n. The fruit of the calabash tree ; 
a large gourd; a vessel made from the shell, etc. — 

— Cal'abash tree. A tree of tropical America. 
Calaboose, kal-a-boos', n. A prison ; jail. 
Calamine. See under Cadmia. 

Calamity, ka-lam'T-tt, n. A great misfortune or cause 

am, fame, far, paaa or opera, fare ; gnd, eve, tSrm ; In, Ice ; Cdd, tone, Qr ; 




of misery ; disaster ; mishap ; mischance. — Calam'i- 
tons, -T-tus, a. Suffering, or producing, calamity ; 
deplorable ; grievous. — Calam'itouslyi^ adv.— Ca- 
lam'itoosness, n 

Calamus, kal'a-mus, ?i. ; ;j?. -mi, -mi. {Bot.') Indian 
cane, a plant ol the palm family ; also, the sweet flag. 
[L.] — Calainif''erous, -er-us, a. Producing reeds. 

Calash, ka-lash', n. A light carriage with low wheels, 
having a lop that can be raised or lowered, and 
often a movable front, making it either an open or 
close carriage; also, a Canadian two- wheeled vehi- 
cle; a hood of a carriage which can be thrown back; 
a hood-like head-co\'ering. 

Calcify, Calcine, etc. See under Calx. 

Calculate, kaKku-lat, v. t. To ascertain by arithmet- 
ical or mathematical processes, or by recKoning pe- 
culiarities or circumstance.^ ; to fit by adaptation of 
means to the end ; to compute, estimate, rate. — 
v.i. To make a calculation. [Improperly used for 
intend or purpo.''C'.] — Calculable, a. Capable of be- 
ing, etc. — Calcula^'tion, n. Art, act, or result of, 
etc. — CaKculative, -tiv, a. Pert, to, etc. — Calcu- 
lator, -ter, )(. One who, etc. 

Calculus, kal'ku-lus, w. ; pi. -li, -li. (3fed.) A solid 
concretion in the body, usually in the organs that 
act as reservoirs, and in the excretory canals. 
(Math.) A method of computation ; one of the 
branches of mathematics.— CaKculous, -lus, «. Like 
stone; hard; gritty ; affected with stone or gravel. 

Caldron, kawl'^run, n. A large metal kettle or boiler. 

Calefacient, Jcal-e-fa'shent, a. Making warm; heat- 
ing. — n. (Med.) A substance that excites warmth. 

— Cal^'ety, -&, v. i. To grow warm. — v. t. To make 

Calendar, kaKen-dar, n. An arrangement of the di- 
visions of time, as days, weeks, months, etc. ; an 
almanac ; an enumeration of persons or things. — 
V. t. To enter in a calendar. — a. Contained in, or 
according to, etc. — Calendar month. A month ac- 
cording to the common or Gregorian calendar, as ^ 
given in almanacs. — C. year. A Gregorian year, or ' 
year of our Lord, ending Dec. ol. 

Calender, kaKen-der, n. A machine or hot-press, to 
make cloths, paper, etc., smooth and glossy or wavy; 
one who calenders; one of a sect of Eastern der- 
vises, named from the founder. — v. t. [calen- 
dered (-derd), -dering.] To press between rollers. 

Calf, kaf, n. ; pi. Calves, kavz. The young of the cow; 
an ignorant, stupid person ; a small island near a 
larger one; a mass of ice attached to an iceberg. — 
Calve, kav, v. t. To bring forth a calf. 

Calf, kaf, n. The fleshy part of the leg behind, below 

. the knee. 

Caliber, Calibre, kaKY-ber, ??. Diameter of a round 
body, as of a bullet, or of the bore, as of a cannon 
or tube; mental capacity. — CaKipers, 
-perz, Cal'iper-com'passes, n. pi. Com- 
passes with curved legs, for measuring 
the caliber of round bodies. 

Calico, kaKt-ko, n. ; pi. -coes, -koz. 
Plain white cotton cloth; printed cot- 
ton cloth, coarser than muslin. — a. 
Made of, etc. ; resembling, etc., — said 
of a horse, etc., having patches of 
color different from the general color. 

Caliduct, kal'TC-dukt, n. A pipe to con- 
vey heat; acaloriduct. 

Caligo, ka-li'go, w. {Pathol.) Dimness of 
sight, from a speck on the cornea; the speck itself. 

— Caliginous, -lii''t-nus, a. Affected with darkness 
or dimness; dark. 

Caligraphy. See Calligraphy. 

Calipash, KaKl-pash, n. Part of a turtle belonging to 
the upper shell, containing a gelatinous substance of 
a greenish tinge. — Cal'ipee'i n. Part belonging to 
the lower shell, of a yellowish color. 

Caliph, Calif, ka'lif , n. Successor or vicar, — a title 
of the successors of Mohammed. 

Calisthenic, kal-is-then'ik, a. Pert, to calisthenics. — 
Cal'isthen'ics, n. sing. Art, science, or practice of 
healthful bodily exercise. 

Calk, kawk, v. t. [calked (kawkt), calking.] To drive 
oakum into the seams of, as of a ship, to prevent 
leaking; to put sharp points upon the shoes of, to 
prevent slipping on ice, — said of a horse or ox; to 


wound, with a calk, — said of a horse, etc. — n. A 
point on a shoe, to prevent slipping. — Calk'er, 
Calk''in, Caulk, Cork. Same as Calk, n. 

Call, kawl, V. t. [called (kawld), c.a.llixg.] To in- 
vite or command to come or oe present ; to con- 
voke, summon, bid; to give a name to; to desig- 
nate as for office, duty, etc.; to utter loudly. — v. i. 
To speak loudlj', crj' out ; to make a brief visit. — 
n. A vocal address of summons or invitation; a 
public demand ; requisition; a divine summons; a 
short visit. (Himfiny.) A note blown on a horn. 
iNaut.) A whistle to summon sailors to dutj'. 
(Fowling.) A noise in imitation of a bird; a pipe 
to call birds by imitating their voice. — Call'ing, a. 
A summons; occupation; vocation; business. 

Calla, kal'la, n. A <j^eniis of plants. 

Calligraphy, kal-lig'ra-fl, n. Fair or elegant penman- 
.ship. — Oallig'raphist, -fist, n. An elegant penman. 

Calliope, kal-li'o-pe, n. (Myth.) The muse presiding 
over eloquence and heroic poetry. An organ whose 
tones are produced h\ steam instead of wind ; a 
steam-whistle on locomotives, etc. 

Callisthenics. See Causthenics. 

Callow, kaKo, a. Destitute of feathers; naked. 

Callus, kal'lus, n. (Med.) Any preternatural hard- 
ness in the body, csp. of the skin; new growth of 
osseous matter uniting fractured bones. [L.] — Cal'- 
lous, -lus, a. Hardened ; indurated ; obdurate ; un- 
feeling. — CaKlously, adv. — CaKlousness, n. 

Calm, kiim, a. Not stormy; undisturbed by passion; 
still; tranquil; serene; placid. — n. Freedom from 
motion, agitation, or disturbance. — v. t. [calmed 
(kamd), calming.] To render still or quiet; to ap- 
pease, compose, assuage. 

Calomel, kaKo-mel, n. (Chem.) A mild chloride of 
mercury, used as a medicine. 

Caloric, ka-lor-'ik, 7i. (Physics.) The principle of ' 
heat; agent to which phenomena of heat and com- 
bustion are ascribed. — Caloricity, -is''T-tt, h. Fac- 
ulty of developing heat, — esp. in animals, to with- 
stand cold. — Calorific, a. Able to produce heat; 

Calumet, kal'u-met, n. A pipe used by American In- 
dians as a symbol of peace and war. 

Calumny, kal'um-nt, n. False accusation; defama- 
tion; slander. — Calurn'mate, -nT-at, 1'. «. To accuse 
falsely and knowingly, asperse, vilify, traduce.— 
Calum'nia''tion, n. False accusation. — Calum''ui- 
ator, -ter, n. — Calum^nious, -nl-us, a. Containing 
or implj'ing. etc. 

Calvary, 'kaKva-rT, n. A place of skulls; esp. the 
place of Christ's crucifixion ; a Roman Catholic 
chapel containing representations of Christ's pas- 
sion-and death. 

Calve. See under Calf. 

Calvinism, kaKvin-izm, n. The theological doctrines of 
Calvin and his followers. 

Calx, kalks, n. ; E.231. Calx''es, -ez; L. pi. Cal'^ces, 
kaKsez. (Chem.) Earthy residuum remaining after 
the calcination of a metal or mineral. — Calcareous, 
-ka-'rTf-us, a. Of or containing, carbonate of lime. 

— Cal''cic,-sik,a. (Chem.) Pert, to, or derived from 
calcium. — Calciferous, -sifer-us, a. Containing 
carbonate of lime. — Cal'ciform, a. In the form of 
chalk or lime. — CaKcify. -fi, v. i. and t. To change 
into a stony confUtion, in which lime is a princi- 
pal ingredient. — Calcine, kal-sin' or kaKsTn. 
[CALCiNED_(-sind'' or -sTnd), -cining], also CaKci- 
nate, -sT-nat, v. t. To reduce to powder or a friable 
state, by the action of heat: to oxidize, as a metal. 

— V. i. "To be converted into a powder, etc. 
Calyx, ka/lix, n. : E. pi. Ca'lyxes; L.jil. Cal'yces, 

kaKT-sez. (Bot.) The outer covering of 

a flower. 
Cam, kam,w. (Much.) A projecting part* 

of a wheel, etc., giving an alternating 

motion to a piece pressing against it. 
Camber, kam^ber, n. (Arch.) An arch or 

convexity on the top of a beam, or of an 

Camboge. See Gamboge. 
Camboose, kam-boos', n. (Naut.) A cook- 
Cambrel. See Gambrel. Calvx 

Cambric, kam'brik, n. A fine, white fabric •' ' 

siin, cube, fyll ; moon, f(J&t ; cow, oil ; ligger or ink, then, boNboN, chair, get. 




of flax or linen; a cotton fabric, in imitation of linen 

Came. See Come. 

Camel, kam'el, n. A ruminant quadruped, used in 
Asia and Africa for carrj'ing bur- 
dens. {Naut.) A contrivance for 
lifting ships over shoals. — Cam''- 
ers-hair, a. Made of camel's hair. 

— Cam''let, Carn'olot, -e-lot, n. A 
cloth, orig. of camel's hair, now of 
wool or goat's hair with silk or 

Camellia, ka-meKya, n. A genus of narv^pi 

evergreen shrubs. uamei. 

Camelopard, ka-mel'o-pard or kanT'el-, n. (Zool.) A 
ruminant, long-necked, African quadruped; the gi- 

Cameo, kani'e-o, n. ; pi. -os, -oz. A precious stone or a 
shell carved in relief. 

Camera, kam'e-ra, n. (Arch.) A vaulted roof or ceil- 
ing. The camera obsciira. — Cam'^era Lu'cida, -lu''- 
sl-da. (Opt.) An instrument which reflects a pic- 
ture that may be traced on paper, etc. — C. Obscura. 
-ob-sku'ra. An apparatus which reflects external 
images, received through a lens, upon a wliite sur- 
face within a darkened chamber. 

Camisade, kam-T-sad'', -sado, -sa''do, n. (Mil.) A shirt 
worn over a soldier's unitorm, for recognition in the 
dark; an attack by surprise at night. — Cam''isole, 
-sol, n. A waistcoat; dressing- jacket; sti'aight-jacket. 

Camlet. See under Camel. 

Camomile, Chamomile, karn'o-mil, n. A bitter plant, 
used in medicine. 

Camp, kamp, n. Ground containing tents, huts, etc., 
for shelter; company of persons encamped in the 
same spot. — r. t [camped (kampt), c.4mping.] To 
afford lodring for, as an army, travelers, etc. — v. i. 
To rest orTodge;_to pitch tents, etc.; to encamp. 

Campaign, kam-pan'', n. A large, open plain ; an 
extensive tract without hills. (Mil.) The time that 
an armj' keeps tlie field. ( U. S. Politics^ The con- 
test for an election; a canvass. — v. i. To serve in a 

Campaniform, kam-panT-form, a. (Bot.) In the 
shape of a bell. — CampanoKogy, -jT. n. Art of ring- 
ing bells; a treatise on it. — Cam'panile, -ne'la, ii. 
(Arch.) A bell-tower. 

Campestral, kam-pes'tral, -trian, -trt-an, a. Pert, to, 
or growing in a field, or open ground. 

Camphene, -pMne, kam-fen', n. (Chem.) Pure oil of 

Camphor, kam'fer, ?i. The solidified sap of an East 
Indian laurel tree. — Cam^phire, -fir,_n. Obs. spell- 
ing of camphor. — Cam^phorate, -fer-at, i-. t. To im- 
pregnate with, etc. 

Cam-wood, kam'wcJbd, n. A hard, red d3'e-wood, from 
Sierra Leone. 

Can, kan, n. A cup or vessel for liquids. — v. t. [canned 
(kand), canning.] To preserve in cans, as fish', veg- 
etables, etc. — Can^akin, -nikin, n. A little can. 

Can, kan, i-. i. {imp. could.] To be able; to have power. 

Canaille, ka-naK or ka'na'y', 71. The lowest class of 
people; the rabble; vulgar; shorts, or low grades of 

Canal, ka-naK, n. An artificial water-course, esp. one 
for boats. (Anat.) A duct for the passage of liquids 
or solids. 

Canard, kan-ar' or kan-ard'', n. An extravagant fabri- 
cation. [F.] 

Canary, ka-na'rY, ?i. Wine made in the Canary Isles. 

— Gana''ry-bird, -herd, n. A singing bird of the 
finch family, native in, etc. 

Cancan, kaN-kaN or kan-'kan, n. Scanda-l; tittle-tat- 
tle ; an indecent French dance. [F.] 

Cancel, kan''sel, i\ t. [canceled (-seld), -celing.] 
To cross and deface the lines of, blot out, destrov, 
obliterate, erase, abrogate, do away. (Print.) To 
suppress and reprint, —w. (Print.) The suppression 
and reprinting of a part of a work; the part thus al- 

Cancer, kan'sgr, n. The crab. (A^ttron.) A sign in 
the zodiac, denoting the northern limit of the sun's 
course. (Med.) A livid, scirrhous tumor, usually 
terminating in an -ulcer, and rarely cured.— Oancer- 
a'tion. n. A growing cancerous. — Can'cerous, -us. 

a. Like, consisting of, or affected witli. cancer. — 
Cancriform, kan''krt-f6rm. a. Crab-shaped : like a 
cancer; cancero'us. — Cancrine, kan^krin. a. Having 
the qualities of a crab. — Canker, kan'ker, n. An 
ulcer in the mouth ; anything that corrupts or cor- 
rodes. (Hort.) A disease in trees. (Far.) A disease 
of horses' feet. The dog-rose ; a caterpillar. — v. t. 
[-KERED (-kerd), -kerixg.] To corrode, eat, cor- 
rupt, infect. — V. i. To become venomous; to waste 
away, grow rustj'. 

Candelabrum. See under Candle. 

Candid, kan'did, a. Orig. white ; free from bias : im- 
partial ; open ; frank ; equitable. — Can'dent. o. 
Heated to Nv_hiteness ; glowing with heat. — Can'- 
didate, -dT-dat, n. One who seeks or is proposed tor 
otfice or preferment. — Can'dor, -der, n. Freedom 
fr. prejudice or disguise; sincerity. 

Candle, kan'^dl, n. Tallow, wax, "spermaceti, paraf- 
fine, etc., inclosing a wick, and used to furnish 
light.— Can^dle-coal, n. A bright-burning coal : can- 
nel-coal. — light, n. The light of, etc. — Candela''- 
brum, n. ; L. pi. -bra, -bra, E. )>l. -brums. A tall can- 
dle-stick; stand for supporting lamps; chandelier. 
[L.] — Chandelier, slian-de-ler'', n. A frame with 
branches for candles or other lights. [F.] — Chand- 
ler, chand'ler, n. One who makes or sells candles, 
also other commodities indicated by a word pre- 
fixed, as corn-chandler, ship-chandler. 

Candy, kan'dY, r. t [candied (-did), -dying.] Tocon- 
serve or boil in sugar; to form into crystals, as sugar. 
— V. i. To change into, or become impregnated, or 
covered with, sugar; to be formed into crystals. — 
n. A preparation of sugar or sirup ; a confection 
of sugar. 

Cane, kan, n. (Bot.) A plant of several species, in- 
cluding reeds, as bamboo, rattan, etc., also sugar- 
cane. A reed; walking-stick; staff; a lance made of 
cane. — r. t. [caned (kand), caning.] To beat 
with, etc.; to make or furnish with, etc. 

Canicula, ka-nik'u-la, Canicule, kan-'I-kul, Ji. (Astron.) 
A star in the constellation of Canis Major ; the Dog- 
star, or Sirius. 

Canine, ka-nin', a. Pert, to dogs : having the quali- 
ties of a dog. — Canine teeth. The pointed teeth, be- 
tween the incisors and grinders, — resembling a dog's 
teeth. See Tooth. 

Canister, kan''is-ter, n. A basket of rushes, reeds, 
etc.; a case for holding tea, coffee, etc. 

Canker. See under Cancer. 

Cannabin, -bine, kan''na-bin, n. (Chem.) Apoison- 
ous resin extracted from hemp (Cannabis Indica), 
giving hasheesh its narcotic effects. 

Cannel-coal, kan'nel-kol, n. A hard black coal, which 
burns with a clear flame. 

Cannibal, kan-'nt-bal, n. One who eats human flesh ; 
a man-eater. 

Cannon, kan'un, n. A hollow metal cylinder closed 

A, cascabel; B, first re-en- of the muzzle; F, trunn- 
force ; C, second re-en- ion ; G, rim-base ; a. base- 
force; D, chase; E, swell ring; 6, base of the breech. 

at one end, for throwing balls by the force of gun 
powder. (Mech.) A hollow cylindrical piece, inclos 
ing a revolving shaft. — Cannonade, -ad', w. Act of 
attacking with balls from cannon, — r. t. To attack 
with artillery. — r. i. To discharge cannon. 

Cannot, kan 'not. To be unable, [can and not, usu- 
ally united in writing and printing.] 

Cannular, kan'u-lar, a. Having the form of a tube ; 

Canny, kan'nY, a. Gentle; cautious; harmless; ^ood. 

Canoe, ka-noo', n. A boat formed of a tree trunk ex- 
cavated or of bark or skins. 

Canon, kan'un, n. A law or rule, esp. an ecclesias- 
tical law, or rule of doctrine or discipline ; the gen- 
uine books of the Scriptures ; a catalogue of saints. 
(Mus.) A continued fugue ; a round. One who 

ftm, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; end, eve, term ; In, Ice ; 6dd, tone, 6r ; 





holds a prebi'iid in a ca- 
thedral, etc. O'riiit.) The 
largest size of type having 
a specific name" — former- 
ly used for printing the 
canons of the church. — 
Caii''one8S, «. A woman 
who eniovs a prebend. — p,.,„ „ .r,.„„ 

Canon'ic. -ical. «. Pert, to C*""" ^-^Pe 

a canon: according to the canon or rule. — Canon '- 
ically, adv. — Canon'icalness, ?;.— Canon'icals, -alz, 
n. pi. Full clerical dress.— Canon''icate. -ik-at, Can'- 
onry, -rl, -onsMp, n. The oitice of a canon. — Can- 
onicity, -is'T-tl, n. State of belongins to the canon, 
or genuine books of Scripture; canonicalness.— Can'- 
onist, n. A professor of canon law. — Canonisfic, a. 
Pert, to a canonist.— Can'onize. -Tz, v. t. [-!ZED(-Izd), 
-IZI.VG.] {Rom. Cutli. Chiinli.) To place upon the 
catalogue of saints. — Canoniza'tion. n. Ceremonj' 
or act of placing one di.ceusud in the catalogue of 
saints ; state of being canonized. — Can'on law. 
(E'cl.) The law sanctioned by the church of Rome. 

Canon, Canyon, kan''ynn, n. A gorge, ravine, or 
gulch, worn by streams. 

Canopy, kan'o-pT, n. A covering over a throne, bed, 
etc., or overhead. (Ardi.) An ornamental projec- 
tion over doors, windows, niches, etc. — v. t. [caxo- 
PiED (-pid), -rYi.vG.] To cover with, etc. 

Cant, kant, v. t. To incline, or place upon edge, as a 
cask: to give a sudden turn or impulse to; to cut off 
an angle from. — n. An inclination from a horizon- 
tal line ; a thrust, push, etc., with a jerk. — Cantle, 
kan'tl, w. A fragment, corner, or edge of anything; 
the hind-bow of a saddle. — Canflet, n. A piece. — 
Cant'hook, n. A lever with a hook at the end, for 
canting, or turning over, heavy logs. 

Cant, kSnt, v. i. To speak in a whining voice, or an af- 
fected, singing tone; to make whining pretensions to 
goodness. — a. An affected mode of speaking; a word 
or phrase hackneyed, corrupt, or peculiar to some 
profession; religious phraseologj'; secret language of 
gypsies, thieves, beggars, etc. — a. Affected, inele- 
gant, vulgar, — said of language. 

Can't, kant. A colloq. cont£. lor can not. 

Cantaleup, -loupe, kan'ta-loop, n. A varietj' of musk- 

Cantalever, kan''ta-lev-er, Cantilever, kan'tt-, n. 
{Arch.) A bracket to support 
a balcony, eaves of a house, etc. 

Cantankerous, kan-tan'ker-us, a. 
^'ery vile or bitter : perverse ; 
malicious ; contentious. — Can- 
tan'kerousness, n. 

Cantata, kan-tii'ta or -ta'ta, n. /-■ + i 
{Mus.) A poem set to music. Cantalever. 
— Cantab'tle, -T-la, Cantilena, -te-la'na, n. A piece 
suited for singing ; a melody. [It.] — Can'ticle, -ti- 
ki, n. A little song; pi. tlie Song of Solomon, a book 
of the Old Testament. — Can'tillate, v. t. To chant. — 
Can'to, n. ; pi. C.a.n"''tos. -toz. A chief division, or 
book, of a poem. ( J/».<.) The soprano, or highest part. 
[It.] — Can'tor, n. _The leader of a choir; precentor. 

Canteen, -tine, kan-ten', n. A soldier's vessel for car- 
rying liquor. — Cantiniere, -ten''yar, n. A female 
sutler; a vivandiere. [F.] 

Canter, kan'ter, 71. An easy gallop. — v. i. [cax- 
TEKED, (-terd), -TERixr;.] 'To inove, as a horse, in 
a canter. — i\ t. To ride upon, etc. 

Cantharis, kan'tha-ris, n. ; pi. -thaeides, -thSr't-dez. 
(Entom.) A coleopterous insect or beetle, used for 
blistering; Spanish fly. 

Canticle, Canto, Cantor, etc. See under Cantata. 

Cantle, Cantlet. See under Cant. 

Canton, kan'ton or kan-ton', 71. A small portion of 
territory, constituting a government; a part, or di- 
vision. — V. t. [CAXTOXED (kan''tond or kan-tond'), 
-toning.] To divide into districts or portions: to 
allot separate quarters to, as to troops. — Can'tonal, 
a. Pert, to, or divided into, etc. — Can'tonize, r. t. 
To divide into, etc. — Can'tomnent, n. A division 
of a town, etc., assigned to particular troops. 
Canton flannel.Jsee Cotton-flannel, under Cotton. 

Cantoon, kan-toon-', n. A kind of strong fustian. 
Canvas, kan'vas, n. A coarse cloth of nemp or flax, 
for tents, sails, painting, etc.; the sails of a vessel. 

— Can'vas-back, n. A species of sea-duck, named 
from tlie markings of its plumage. — Can^'vaas, v. t. 
[CAXVA-SSED (-vast),-VASSiNG.] To sif t, strain, exam- 
ine thoroughly, discuss, debate; to go through in the 
waj' of solicitation, —i-. i. To solicit votes or inter- 
est. — n. Close inspection to know the state of: ex- 
amination in the way of discussion ; a solicitation 
or effort to obtain something. — Can'vasser, n. One 
who solicits votes or subscriptions, or examines re- 
turns of votes. _ 

Canyon. See Canon^ 

Caoutchouc, koo'chook, n. An elastic substance, ob- 
tained fr. the juice of several tropical plants; India 
rubber; gum elastic. 

Cap, kap, 7i. A covering for the head; a cover; top. — r. 
t. [c.\i'i"ED(kapt), CAi'riNG.] To cover the top or end 
of: to render coiii^|)lete, consummate; to provide with 
a cap. — Cape, kap, ?j. Part of a garment, covering 
the shoulders; a cloak. — Caparison, ka-par'T-sun, n. 
The covering of a horse ; trappings ; gay clothing. 

— v.t. [-S0NED (-sund), -so.N'iXG.] Tq_cover with, 
etc.; to dress. — Capoch, -pouch, ka-pooch', n. A 
monk's hood ; the hood of a cloak. — v. t. To cover 
with a hood; to hoodwink or blind. — Capote. -of, 
n. A long cloak for women ; a hooded cloak for sol- 
diers, sailors, etc. [F.] — Cap'-achin'', -u-shen'', n. 
A Franciscan monk, whose dress includes a cowl ; 
a hooded cloak for women; a kind of pigeon. 

Capable, ka'pa-bl, a. Possessing ability, qualifica- 
tion, or susceptibility; able; fitted; effective; skill- 
ful. — Capability, Ca'pableness, n. 

Capacious, ka-pa'shus, a. Havino; capacity: spacious; 
extended;havingability to take large views of things; 
broad ; comprehensive ; Uberal. — Capa''ciousness, 
n. — Capacitate, -pas''I-tat. v. t. To render capable, 
qualify. — Capac'lty, -tT, n. Power of receiving or 
containing; extent of room or space; ability; element 
of power ; condition or circumstances : character. 
{Laiv.) Aptitude or qualification, as of age, resi- 
dence, etc. {Geom.) The solid contents of a body. 

Cap-Ji-pie, kap'a-pe'. From head to foot. [OF.] 

Caparison. See under Cap. 

Cape, kap, n. Part of a garment covering the shotilders. 
A neck of land extending into the sea ; a headland. 

Capellet, kap'el-et, n. {Far.) A wen-like swelling on 
a horse's hock. 

Caper, ka'per, r. i. To leap or jump about, spring, 
dance. — )i. A frolicsome leap; a skip: jump. 

Caper, ka-'per, n. {Bot.) The flower-bud or unex- 
panded flower of the caper-bush, used for pickling. 

Capias, ka''pl-as, «. {Law.) A writ or process ordering 
the arrest of the person named in it ; writ of capias. 

Capillary, kap'il-la-rl or ka-piKla-rt, a. Resembling 
a hair; long and slender; pert, to capillary tubes or 

vessels. — 
r y , n. A 
fine vessel 
or canal ; 
esp. one of 
the ves- 
sels con- 
n e c t i ng 
and veins. 
kap ' t-tal, 
a. Pert, to 
the head; 
of the head 
or life: first 
i n impor- 
t anc e . — 
n. {Arch.) 
The head 






stin, ciibe, full ; moon, f(5&t ; cow. oil ; linger or ink, iiien, boNboir, chair, get. 




metropolis; a stock employed in trade, maniifactures, 
etc.; means of increasing one's power; influence. 
(Print.) A letter such as is used at the beginning 
of a sentence or proper name, and distinguished by 
form or size . -p^ ^ 
from the lower ABCDJi<r ABCDEF 

thf sime 'tyle* ^^P^*^^^" ^'"'^^^ ^^P^'^^^" 
{Fort.) The line bisecting the salient angle of a rav- 
elin. See Ravelix. — Cap-'italist, n. A man of 
large property. — Cap^italize, -iz, v. t. To convert 
into capital, as money or stock ; to commence with 
a capital letter. — Cap''italiza''tion, n. Act of con- 
verting, etc. ; use of capital letters. — Cap'itally, 
adv. — Capita'tion, n. A numbering of persons ; 
a tax upon each head ; poll-tax ; capitation tax. 
Capitol, kap'T-tol, n. The temple of Jupiter, in Rome; 
the edifice occupied by a legislature; government- 
Capitular, ka-pit'u-lar. a. Pert, to a chapter. {Bot.) 
Growing in small heads, as dandelions. — Capif- 
ular, -ulary, -u-la-rt, ji. An act passed in a chapter 
of knights, canons, etc.; a collection of laws or 
statutes ; a member of a chapter. — Capit'iilary, a. 
Pert, to the chapter of a cathedral. — Capifulate, 
-u-lat, V. i. To svirrender on stipulated terms, as 
an army, etc. — Capifula'tion, n. A reducing to 
heads or articles ; act of surrendering, etc. ; an in- 
strument containing the terms of surrender. — Ca- 
piVula'^tor, n. 
Capivi, ka-pe''Te, n. A balsam. 
Capoch, Capouch, Capote. See under Cap. 
Capon, ka'pn or ka'pun, n. A cock gelded to im- 
prove his flesh forjthe table. 
Caponiere, kap-o-ner', m. (Fort.) A work placed in 
a ditch for its defense by fire-arms; often serving as 
a covered passage-way. 
Caporal, kap''o-ral, n. A kind of smoking tobacco. 
Capot, ka-pot', n. A winning of all the tricks of 

cards at the game of jpiquet. 
Capreolate, kap''re-o-lat, a. (Bat.) Having tendrils, 

or spiral clasjiers. 
Caprice, ka-pres', n. Sudden or unreasonable change 
of mind; fickleness; freak; whim ; vagary. — Capri- 
cious, -prish'^us, a. Governed by caprice; unsteady; 
captious. — Capri''ciously, adv. 
Capricorn, kap'rl-k6rn, n. (Astron.) The 10th sign 
of the zodiac, which the sun enters at the winter 
solstice, about Dec. 21st. 
Capsicum, kap'st-kum, n. A genus of plants produ- 
cing red or Cayenne pepper.— Cap''sicine, -sT-sin, n. 
{Chem.) The active principle of, etc. 
Capsize, kap-siz'', v. t. [-sized (-sizd'), -sizing]. To 
upset or overturn, as a vessel. — n. An overturn. 
Capstan, kap'stan, n. (Naut.) A machine to weigh 
anchor or draw up great weights, 
operating with a cable wound 
round it like a wheel and axle. 
Capsule, kap'^sul, 7i. (Bof.) A 
seed-pod or pericarp. (Chem.) 
A clay saucer for roasting or 
melting samples of ores, etc. ; an 
evaporating dish. (Physiol.) ' A 
small membranous sac. A me- 
tallic cover for closing a bottle. 
A percussion cap. 
Captain, kap'tan, n. The military officer command- 
ing a company or troop ; also the commander of a 
ship, foreman of workmen, etc.: a militarj^ leader; 
warrior. — Captain -general. {^Blil.) A commander- 
in-chief. — C.-lieutenant. An officer, who, with the 
rank of captain, and pay of lieutenant, commands 
a company or troop. — Cap'taincy, -sT, n. Rank, 
post, or commission of, etc. 
Caption, kap'shun, n. (Law.) That part of a legal 
instrument which shows where, when, and by what 
authority, it was taken, found, or executed. The 
heading of a chapter, section, or page. 
Csiptious, kap-'shus, a. Apt to find fault or cavil; 
fitted to catch or perplex ; petulant; fretful. — Cap'- 
tive, -tiv, n. A prisoner taken in war; one charmed 
or subdued by beauty, excellence, or affection. — a. 
Made prisoner; kept in bondage; serving to confine; 
pert, to bondage.— Cap'tivate, v. t. Lit., to capture; 
to overpower with excellence or beauty, fascinate. 


— Captivity, -tiv'T-tT, n. State of being a prisoner 
or under control; subjection.— Cap'tor, -tSr, n. One 
who takes, as a prisoner or a prize. [L.] — Capture, 
kap'chur, n. Act of taking by force; seizure; thing 
taken. — v. t. To take by force, surprise, or stratagem. 

Capuchin. See under Cap. 

Caput Mortuum, ka'put-mor'tu-um. Residuum of dis- 
tillation or sublimation : worthless residue. 

Car, kar, n. A small vehicle moved on wheels; a rail- 
road carriage; a chariot of war. — Carry, kSr-'i-T, v. 
t. [CAPtEiED (-rid), CARRYING.] To Convey or trans- 
port ; to bear, cause to move forward, urge, im- 
pel; to transfer from one place to another; to effect, 
accomplish; to obtain possession of by force ; to 
bear the aspect of, exhibit, imply; to behave, con- 
duct, demean. — v. t. To convey or propel; to bear. 

— Car''riage, -rij, n. Act of carrying; that which 
carries; a vehicle; manner of carrving one's self: de- 
meanor; conduct. — Car'^riageable, -rij-a-bl, a. Pass- 
able by carriages. — Car'rier, -rl-er, )i. — Car'iole, 
-T-ol, n. A small open carriage. — Car'ry-all, -rT-awl, 
n. A light, four-wheeled one-horse covered vehicle. 

— Cart, kart, n. A two-wheeled vehicle for loads. — 
V. t. To carry in, etc. — Carfage, v. Act of, etc. ; 
price paid for, etc. — Carfer, n. — Cart-wright, -rit, 
n. A maker of, etc. 

Carack, Carrack, kSr-'ak, n. A large ship of burden, 
formerly used by the Portuguese. 

Caracole, kar'a-kSl, ?i. A half turn made by a horse- 
man. (Arch.) A spiral staircase. — v.i. *To move 
in, etc. ; to wheel. 

Carafe, ka-raf ', n. A glass decanter. 

Caragheen. See Caerageex. 

Caramel, kar'a-mel, ?i. (Chem.) A black, porous sub- 
stance obtained by heatino; sugar to about 400'^. A 
confection made of chocolate, butter, and molasses 
or sugar. 

Carapace, kSr'a-pas, Car''apax, n. A thick shell, cov- 
ering the turtle's back; upper shell of crabs, etc. 

Carat, kar''at, n. A jewelers' weight of 4 grains, 
used in weighing precious stones; a l-24th part, — a 
denomination used in determining the proportionate 
fineness of gold, which is supposed to be divided 
into 24 equal parts. 

Caravan, kar'a-van or kSr-a-van', n. A company of 
travelers, pilgrims, etc., traveling togpfher for se- 
curity; a large carriage on springs, or train of car- 
riages, for conveying wild beasts, etc. — Caravan''- 
sary, -sa-rT, -serai, -se-rl, n. An Eastern inn, where 
caravans rest at night. 

Caraway, kSr'a-wa, n. (Bot.) A biennial aromatic 
plant of the parsley family, and its seed. A sweet- 
meat containing caraway seeds. 

Carbine, kar-'bin. Carabine, kar-'a-bln, n. (3Iil.) A 
light musket used by mounted troops. 

Carbon, kar'bon, n. (Chem.) An elementary sub- 
stance, forming the base of charcoal, entering large- 
ly into mineral coals and graphite, and in its pure 
crystallized state constituting the diamond. — Car'"- 
bonate, n. A salt formed by the union of carbonic 
acid with a base. — Carbon'^ic, a. Of, or pert, to, 
carbon. — Cai'bonic acid. An acid composed of 1 
part of carbon and 2 of oxygen, — a heavy gas, unfit 
for respiration. — Carboniferous, -ifer-us, a. Pro- 
ducing, or containing, carbon or coal. — Car''boiuze, 
v. t. [-IZED (-izd), -iziNG.] To convert into carbon. 
— Car'boniza''tion, n. Act or process of, etc. — Car- 
boKic ac'id. A substance obtained by distillation 
of coal tar, used as an antiseptic and disinfectant ; 
phenic alcohol; phenol. 

Carboy, kar'^boi, n. A large glass bottle, inclosed in 

Carbuncle, kar-'bun-kl,- n. (Min.) A gem of a deep 
red color, with a mixture of scarlet. (Med.) A ma- 
lignant boil. 

Carcass, Carcase, kar''kas, n. The dead body of an 
animal; corpse; the body, in contempt; decaying re- 
mains, as of a ship; the frame of a thing, unfinished 
or without ornament. (Mil.) A vessel holding com- 
bustibles, to be thrown from a mortar. 

Card, kard, n. A piece of pa.steboard or thick paper, 
for various uses; a published note of statement, ex- 
planation, request, etc.; a paper on which the points 
of the compass are marked. — v. i. To play at cards. 

Card, kard, n. An instrument for combing wool or 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fSre ; 6nd, eve, tSrm ; In, Ice ; 5dd, tone, 6r ; 




flax, or for cleaning tlie hair of animals. — r. t. To 
comb with a card ; to mix, or debase by mixing. — 
Card'ing-en'gme, -machine'', n. A machine for 
combing, breaking, and cleansing wool or cotton, 
and forming it into a roll. 

Cardamom, kar^da-niom, n. A leguminous plant of 
the East Indies, whose seeds are used in medicine. 

Cardiac, kar'dl-ak, -diacal, -di^ak-l, n. {Anat.) Pert, 
to or resembling the heart, also to the upper orifice 
of the stomach. Exciting action in the heart, 
through the medium of the stomach. — Car'diac, n. 
{Med.) A medicine which excites action in the 
stomach, and animates the spirits: a cordial. 

Cardinal, kar-'dT-nal, a. Of fundamental importance ; 
preeminent : chief ; principal. — n. {Rom. Cath. 
Church.) One of the ecclesiastical princes of the 
pope's council. A woman's short cloak; mulled red 
wine. — Car'/inal ntinhers. Tlie numbers 1, 2, 3, 
etc., in distinction from Jifst, second, third, etc., 
which are called ordinal numbers. — C. ])oints. 
(Geor/.) Xorth and south, east and west. — C. vir- 
tues. {Antiq.) Prudence, justice, temperance, and 
fortitude. — Car^dinalate, -at, -ship, n. Office, rank, 
etc., of a cardinal. 

Cardoon, kar-doon'', n. A salad plant. 

Care, kar, »i. Charge or oversight, implying responsi- 
bility; attention or heed; caution; solicitude; watch- 
fulness; burdensome sense of responsibility ; trou- 
ble; the object of attention or anxiety. — v. i. [cared 
(kard), carixg.] To beanxious or" be 
concerned; to be inclined or disposed. — Carie'ftil, 
-ful, a. Attentive ; thoiightful : cautious ; full of 
care or solicitude. — Care'fully, adv. — Care^ful- 
ness, n. — Care'less, a. Having no care; inatten- 
tive ; negligent ; heedless ; unthinking ; free from 
anxietv . — _Care''lessly, adv. — Care''lesBness, n. 

Careen, "ka-ren', v. t. (Jt'aut.) To heave on one side, 
as a ship, to calk, repair, cleanse, etc. — v. i. To in- 
cline to one side. 

Career, ka-rer', n. A race-course ; rapidity of mo- 
tion ; a race ; course^ of proceeding ; procedure. — 
V. i. [CAREERED (-rerd''), careerixg.] To move 

Caress, ka-res', r. t. [caressed (-resf), caressikg.] 
To treat with fondness, affection, or kindness; to 
fondle. — n. Act of endearment. 

Caret, ka'ret, n. (Print.) A mark [a] indicating 
something omitted, either interlined above, or in- 
serted in the margin. 

Cargo, kar'go, n. ; pi. Car''goes, -goz. The lading or 
freight of a ship. 

Caribou, kar'I-boo, n. TJie American reindeer. 

Caricature, kar't-ka-choor', n. The exaggeration of 
Inat which is characteristic; a picture or description 
in which peculiarities are so exaggerated as to ap- 
pear ridiculous. —r. «. [-tuked (-choord'), -tuk- 
ixg.] To niake a caricature of. 

Caries, ka'rT-ez, n. (Med.) An ulceration of bone. 
— Ca'rious, -rl-us, a. Aif ected with, etc. 

Carinate, kar'I-nat, -nated, a. (Bat.) Shaped like 
the keel of a ship. 

Cariole. See under Car. 

Carl, kiirl, n. A rude, rustic, 
rough man ; a kind of hemp. 

Carline, kar-'lin, Car'Iing, n. 
(.^"aut.) A timber, ranging fore 
and aft, from one deck oeam 
to another, directly over the 
keel, serving as a "foundation for the body of the 

Carmelite, kar''mel-it, n. A monk of the order of 
Mount Carmel, Syria; a kind of pear. 

Carminative, kar-min'a-tiv, a. Expelling wind from 
the body; warming. — n. {Med.) A medicine tend- 
ing to expel wind, or to remed3' colic and flatulen- 

Carmine, kar'min, n. A pigment of crimson color, 
prepared from cochineal. 

Carnage, kiir'nej, n. The flesh of slain animals; 
slaughter ; massacre ; havoc. — Car'nal, a. Pert, to 
flesh; fleshly; sensual: given to sensual indulgence; 
lustful; lecherous: libidinous. — Carnal''ity,?i. Sen- 
suality. — Car'nalize, -iz, r. f. [-xalized (-nal-Tzd), 
-iziXG.] To make carnal. — Cama''tion, n. Flesh- 
color. {Paint.) That part of a picture which rep- 

Carinated leaf. 

resents undraped flesh. {Bat.) A species of clove- 
pink. — Car'nifica'tion, n. A turning to flesh. — 
Car'nity, -ti, v. i. To form flesh. — Canuv'ora, -o-ra, 
?i. pi. An order of animals which subsist on flesh. 

— Camiv'orous, -rus, a. Flesh-eating. — Camos'- 
ity, -nos-i-tT, H. A fleshy excrescence; fleshiness. — 
Caruncle, kar-un'kl, n. '{Anat.) A small fleshy ex- 
crescence. {Bot.) An appendage at the hilum or 
scar of a seed. {Zobl.) A naked fleshy excrescence 
on a bird's head. 

Camelian. See Corxelian. 

Carnival, kar-'nl-val, n. A festival celebrated before 

Carol, kar'ol, n. A song of joj'or mirth; a lay; a de- 
votional song. — v. t. [caroled (-old), -oling.J To 
celebrate in song. — v. i. To sing in joy or festi\it3"; 

Carotid, ka-rofid, n. {Anat.) One of the 2 large ar- 
teries convej^ing blood to the head. 

Carouse, ka-rowz', v. i. [caroused (-rowzd''), ca- 
ROLSiXG.] To drink abundantly. — 1-. i. To drink 
freely or jovially. — n.^ A drinkmg match or season 
of carousal. 

Carp, karp, v. i. To censure, cavil, or find fault, esp- 
without reason. — n. A 
family of soft-finned, 
fresh-water fishes. 

Carpal. See under Carpus. 

Carpel, kar'pel, n. {Bot.) 
A simple pistil, or one of 
the parts of a compound 
pistil. p 

Carpenter, kar'pen-ter, n. v.-<trp. 

A worker in timber; aframer and builder of houses, 
ships, etc. — Car^pentry, -trT, n. Art of cutting, 
framing, and joining timber ; timbers connected by 
being framed together, etc. 

Carpet, kar^'pet, n. A heavy fabric for covering floors. 

— V. t. To cover with, etc. — Car''pet-bag, n. A 
traveling-bag, — orig. made of carjset. — Car'peting, 
n. Materials for carpets; carpets in general. 

Carpus, kar^'pus, n. That part of the skeleton form- 
ing the wrist, consisting of 8 bones, in 2 rows. — Car'- 
pal, a. Pert, to, etc. 

Carriage, Carrier, etc. See imder Car. 

Carrion, kar-'rl-un, n. Dead and putrefying flesh. — 
a. Pert, to, or feeding on, etc. 

Carrom, kar-'um, n. {Billiards.) The act of hitting 
two balls at once_with the ball struck by the cue. 

Carronade, kar-un-ad', n. A short cannon, formerly 
used on ships. 

Carrot, kar'ut, n. A plant having an esculent root. 

Carry, Cart, Carter, etc. See under Car. 

Carte, kart, n. A bill of fare at a hotel.— Carte-hlanche, 
-blaxsh, n. A blank paper, signed, to be filled up as 
the holder pleases ; unconditional terms ; unlimited 
authority. — C- -de-visite, -de-ve-zet'', n. A photo- 
graphic picture of the size of a visiting card. [F.] — 
Cartel, kar-teK or kar'tel, n. {Mil.) A writing or 
agreement between belligerents, as for exchange of 
prisoners. — Cartog^raphy, n. Art of making charts 
or maps. — Car'' ton, n. Pasteboard; cardboard ; a 
box of, etc. [F.] — Cartoon, -toon'', w. {Paint.) A 
design on strong paper, to be painted in fresco. A 
colored design for mosaic, tapestry, etc. 

Cartesian, kar-te'zhan, a. Pert, to the French philos- 
opher Des Cartes, or to his philosophJ^ — 7i. A fol- 
lower of, etc. _ 

Carthusian, kar-thoo'zhan, n. One of a religious or- 
der nained fr. Chartreux, France. — a. Pert, to, etc. 

Cartilage, kar'tT-lej, n. {Anat.) A smooth, whitish, 
elastic substance; gristle. — Car'tilag^inous, -laj'T- 
nus, a. Pert, t^, or like, etc. 

Cartouche, kar-toosh',??. {Arch.) A scroll-shaped tab- 
let: a modillion. {Mil.) A case of paper, etc., hold- 
ing a charge for a fire-arm; the box containing the 
charge; a case filled with balls, to be shot from a 
cannon: a soldier's ticket of leaYe or dismission. — 
Car'tridge, -trij, n. {Mil.) A case of paper, paste- 
board, etc., containing a charge for a fire-arm. 

Caruncle, etc. See under Carxage. 

Carve, karv, v. t. [carved (karvd), oarvixg.] To 
cut, as wood, stone, etc., in a decorative manner; 
to shape by cutting: to cut into pieces; to distribute 
or apportion to. — v.i. To exercise the trade of a 

sttn, cube, full ; moon, fd&t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, tiien, boxbox, chair, get. 




carver; to cut up meat. — Carv'er, Ji. — Carv'ing, 

n. Act or art of cutting wood, stone, etc., also meat 
at table; device or figure carved. 

Caryates, ka-rl-a'tez, -atides, -at'I-dez, (Arch.) 
Figures ot women, serving as columns to support 

Cascabel, k:as''ka-bel, n. That part of a cannon back 
of tlie base-rijig. See Cannox. 

Cascade, kas-kad'', n. A waterfall. 

Cascarllia, kas-ka-riKla, n. A plant of Jamaica, 
wliose bark is used in medicine as a tonic. 

Case, kas, n. A covering, box, or sheath; that which 
incloses or contains; quantity contained in a box. 
(Pn'tit.) A frame subdivided'into " boxes "_to hold 
type for the compositor. — v. t. [cased (kast), ca- 
sing.] To cover with or put in a case. — Cas'^ing, n. 
Act of covering any object with a thin substance; 
an outside covering.- — Case'raent, n. A hinged 
window case or frame ; a hollow molding. 

Case, kas, n. That which falls, comes, or happens; an 
event; circumstance; a particular instance; situa- 
tion; state; plight; a state of tacts involving a ques- 
tion for discussion, esp, a cause in court. {Gram.) 
The form of nouns, indicating their relations to the 

Caseine, ka'se-in, n. (Chem.) The curd or coagula- 
ble part of milk; the basis of cheese. — Ca'seous, -se- 
us, a. Pert, to, or like, cheese. 

Casemate, kas'mat, n. 
(Fort.) A bomb-proof 
chamber from which 
cannon may be fired 
through embrasures. 
— Case-'mated, a. 
Furnished w i t h , or 
built like, etc. 

Casern, ka-'zern, n. A 
lodging for soldiers in 

garrison towns; bar- . -r, „ , . , „ 

"nol^g A B, Casemate. A gun at B 

Cash, k'ash, n. Coin or ^o^l<^ A^e through the em- 


brasure in the wall ; a gun 
at Cwould fire en barbette, or 
over the parapet. D, a, para- 
pet ; JE, scarp- wall, the outer 
face of which is the scarp ; 
a b, terre-plein. 

specie, ^ a 1 s o bank- 
notes or paper con- 
vertible into money; 
a Chinese copper 
coin, perforated and 
strung on . a thread, 
worth about one tenth of a cent. — v. t. [cashed 
(kashd), cashing.] To turn into cash ; exchange 
for money. — Casli''-book, n. A book in which to 
register money received or paid. — Cashier, -er'', n. 
One in charge of the nionev, accounts, payments, 
etc., in a bank, etc. ; a cash-fceeper. 

Cashew, ka-shoo', n. A South American tree of the 
sumac family. 

Cashier, kash-gr', v. t. [cashiered (-erdO, cashier- 
ing.] To dismiss from an office or place of trust,, 
by annulling the commission of: to discard frorri 
service or from society. — Cassa'^tion, n. Act of an- 

Cashmere, kash^'mer, n. A kind of shawl, orig. made 
in Cashmere, in Asia; a woolen stuff imitating true 
cashmere. — Cashmeret', n. A kind of ladies' dress 
goods, in imitation of, etc. 

Cashoo. Same as Catechu. 

Casino, ka-se''no, n. A small country house; a club- 
house. — Cassino, -se'^no, n. A game at cards. 

Cask, kask, n. A close vessel for liquids, made of 
staves, hoops, etc.; quantity contained in a cask. 
— Casque, Cask, kask, n. A piece of defensive ar- 
mor for the head and neck ; a helmet. 

Casket, kask'et, n. A small chest or box, for jewels, 
etc.; a coffin. 

Cassation. See under Cashier. 

Cassava, kas''sa-va, n. {Bot.) A species of manihot, 
yielding tapioca. 

Casse-paper, kas'se-pa'per, n. Broken paper; the out- 
side quires of a ream. 

Cassia,' kash'a, n. {Bot.) A genus of leguminous 
plants, including senna; a species of laurel. (Com.) 
The cheaper kinds_of cinnamon. 

Cassimere, kas'sT-mer, n. A twilled woolen cloth, for 
men's garments. 

Cassiterite, kas-sit'er-Tt, n. Oxide of tin, — the ordi- 
nary tin ore. 

Cassock, kas'sok, ?i. (Eccl.) A clergyman's garment, 
worn under the surplice or gown. 

Cassowary, kas'so-wa-rl, n. A bird of Java, resem- 
bling the ostrich. 

Cast, kast, V. t. [CAST, casting.] To send or .drive 
from by force; to throw, fling, impel; to direct, or 
turn, as the sight; to throw on the ground, as in 
wrestling; to overcome; to throw off, or shed; to 
compute, reckon; to make to preponderate; to form, 
by pouring liquid metal into a mold; to found; to 
distribute, as the parts of a play among actors. — v. i. 
To revolve in the mind; to receive form or shape; 
to warp. (Naut.) To fall olf, so as to bring the 
ship's side to the wind. — n. Act of casting; a throw; 
thing thrown ; distance through wliich anything is 
thrown; a chance or venture; act of casting in a 
mold ; form into which anything is cast or molded; 
thing cast in a mold; manner ot appearance; assign- 
ment of actors' parts in a play; company of actors to 
whom the parts are assignetl; a motion or turn, as 
of the eye. — Cast'er, n. One who, etc. ; a phial or 
cruet f ortable condiments, or stand containing them ; 
a swiveled wheel on which furniture is rolled. — 
Cast'ing, n. Act of, etc.; thing cast in a mold: the 
warping of a board. — Casfing-net, n. A fishing 
net which is cast and drawn. — C. voice, C- vote. 
Vote of a presiding officer, determining the ques- 
tion, when the votes of the house are equally di- 
vided. — Casfaway, n. An abandoned person; a 
reprobate. — Casfoff, a. Laid aside; disused. 

Castanet, kas^'ta-net, n. A noise-making instrument 
composed of spoon-shaped shells of ivory or wood, 
clapped together by the fingers. 

Caste, kast, n. One of the hereditary social classes in 
India; a separate_and fixed order orclass of society. 

Castigate, kas'tt-gat, v. t. To punish by stripes, cor- 
rect, chastise. — Castiga''tion, n. Punishment by, 

Castle, kas'l, n. A fortified residence, esp. of a prince 

Ancient Castle. 

1, moat: 2, draw-bridge; 
3, wicket; 4, sallyport; 5, 
portcullis ; 6, outer walls ; 
7, parapet; 8, rampart; 9, 
loop-holes; 10, escutch- 
eon; 11, bulwark; 12, sen- 
tinel; 1.3, magazine; 14, a 

cell; 15, donjon or keep; 
16, barracks ; 17, barba- 
can ; 18, watchman ; 19, 
turret ; 20, chapel ; 21, 
belfry; 22, stale court; 2.% 
"inerlons ; 24, embra- 
sures. » 

or nobleman; a fortress; a piece in the game of 
chess. — V. t. In chess, to cover with a castle,— said 
of the king, when neither piece has been previously 
moved, and the king has not been in check. — v.i. 
In chess, to cover the king with a castle. 

Castor. See Caster, under Cast. 

Castor, kas''ter, w. A genus of animals, including the 
beaver: a substance of penetrating smell and bittor 
taste, found in the inguinal sacs of the beaver; a 
hat, esp. one made of beaver's fur; a heavy broad- 
cloth. — Cas'tor-oU. The oil of a West Indian 
plant, — a cathartic. 

Castrate, kas'trat, v. t. To deprive of the testicles, 
emasculate, geld. — . Castra'tion, n. Act of, etc. 

Castrel, kas'trel, Kes''trel, n. A hawk resembling the 

Casual, kazh'u-al, «. Happening without design ; 
coming without regularitj^; accidental; incidental; 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; End, eve, term ; In, ice ; 6dd, tone, 6r ; 




occasional. — Cas'ualty. ». That which, etc. ; an 
accident ; death ; niislortune. — Cas^aaliam, -izni, 
?i. The doctrine that all things occur by chance.— 
Cas'uist, -u-ist, n. One who studies and resolves 
cases of conscience. — CaBui8t''ic, -ical, a. Pert, to 
cases of conscience, or of doubtful propriety.— Cas'- 
uistry, -rT, n. Science of determining the ri^ht or 
wrong of acts and opinions of doubtful propriety. 
Cat, kat, n. {Zool.) A well-known domestic animal. 
(S'avt.) A ship having narrow stern, projecting 
quarters, and deep waist ; tackle to draw an anchor 
up to the cat-head. A double tripod; a game at ball; 
a kind of whip. —v. t. (^Xaut.) To bring up to the 
cat-head, as an anchor. — Cafamount, n. A species 
of panther found in the northern United States. — 
Cat'erwaul, -€r-wawl, v. i. To cry as cats in rutting 
time. — Cafgut, n. Cord, esp. strings for musical in- 
struments, made from the intestines of animals, esp. 
of sheep; a kind of canvas, with wide interstices. — 
Cat'kiiijn. {Bot.) An anient; a kind 
of inflorescence, consisting of overlap- 
ping scales. — Cat 'like, a. Stealthy ; 
noiseless. — Cafling, n. A little cat; 

TMntsa liVp pnt'^i hmi 


moss, like cat's hair, growing about 
trees; catgut. (Surg.) A double-edged, 
sharp-pointed dismemberin°; knife. — 
Cat'oird, n. An American bird of the 
thrush family. — boat, n. A small sail- 
boat, with one sail on a mast close to 
the bows. call, -pipe, n. A squeaking instru- 
ment, to interrupt plays at theaters. — fish, n. A 
large voracious fish of the arctic seas ; a>so, an 
American fresh-water fish. — bar^ping, -bar'pin, n. 
{A^aut.) A rope or iron leg, to brace in the shrouds 
of the lower masts behind the yards. — ^head, w. 
(Naut.) A timber projecting from the bow of a ship, 
through which ropes pass to raise the anchor. — 
-hole, n. (Xaut.) One of two holes astern, to pass 
hawsers through, —-mint, -nip, n. (Bot.) A strong- 
scented plant, sometimes used in medicine, and of 
which cats are fond. — nap, »i. A short sleep. — 
-o '-nine-tails, n. A whip with nine lashes. — stick, ?;. 
A club used in the game of ball called cat. — Cat's'- 
cradle, n. A game played by children, with a string 

about the fingers. eye, n. (Min.) A variety of 

chalcedony, exhibiting yellowish opalescent reflec- 
tions. paw, n. A dupe; the tool of another, -fr. 

the fable of the monkey's using the cat's paw to draw 
chestnuts from the fire. (Xaut.) A light air, rippling 
the surface of still water; a peculiar turn in the bight 
of a rope, to hook a tackle on. — tail, ». (Bot.) A 
tall flag, with long flat leaves; a grass, called tnnothy 
and herd's grass ; a catkin. 

Cataclysm, kat'a-klizm, n. An extensive overthrow ; 
a deluge. 

Catacomb, kafa-kom, n. A cave or subterraneous 
place for the burial of the dead. 

CatafalcOj kat-a-fal'ko, -falque, -falk', n. A temporary 
structure of carpentry, used in funeral solemnities. 

Catalectic, kat-a-lek'tik, a. (Pros.) Wanting a syl- 
lable at the end. 

Catalepsy, kafa-lep-sT, n. (Med.) A sudden suspen- 
sion of the senses and of volition. — Catalep'tic, a. 

Catalogne, kat'a-log, n. A list of names, titles, or 
articles arranged methodically. — v. t. To make a list 

Catalpa, ka-tal'pa, n. A tree of North America, hav- 
ing large leaves and white flowers. 

Catamaran, kafa-ma-ran', n. A raft of India and 
Brazil, consisting of -3 connected logs, and moved 
by a sail; a sail boat with an outrigger ; a large- 
wheeled truck for transporting heavy weights ; a 
cantankerous old woman. 

Cataplasm, kat'a-plazm, n. (Med.) A poultice. 

Catapult, kafa-pult, n. An engine anciently used 
for throwing stones, arrows, etc. 

Cataract, kafa-rakt, n. A waterfall. (Surg.) .An 
opacity of the crystalline lens, or of its capsule. 

Catarrh, ka-tar', n. (Med.) Inflammation of the mu- 
cous membrane of the air passages, with discharge of 
a watery or glairy fluid. 

Catastrophe, ka-tas'tro-fe, n. A final event, usually 
of a calamitous nature; the unfolding and winding 
up of the plot of a play; denouement. 

Catch, kach, v. t. [caught or (obs.) catched, catch- 

ing.] To seize, esp. with the hand: to take captive, 
as in a snare ; to entangle ; to communicate to, 
fasten upon; to engage and attach to, charm ; to re- 
ceive, esp. to take by sympathy, contagion, or infec- 
tion; to come upon unexpectedly ; to find ; to over- 
take. — r. I. To be held or impeded by entangle- 
ment : to spread by infecting. — n. Actof seizing ; 
seizure ; that which catches or is caught; gain ; a 
passing opportunity improved. (Mus.) A humorous 
round, in which the singers catch up each other's 

Catch, kach. Catch, kuch, n. Commercial names for 
Catechu, q. v. 

Catchup, kach'up, Cat'sup, Ketch'up, n. A sauce 
made from mushrooms, tomatoes, walnuts, etc. 

Catechise, kafe-kiz. v. t. [-chised (-kizd^, -chising.) 
To instruct by asking questions, receiving answers, 
and explaining and correcting, — esp. concerning 
points of religious faith ; to interrogate.— Cafechism, 
-kizm, n. A form of instruction by questions anil 
answers; a book of principles, esp. 6l religious doc- 
trine, in the form of, etc. — Cat'echist, n. One who, 
etc. — Catechisfic, ^cal. a. Pert, to a catechist or 
to catechism.— Catechet'ic, -ical,-ket'ik-al, a. Pert, 
to, or consisting m, asking questions, etc. — Cate- 
chet'ically, adv. — Catechumen, -kn'men, n. One 
receiving rudimentary instruction in Christian doc- 
trines ; a neophyte. 

Catechu, kafe-ku, n. (Chem.) A brown, astringent, 
vegetable extract, obtained in India. 

Category, kafe-go-rT, ??. (Logic.) One of the classes 
of objects of knowledge or thought, by which they 
can be arranged m a system. State : condition ; 
predicament. — Categorical, -gSr-'ik-al, a. Pert, to, 
etc. ; admitting no conditions or exceptions; absolute; 
express. — Categor^ically. adv. 

Catenary, kat'e-na-rTf, w. (Geom.) The curve of a 
cord hanging between two points not in the same 
vertical line. — Cafenary, -na^rian, a. Pert, to or 
like a chain. ^ Cat'enate, -nat, v. t. To connect, in 
a series of links. — Catena'tion, n. Union of parts, 
as in a chain. 

Cater, ka'ter, v. i. [catered (-terd), catering.] To 
provide food, buy or procureprovisions, purvey. 

Caterpillar, kat'er-pil-ler, n. The larve of a butterfly 
or lepidopterous insect. 

Caterwaul, Catharpin, etc. See under Cat. 

Catharine - wheel, 
n. (Goth. Arch.) 
An ornamented 
circular window, 
with rosettes or 
radiating divis- 
ions. (Pyro- 
techny.) A re- 
volving wheel. 
\¥x. St. Catharine 
o f Alexandria, 
represented with, 
a wheel, in allu- 
sion to her mar- „ ,, . _, , tit- j _ 
tyrdom.l Cathanne-wheel Window. 

Catharist, kath'a-rist, n. A pretender to more pu- 
rity than others possess. — Cathartic, -thiir'tik. -tic- 
al, a. Cleansing the bowels; purgative. — Cathar'- 
tic, V. A medicine promoting alvme discharges. 

Cathedra, ka-the'dra or kath'-, n. A chair ; esp. the 
Beat of one in authority. — Cathe'dral, n. Principal 
church in a diocese, where the bishop presides. 

Catheter, kath'e-ter, n. (Surg.) A tubular instru- 
ment, introduced into the bladder to draw off urir.e. 

Cathode, kath'od, n. (Elec.) Negative pole of r bat- 
ter}^ ; surface at which the electric current passes out 
of the electrolyte. — Cathode ray. Ray generated 
at the cathode in a vacuum tube, by the electrical 

Catholic, kath'o-lik, a. Universal or general"; not 
narrow-minded, partial, or bigoted; liberal; pert. to. 
or aif ecting, the Roman Catholics. — n. A member 
of the Roiii. Cath. church. — Catholicity, -lis't-tl, n. 
System of doctrine held by all parts of the orthodox 
Cnristian church; also, by the church of Rome; lib- 
erality of sentiment; Catholicism. — CathoKicize, -T- 
slz, V. t. To become catholic or a Rom. Cath. — Ca- 

sun, cube, full ; moon, f(3&t ; cow, oil ; linger or IqIc, then, boNboN, chair, get. 




thoKicism, -t-sizm, n. Quality of being,- etc.: the 
faith of the whole Christian church, or of the Roui. 
Cath. church; adherence to the Rom. Cath. church; 
liberality of sentiment.— Cathol'icon, «. A remedy 
for all diseases ; panacea. 

Catsup. See Catchup. 

Cattle, kat'tl, n. pi. Domestic quadrupeds collective- 
\y, esp. those of the bovine genus. 

Caucasian, kaw-ka''shan, n. One belonging to the 
Indo-European race, originating near Mt. Caucasus. 

Caucus, kaw'kus, n. A preparatory meeting for po- 
litical purposes. 

Caudal, kaw'dal, a. Pert, to, or like, a tail. 

Caudle, kaw'dl, n. A warm drink for sick persons, 
a mixture of wine with eggs, bread, sugar, and 
spices. — V. t. To make into caudle. 

Cauf, kawf, n. A chest with holes for keeping fish 
alive in water; a vessel for raising coal from mines. 

Caufle, kaw'fl, n. A gang of captured negroes; coffle. 

Caught. See Catch. 

Caul, kawl, n. A net or covering for the head. (Anat.) 
A membrane covering part of the lower intestines ; 
the omentum. A part of the membrane enveloping 
the fetus. 

Caulescent, kaw-les'ent, a. (Bot.) Having a true or 
perfect stem. — Cau^icule, -ll-kul, ?i. (Bot.) A 
short stem. (,Arch.) One of the curled tops in a 
Corinthian capital. See Capital. 

Cauliflower, kaw'lt-f low'er, n. A variety of cabbage, 
having edible flower-buds. 

Caulk, etc. See Calk. 

Cause, kawz, n. That which produces a result, or is 
the occasion of an action. {Law.) A suit or action 
in court; a legal process; ease. The side of a ques- 
tion or controversy which one espouses and advo- 
cates. — V. t. [CAUSED (kawzd), causing.] To effect 
by agency, power, or influence; to produce, be the 
occasion of. — Caus-'er, w.— Cause''less, a. Uncaused 
or uncreated, original in itself ; without just cause, 
reason, or motive. — Caus'^al, a. Relating to, imply- 
ing, or containing, etc. — CausaKity, -zaKl-tT, n. 
The agency of a cause. {Phren.) The faculty of 
tracing effects to their causes. See Piirexology.— 
Causation, -za''shun, n. Act of causing; agency by 
which an effect is produced. — Causa'tionism, -izm, 
n. The doctrine that all things are produced through 
the agency of a causal force. — Causa'' tionist, n. A 
believer that, etc. — Caus^ative, -tiv, a. Expressing 
a reason; causal; affecting, as acause oragent; caus- 

Causeuse, ko-zez'', n. A lounge or sofa for two per- 
sons, sitting face to face. 

Causeway, kawz'wa, Causey, kaw'zY, n. A paved or 
raised way over wet ground. 

Caustic, kaws'tik, -tical, a. Destructive to the tex- 
ture of anything; burning; corrosive; severe; satir- 
ical; sharp. — Caus''tic, n. Any substance, which, 
applied to animal substances, burns, or destroys the 
texture. ( Opt.) A caustic curve, — a curve to which 
the rays of light, reflected or refracted hy another 
curve, are tangents. — Caus'tically, adv. — Caustici- 
ty, -tis'T-tl, n. Quality or property of, etc. ; corro- 
siveness; severity of language; sarcasm. — Cau'ter, 
n. A hot, searing iron. — Cau'teriza'^tion, n. {Surg.) 
Act of burning a morbid part by application of fire. 

— Cau^'terize, -iz, v. t. [-terizkd (-izd), -izixg.] To 
burn or sear with fire or hot iron.— Cau'tery, -ter-t, 
n. A burning, as of morbid flesh, by a hot iron, or 
by caustic medicines. 

Caution, kaw'shun, n. Prudence in regard to, dan- 
ger; provident care ; wariness; heed; prudence; ex- 
hortation to wariness; warning; admonition. — v. t. 
[CAUTIONED (-shund), -tioning.] To give notice of 
danger to, warn. — Cau'tionary, -a-rT, a. Contain- 
ing caution, or warning; given as a pledge. — Cau''- 
tioner, n. — Cau'tious, -shus, a. Possessing or using, 
etc.; prudent; watchful; circumspect.— CaiU'tiously, 
adi. — Cau'^tiousness, n. 

Cavalcade, kav^al-kad, n. A procession of horsemen. 

— Cavalier, -ler'', Ji. A horseman: knight; one of the 
court party in the time of King Charles I. — a. Gay; 
sprightly; brave; warlike; haughty. — Cavalier'ly, 
adv. Superciliously.— Cav'alry, -rl, n. {Mil.) Mount- 
ed troops. 

Cave, kav, n. A hollow place in the earth; den. — v. 

t. [CAVED (kavd), CAVING.] To make hollow. — ■. 
i. To dwell in a cave. — Cavity, kav'I-ti, «. A hol- 
low place; inclosed space; hoUowness. — Cav'ern, 
-ern, Ji. A deep hollow place in the earth; cave.— 
Cav'ernous, -us, a. Full of caverns; hollow. 

Caveat, ka've-at, n. {Law.) A notice to some oflficer 
not to do a certain act until the interested party is 
heard in opposition. {U. S. Patent Laws.) A de- 
scripiion of some invention, lodged in the office be- 
fore the patent right is taken out, as a bar no other 
applications respecting the same invention. Intima- 
tion of caution; warning. 

Cavendish, kav'en-dish, n. Tobacco softened and 

Caviare, ka-ver'', Cavig,!, kav'e-ar, n. The roes of 
certain flsh, prepared and salted, — used as a relish, 
esp. in Russia. 

Cavil, kaVil, v. i. [caviled (-ild), caviling.] To 
raise captious objections. — n. A false or frivolous 

Cavity. See under Cave. 

Cavort, ka-v6rt'', v. i. To bound, frisk, prance. 

Caw, kaw, v. i. [cawed (kawd), cawing.] To cry like 
a crow, or raven. — n. The noise of, etc. 

Cawker. Same as Calkek. 

Cayenne Pepper, ka-en' pep'^per. A very pungent 
pepper, the product of several species of Capsicum. 

Cayman, ka'man, 71. ; pi. Cay •'mans, -manz. A genus 
of American reptiles of the crocodile family; alli- 

Cease, ses, v. i. [ceased (sest), ceasing.] To come 
to an end, desist, forbear, stop; to be wanting. — 
V. t. To put a stop to, bring to ah end.— Ceaseless, 
a. Without cessation ; incessant.— Cease'lessly, adv. 
— Cessa''tion, n. Act of discontinuing; stop; rest; 

Cedar, sender, n. An evergreen tree of different spe- 
c i e s . — Ce'dar, -drine, 
-drin, a. Pert, to, or made 
• of, etc. 

Cede, sed, v. t. To yield 
or surrender, give up. — 
Cession, sesh-'un, n. A 
yielding or surrender, as 
of property or rights, to 
another ; act of ceding. 

Cedilla, se-diKla, n. A mark 
under the letter c [5], to 
show that it is sounded 
like s; as infaQade. 

Ceil, sel, v.' t. [ceiled 

( S #1 d ), CEILING.] To 

overlay or cover the 
inner roof of. — Ceil''ing, ??,. {Arch.) The upper, in 
terior surface of a room. {Naut.) Inside planks of 
a ship. 

Celadon, seKa-don, ?i. A pale sea-green color. [F.] 

Celandine, seKan-din, n. A genus of plants of the 
popiDy family; swallow-wort. 

Celebrate, sel'''e-brat, v. t. To mention with praise, 
extol; to honor by solemn rites, or b}' ceremonies of 
joy and respect; to solemnize, commemorate. — Cel- 
ebrated, a. Having celebrity ; distinguished ; fa- 
mous. — CeKebrant, n. One who performs a public 
religious rite. — Celebra'^tion, n. Honor bestowed; 
commemoration; praise; observance with appropri- 
ate.-ceremonies; solemnization. — CeKebrator, -ter, 
•'^— Celeb'rity, -rT-tt, n. Condition of being cele- 
brated; a person of distinction. 

Celerity, se-ler''l-tl, n. Rapidity of motion; swift- 
ness; speed. 

Celery, seKer-Y, n. A plant of the parsley family. 

Celestial, se-lesfyal, a. Pert, to the spiritual heaven; 
heavenly; pert, to the visible heavens. — ?i. An in- 
habitant of heaven. — Celes-'tially, adv. — CeKes- 
tine, seKes-tin, 7t. {Min.) Native sulphate •f stron- 
tian, which has a sky-blue color. {Eccl. Hist.) One 
of a religious order founded by Pope Celestine V. 

Celiac, se'^lt-ak, a. Pert, to the belly. 

Celibacy, se-lib^a-sT or seKT-ba-sl, n. The state of an 
unmarried man; bachelorship.— Celibate, seKt-bat, 
n. Condition or life of an unmarried man; unmar- 
ried man ; bachelor. 

Cell, sel, n. A small and close apartment, as in a prison 
or monastery; any small, closed cavity. {Organic 


3ra, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; gnd, eve, tgrm ; In, ice ; 5dd, tone, dr ; 




Structures.) A minute sac, filled with fluid, fat, etc., 
forming, by development and reproduction, the cel- 
lular tissue of animals and plants. — CeKlar, ii. A 
space under a house. — Cel'lular, a. Consisting of, 
or containinff cells. — Cel'ltilated, a. Formed with 
cells. — Cer lule, -ul, n. A small cell. — Celluiif- 
eroos, -lit'er-us, a. Producing little cells. — CeK- 
lulose, -los, o. Containing cells. — 7i. (£ot.) One of 
the substances constituting the cellular tissue of 
plants. — Cel'luloid, n. A compound of gun-cotton, 
camphor, etc., imitating coral, ivory, tortoise-shell, 
amber, etc., and used in manufacturing jewelry, 

Celt, selt, n. One of a race anciently inhabiting Cen- 
tral and Western Europe, from "whom come the 
Irish, Welsh, and Gael; a stone or metal implement 
found in barrows of the early Celts. — Celfic, a. 
Pert, to the Celts, or to their language. — n. The 
language of, etc., the remains of which are found 
in tne Gaelic, Erse or Irish, Manks, and Welsh and 
its cognate dialects, Cornish and Armorican or 
Breton. — Celt'icism, -T-sizm, n. A Celtic custom. 

Cement, se-ment' or sem''ent, n. Any substance used 
for making bodies coliere, as mortar, glue, etc.; bond 
of union. — Cement', r. t. To unite with, etc.; to 
unite firmly. — • v. i. To unite and coliere. — Cemen- 
ta'tion, K. Act of cementing. {C/iem.) Process of 
surrounding a solid body with powder of other sub- 
stances, and heating until the properties of the body 
are changed by chemical combination with the pow- 
der, — as iron becomes steel by cementation with 

Cemetery, sem'e-ter-T, n. Agrave-yard; necropolis. 

Cenobite, Coenobite, sen'o-bit, n. A monk in a con- 
vent or community, in opp. to a hermit or anchorite. 

Cenotaph, sen'o-taf , n. A monument to one buried 

Cense, sens, v. t. [cexsed (senst), cexsixg.] To per- 
fume with odors from burning substances. — Cen'- 
ser, n. A vase or pan for burning incense. 

Censor, sen'ser, n. A Roman oflScer who registered 
the effects of citizens, imposed taxes, and inspected 
manners; an examiner of books, etc., before pub- 
lication, to suppress anything forbidden: one who 
censures; a harsh critic. — Censo'rial, -rT-al,-rian, «. 
Pert, to, etc., or to the correction of public morals. 

— Censo'rious, -rT-us, a. Addicted to, implying, or 
expressing, censure; fault-finding; carping; severe. 

— Censc'riously, adv. — Censc'riousness, n. — Cen'- 
sorship, 71. Otrice of a censor. — Censure, sen'sher, 
n. Act of blaming ; reproof ; disapproval ; repri- 
mand; abuse. — i\t. [cexsured (-sherd), -suring.] 
To find fault with and condemn as wrong; to blame, 
reprehend. — Cen'sus, n. An official enumeration 
and registration of the people, estates, and other 
statistics of a country. 

Cent, sent, n. A hundred, as, 10 per cent. : an Amer- 
ican coin worth the 100th part of a dollar. [L. cen- 
tum.'] — Cenfage, -ej, n. Rate by the cent, or hun- 
dred ; percentage. — Cen'tal, n. A weight of 100 
pounds ; hundred-weight. — a. Pert, to, or consist- 
ing of, etc. — Cen'tenary, -rY, n. Aggregate of 100 
single things ; esp. a century ; 100 years ; a celebra- 
tion occurring once in, etc. — a. Pert, to, or con- 
sisting of, 100 ; occurring once in every 100 years. — 
Centena'rlan, -rl-an. n. One 10<) years old — a. 
Pert, to 100 years. — Centen^nial, -nT-al, a. Pert, to 
the 100th anniversary ; happening once in 100 3-ears. 

— n. A celebration of, etc. — Centes'imal, rt. Hun- 
dredth; br the 100.— )i. A 100th part.- Centes'lma'- 
tion, ?i. (J/i7.) A punishment inflicted on one person 
in 100. — Cen'tury, -tu-rt, n. A hundred ; a period 
of 100 years. —Centitn/ plant. The American aloe, 
supposed to bloom but once in 100 years. — Centu'- 
rion, -rT-on, n. A Roman captain of 100 foot-soldiers. 

— Centu'rial, -rT-al, a. Pert, to a century, or to 100 
men. — Cen'tuple, -tu-pl, a. Hundred-fold. — r. i. 
[-TITPLED (-tu-pld), -TUPLixG.] To make, etc. — 
Centifo'lious, -IT-us, a. Having 100 leaves. — Cen'- 
tigrade, -tT-grad, a. Of 100 degrees graduated in- 
to 100 equal parts. — Centigrarle thermometer. A 
thermometer in which 0" indicates the freezing 
point, and 100° the boilina: point of water. — Cen- 
tare, -tar', n. A measure^of area, containing 1 sq. 

■ meter, about 1,550 sq. inches. [F.] — Cen'tigram, 

-tT-gram, n. A measure of weight,— the KXith part oi 
agram=.154;ii gr. avoir. [F.J — Centiliter, -til'T- 
tSr or sen'tl-ll-ter, -litre, -tl-le'tr, n. A measure of 
capacity, — 100th of a liter, more than 0.0 cu. inch. 
[F.] — Cen'time, -tem, n. A coin, — the 100th of a 
franc. [F.] — Centimeter, -tim'e-ter or sen'tt-me- 
ter, -metre, son-te-ma'tr, 7j. A measure of length, — 
the KKJth of a meter, more than ..'ia inch. — Cen'- 
tiped, -tl-ped, -pede, -tl-ped, n. A species of many- 
jointed, wingless land articulates, having many feet. 

— Centum'vir, -vgr, n. ; 2)1- -viui, -vI-rT. A llomail 
judge of common causes among the people. — Cen- 
tnm'viral, -vl-rul, a. Pert, to, etc.— Centum' virate, 
-vT-rat, n. Otfice of, etc. 

Centaur, sen'tawr, n. {Myth.) A fabulous monster,, 
half man and half horse. — Cen'taury, -rl, u. A 
plant of several species, most of them weeds. 

Center, -tre, sen'ter, n. The exact middle point of 
anything; the middle portion; midst; point of con- 
centration; nucleus. {Arch.) A temporarj' framing 
on which vaulted work is built. — v. i. [centeeed 
or -TEED (-terd), -teeixg or -thing.] To be placed 
in, etc. ; to be central ; to be collected to a point, be 
concentrated. — v. t. To place on, etc. ; to collect to a 
point. — Cen'tering, n. {Arch.) Temporary fra^ 
ming on which vaulted work is built. — Cen'tral, a. 
Pert, to, placed in, or containing, the center; pert, to 
the parts near, etc. — CentraKity, -f-tt, ?!. State of 
being central. — Cen'tralize, -Iz, v. t. [-ized (-izd), 
-iziXG.] To draw to a central point ; bring to a 
center. — Cen'traliza'tion, n. Act of, or state of be- 
ing, etc. — Cen'trally, adv. — Cen'tric, -trical, cu 
Placed in, etc. — Cen'trically, adv. — Centricity, 
-tris'T-tt, n. State of being centric. — Centrifugal,, 
-u-gal, a. Tending to recede from the center. — 
Centrip'etal, a. 1 ending toward, etc. — Cen'ter- 
bit, n. An instrumer t turning on a projecting cen- 

■ tral point, for boring holes. See Bit. board, n. 

C^'aut.) In small craft, a board keel, which may be 
drawn up or let down ; a sliding keel. 

Centinel, Centry. See Sentinel. 

Cento, sen'to, n. ; pi. Cen'tos, -toz. A composition 
formed by verses, etc., from different authors dis- 
posed in a new order. (^Jifus.) A medley on a large- 
scale. [L.] 

Cephalic, se-fal'ik, a. Pert, to the head. — «. A med- 
icine for headache, etc. — Cephalopod, sef 'a-lo-pod 
or se-fal'-, n. (Zobl.) A moUusk having a distinct 
head, surrounded by a circle of arms or tentacles. 

Ceramic, se-ram'ik, a. Pert, to pottery. 

Cere, ser, n. Naked wax-like skin at the base of birds' 
bills. —v. t. [cered (serd), cering.] To wax, or 
cover with wax. — Ce'rate, -rat, n. (Jled.) Thick 
ointment, made of wax, oil, etc. — Cere'cloth, n. A 
cloth smeared with melted v.^ax. — Cere'ment, n. A 
cloth dipped in melted wax, used in embalming 

Cereal, se're-al, a. Pert, to edible grain, as wheat, rye,, 
etc. — n. Any edible grain. 

Cerebrum, .ser'e-brum, n. (Anaf.) The superior and. 
larger division of the brain. — Cerebellum, -bel'lum, 
71. ; pi. -bel'la, -la. The hinder and lower division: 
of the brain. 

Ceremony, ser'e-mo-nY, u. Outward rite ; external- 
form in religion; forms of civility.— Ceremo'nial, 
a. Pert, to, etc. — 71. An established system of rules 
and ceremonies. — Ceremo'nious, -nt-us, a. Con- 
sisting of, or according to, outward forms and rites; 
ceremonial; particular m observing forms; precise; 
formal. — Ceremo'niously, adv. 

Cerise, se-rez'. a. Cherry-colored. 

Certain, ser'tin, a. Assured in mind ; having no 
doubts; not to be doubted; fixed or stated; deter- 
minate ; indeterminate, or not specificallj'' named; 
one or some. — Cer'tainly, adc. Without doubt or 
question; in truth and fact; without failure. — Cer'- 
tainness, 71. — Cer'tainty, -tT, Cer'titude, -tT-tud, n. 
Quality or condition of being certain ; exemption 
from doubt or failure; a fact unquestionably estab- 
lished. — Cer'tes, -tez, adv. Assuredl.y ; in truth. 

— Cer'tify, -fi, v. t. [-tified (-fid), -Vying.] To 
testify to in writing; to make known or establish as 
a fact; to give certain informa'tion of or to. — Certif- 
icate, -t-kat, 71. A written testimonj"^ to the truth. 
of any fact; written declaration legally authenti* 

siln, cube, full ; moon, f(j&t ; cow, oil ; linger or iQk, then, bonboN, chair, get 





cated. — ?•. t. To verify bv, or furnish with, etc.— 
Certiflca'tion, n. Act of, etc. — Cer'tifler, -ii-er, n. 

Certiorari, ser'sht-o-ra'ri, w. {Law.) A writ from a 
superior court, to call up records of an inferior 
court, or remove a cause, to hasten justice, or correct 

Cervical, ser'vik-al, a. {Anat.) Pert, to the neck. 

Cervine, ser'vln, a. Pert, to the deer. 

Cesarean, Cesarism, Cesura, etc. See C.esak,X!^esuka. 

Cessation. See under Cease. 

Cession. See under Cede. 

Cess-pool, se»'pool, n. A cavitj' in the earth to re- 
ceive sediment of water from drains. 

Cestus, ses'tus, M. A girdle, esp. of Venus; a loaded 
leather covering for boxers' hands. [L.] 

Cetacea, se-ta''se-a., n. pi. {Zobl.) An order 
of niammiferous marine animals, inclu- 
ding whales. — Ceta'cean, -shan, n. An ani- 
mal of the whale kind. 

Chafe, chaf, r. t. [chafed (chaft), chafixg.] 
To excite heat or irritation in by friction; 
to irritate; to fret and wear hj riabbiug; to 
provoke, inflame. — e. i. To be excited or 
heated ; to fret; to be worn by rubbing. — 
11. Heat or irritation from friction ; agita- 
tion of the mind. 

Chafer, cha''fer, n. An insect; cock-chafer; Maj'-bug. 

Ckaff, chaf, n. The glumes, husk, or light, dry cover- 
ing of grains and grasses. {Bot.) Scales or bracts 
on the receptacle m composite plants. AVorthless 
matter ; refuse. — Chaffincli, n. A singing bird of 
the finch familj^ feeding on chaff. — Chaff'y, -T, a. 
Containing, like, or light and worthless as, chaff. 

Chaff, chaf, n. Light, idl^ talk; ridicule. — v. i. 
[chaffed (chaft), CHAFFING.] To usc, etc., byway 
of fun or ridicule. — v. t. To make fun of, banter. 

Chaffer, chaf ''fer, i\ i. [chaffeked (-ferd), -feRixg.] 
To treat about a purchase, bargain, haggle : to talk 
much or idly. — r. t. To buy, purchase, exchange. 

Chagreen. See Shageeex. 

Chagrin, sha-grin", n. lU-hunior; vexation: peevish- 
ness; mortitication. — v. t. [chageixed (-grind''), 
-geixixg.] To excite ill-humor in, vex, mortify. 

Chain, chan, ?i. A series of connected links or rings; 
that which confines, fetters, or secures; a bond; a se- 
ries of things connected and following each other 
in succession. (Surv.) An instrument for measur- 
ing land, consisting of 100 links, being 4 rods, or (56 
feet, in length, (yaut.) An iron plate bolted at the 
lower end through the side to the ship's timbers. — 
V. t. [chaixed (chand), chaixixg.] To fasten or 
<;onnect with, etc., enslave, unite closely. — Chain'- 
bridge, ?i. A bridge suspended on chains; suspen- 
sion bridge. — gang, ". A. gang of convicts chained 
together. — mail, n. Flexible armor made of inter- 
laced rings. — pump, ?i. A 
pump consisting of an end- 
less chain, carrying disks, 
passing upward" through a 
wooden tube, and moving 
on wheels. — shot, w. (J/iV.") 
T w cannon balls, con- 
nected by a chain, to cut 
down masts, etc. — stitch, 
n. A kind of stitch in sew- 
ing, made by interlocking 
threads. — -wales, n. pi. 
(yaiit.) Planks bolted to 
a ship's sides to spread the 
lower rigging. See Chax'- 


Chair, char, n. A movable 
seat with a back, for one 
person; an official seat, as 
of a judge : hence, the of- 
fice itself; the presiding of- 
ficer of an assembly; avehi- Chain-pump, 
cle for one person; an iron 

block to svipport and secure railroad tracks. — v.t. 
[chaired (chard), chairixg.] To carry publicly 
m a chair in triumph. — Chair''man, n. "; pi. -jiex. 
The presiding officer of an assembly, committee, 
etc. ; one who"earriei= a chair or sedan. _— Chair^man- 
ship, n. Office of, etc. — Chaise, shaz, n. A two- 
wheeled, one-horse carriage, with calash top. 

Chalcedony, kal-sed'o-nl or kaKse-do-nl, n. {Jlin.) 
An uncrystallized, translucent variety of quartz, 
usually whitish, and witli a wax-like luster. 

Chaldaic, kal-da'ik, Chaldee, kaKde or kal-de', a. 
Pert, to Chaldea. — n. - Language of the Chaldeans. 

Chaldron, chawKdrun or chal'diun, n. A dry meas- 
ure for coah usually of oG bushels, but varying. 

Chalet, shaKa, )i. A Swiss wooden cottage; a sunnner- 
house on a mountain. 

Chalice, chaKis, n. A cup; bowl; communion cup. 

Chalk, chawk, n. t{JIin.) A soft, white, earthy sub- 
stance, consisting of , carbonate of lime. .— r. f. 
[chalked (chawkt), cualkixg.] To rub or mark 
with chalk. 

Challenge, chal'lenj, ji. An invitation to contest; a 
sentry's demand of the countersign from those ap- 
proachmg his post; summons to single combat; de- 
mand made of a right; an exception to a juror or 
voter. — V. t. [-le'xged (-lenjd), -lexgixg.] To 
call to a contest, call to answer, defy; to claim as 
due, demand as a right, make exception or objec- 
tion to, object to asjiot qualified to vote. 

Chalybeate, ka-lib-'e-at, a. Impregnated with some 
salt of iron. — n. Water, liquor, medicine, etc.. 
containing iron. 

Cham, kam. Khan, kan, n. The sovereign prince of 

Chamber, chanT'ber, n. A retired room, esp. an upper 
room, for lodging, privac}', or study; a compartment 
or hollow, closed space; a place where an assembly 
meets; tlie assembly itself ; the cavity in a fire-arm 
where the charge is put. {Law.) A private place 
where a judge sits to hear cases, and do judicial 
business out of court. — r. i. [-bkeed (-berd), -ber- 
IXG.] To reside in or occupj' as a chamber ; to be 
wanton.— f. t. To shut up, aj in a chamber. — Cham''- 
ber-coun'Sel, -coun'selor, -er, n. A counselor who 
gives his opinion privately, but does not advocate 
causes in court. — maid, n . A woman who cares 
lor chambers, or waits upon a lady. — Cham'berlain, 
-lin, n. An attendant in charge of the chambers, as 
in a hotel; an officer of the private chambers of a 
nobleman or monarch; one of the high officers of a 
court; a treasurer or receiver of public money. 

Chameleon, ka-meKyun, ?;. A 
lizard-like reptile, whose color i 
changes with that of objects, 
about it, or when its temper is ' 

Chamfer, cham'fer, v. t. [-feeed 
(-ferd), -ferixg.] {Carp.) To 
cut a groove or channel in ; to 
flute. To cut or grind in a slop- 
ing manner; to bevel. — Cham'- 
fer, Cham''fret, n. { Carp.) A small gutter in wood, 
etc.; groove, slope, or bevel. 

Chamois, sham'wa or sham'Y, n. 
lope living on European 
mountain ridges; a soft 
leather, first prepared from 
its skin. 

Chamomile. See Camomile. 

Champ, champ, r. t. [champed 
(champt),- champixg.] To 
bite with repeated action of . 
the teeth, bite into small 
pieces, crush. — v. i. To bite 
f requen tly. 

Champagne, sham-pan', n. A 
brisk, sparkling ^^J^e. 

Champaign, sham-pan'', n. A flat, open country. — a. 
Flat ; level. 

Chamnion, chanT'pT-un, n. One who engages in a 
contest; esp. who contends in behalf of another in 
single combat: one ready to fight all who offer. — 
V. t. [-PIOXED (-und), -pioxixG.] To furnish with, 
or attend as, etc. 

Chance, chans, n. Absence of anv defined cause ; for- 
tuity ; casualty ; an event witliont assigned cause; 
poss'ibility of an occurrence; luck; hazard: oppor- 
tunity. —'r. i. [chaxced (chanst), CHAXcrxG.] To 
happen, come, or arrive, without expectation. — a. 
Happening by chance ; casual ; fortuitous. 

Chancel, chan'^sel, n. That part of a church con- 
taining the altar or communion table, — formerly 


A species of ante- 


am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; end, eve, term ; tn, ice ; 6dd, tone, 6r ; 




inclosed with lattices. — Cliancery, chan'ser-T, 7t. A 
hijrh court of equity; equity; proceedin<r.s in equity. 

— Chan'cellor, -sel-ler, >i. A lii;;h judicial otncer ; 
the cliiet judire of a court of chancery. 

Chancre, xhan'ker, ».^ An ulcer, csp. a venereal sore. 

— Chau'crous, -krus, a. Ulcerous. 
Chandelier.Chandler, etc. See under Cvndle. 
Change, chanj, v. t. [changed (chanjd), cii.wgixg.I 

To alter or make different; to cause to pass from 
one state to another; to substitute another thing 
for ; to vary, innovate, exchange ; to give other 
money, of the same aggregate value, for; to become 
acid or tainted. — v. i. To be altered, undergo vari- 
ation, pass from one phase to another, —n. Any al- 
teration; a passin"; from one state to another; sub- 
stitution of one tiling for another ; alteration in 
the orderof a series; permutation; that wliich makes 
avarietjs small pieces of money, which may be 

fiven for larger pieces; the balance of money paid 
e3'ond the price ot goods i)urcliased; building for 
mercantile transactions. — Chan'ger. n. — Change'- 
able, -a-bl, a. Capable of change ,' appearing dift'cr- 
ent under difference of circumstances ; variable ; 
fickle : unstable. — Change'ableness, -abil'lty, -tT, 
n. — Changa'ably, ar/v. — Change'ful, a. Full of 
change; mutable. — Change'fully, «(/c. — Change-'- 
fnlness, n. — Change''les8, a. Not admitting altera- 
tion ; constant. — Change'ling, n. A child left or 
taken in the place of another ; one apt to change. — 
a. Taken or left in place of another. 

Channel, chan''nel, n. The bed of a stream; esp. the 
deeper part of a river or bay, where the main cur- 
rent flows. ( Geog.) A strait or narrow sea between 
two portions of land. That through which any 
thing passes. (Arch.) A gutter or furrow, as in a 
column, pi. (Naut.) Planks bolted to the outside 
of a vessel, for spreading the lower rigging. — v. t. 
[-XELED (-neld), -XELIXG.] To form a channel in; 

Chant, chant, v. t. and i. To utter with a melodious 
voice, sing ; to celebrate in song. (3Ius.) To sing 
after the manner of a chant. — «. Song ; melody. 
(Miis.) Words recited to musical tones without mu- 
sical measure.— Chanfer, n.— Chanficleer, -t-klSr, 
n. A cock. 

Chaos, ka'os, 7i. An empty, infinite space ; unor- 
ganized condition of m-.itter before the creation of 
the universe; a disordered mass or state of things; 
confusion. — Chaot'ic, a. Resembling chaos ; con- 

Chap, chap or chop, v. t. [chapped (chapt), chap- 
ping.] To cleave or open longitudinally ; to split, 
crack. — V. i. To crack or open in long slits. — n. A 
cleft, gap, or chink in the flesh. — Chap, chop, n. 
The jaw, —generally in pi. — Chap^faUen, chop'- 
fawln, a. With the lower jaw drooping; dejected; 

Chap, chap, n. A man or boy; a youth.— Chap''-book, 
n. A small book, esp. one sold by hawkers. — Chap'- 
man, n. ; pi. -mev. One who buys or sells ; a mer- 
chant: itinerant dealer. 

Chaparral, chap-ar-raK, n. A thicket of low ever- 
green oaks; thick bramble-bushes in clumps. 

Chape, chap, n. A catch, as of a buckle; a metal tip 
of a scabbard. 

Chapeau, shap'o, ». ; p^- Cii ap'eau.s, -oz. A hat. [F.] 

— Chapeau Bras, -Ijrii. A military hat which can 
be flattened and put under the arm. 

Chapel, chap^el, n. A phice of worship connected 
with a church or with some estal)lishment; in Eng. a 
dissenters' place of worsliip. — Chap'lain, -lin, n. An 
ecclesiastic who officiates in a chapel, or one attached 
to a ship, regiment, public institution, family, etc. — 
Chaplaincy, -sT, -ship, n. Office or station o'f , etc. — 
Chap'ellany, -la-nT, n. A chapel and jurisdiction 
within the precincts of a church. — Chap''elry, -rT, 
n. Bounds or jurisdiction of a chapel. 

Chaperon, shap^er-ov, n. A hood or cap; a device on 
horses' foreheads in pompous funerals; one who 
attends a lady in public as a protector. — v. t. 
[chaperoned (-ond), -oning.] To attend in public 
places as protector. 

Chapiter, chap''I-ter, n. (Lnw.) A summary of mat- 
ters to be inquired of before justices ; articles. — 
Chap'iter, Chap'trel, w. (Arcli.) The capital of a 


pier or pilaster which receives an arch; 
an impost. 

Chaplain, etc. See under Chapel. 

Chaplet, chap'let, n. A garland or wreath 
tor tlie head; a string of beads used in 
counting prayers. (Arch.) A little 
molding, carved into beads, olives, etc. 
a chapeilet ; a tuft of feathers on a« 
peacock's head ; a small chapel or shrine. 

Chapman. See under Chap, n. 

Chapter, chap'ter, n. A division of a 
book. (Eccl.) A corporation composed 
of the clergy of a cathedral or collegiate 
church, and presided over by the dean. 
An organized branch of a society or fra- 
ternity: meeting of organized societies: place where- 
delinquents receive discipline; a decretal epistle. 

Char, Chare, char \^Eng.], Chore, chor {Amer.], n. 
Work done by the day; a single job or task. — Chai''- 
woman, n. A servant that works by the day. 

Char, chiir, v. t. [chaured (chard), charring.] To 
reduce to charcoal b^"^ expelling volatile matter; tO' 
burn slightly; to hew, as stone. — Char^coal, n. Coal 
made by charring wood. — Char''ry, -rl, «. Pert, to, 
or like, charcoal. 

Character, klir''ak-ter, n. A distinctive mark; a letter^ 
figure, or sign; manner of writing or printing : sum 
of qualities distinguishing one person or thing from, 
another; good qualities, or the reputation of possess- 
ing them; qualities belonging to an office or institu- 
tion ; estimate put upon a person or thing ; reputa- 
tion; force of will; energy; the possessor of a certain 
character: aperson; account; description. — v.t. To 
engrave, inscribe, distinguish by markjS, character- 
ize. — Char'acteris'tic, -tical, a. Constituting the 
character ; peculiar. — Char'acteris'tic, n. That 
which constitutes, etc., or distinguishes a person or 
thing from another. (Math.) Ihe index or expo- 
nent of a logarithm.^ Char'acteris'tically, adv. — 
Char'acterize, -iz, v. f. [-terized (-ter-izd), -izing.] 
To mark with a peculiarfigure; to describe the qual- 
ities of; to mark or express the character of, desig- 
nate, entitle. — Char'acteriza'tion, n. Act of, etc.— 
Char''acterless, a. Having no peculiar character. 

Charade, sha-rad', n. A composition describing enig- 
matically objects, expressed by each syllable of a 
word, separately, and then by the word as a whole- 
Charcoal. See under Char. 

Chard, chard, n. A variety of white beet ; blanched 
leaves of the artichoke and other vegetables. 

Charge, chiir j, 7!. The person or thing committed to- 
the care or management of another ; exercise of cus- 
tody or care ; office ; commission ; an earnest com- 
mand, exhortation, instruction, etc. ; whatever con- 
stitutes a burden on property ; costs ; expense, — 
usually in pi. ; account of that due from one party 
to another; imputation: accusation; that quantity, as- 
of ammunition, olectricit}', etc., which any appara- 
tus, as a gun, battery, machine, etc., is fitted to hold; 
onset; attack; signal for attack. (Her.) A bearing- 
on a field. An iincertain weight of lead, supposed 
to be "6 pigs, or 2,.5'20 pounds. — v. t. [charged 
(charjd), charging.] To impose, as a load or burden, 
or as a task, dutj', or trust ; to command, request, 
etc., earnestly; to give instructions to: to impose as a 
tax; to place to the account of, as a debt ; to accuse 
of; to place within or upon an apparatus or machine- 
the quantity it is fitted to contain ; to load ; to- 
bear down upon, rush upon, fall on. — ?•. i. To- 
make an onset. — Char^ger, n. One who, etc. ; a 
large dish, — which bears a load ; a horse, — used m 
charging ; war-horse. — Charge d' Affaires, shiir-zha'' 
daf-far''. A diplomatic representative, to whom are 
confided affairs of his nation, in the absence of an 
ambassador. [F.] — Chargs''ship, n. Office of, etc. 

Chariot, char'T-ot, ??. A war car or vehicle ; a one- 
seated, four-wheeled carriage. — ?'. t. To convey in 
a chariot. — Char''ioteer'', n. ■ A driver. 

Charity, char''T-tT, n. Disposition to think favorably 
of others, and to do them good ; liberality to the 
poor: alms ; any act of benevolence ; a charitable in- 
stitution, or a gift to create and support such an in- 
stitution. — Char'itable, a. Full of love and good- 
will; liberal to the poor ; pert, to, or springing ffonif 
charity ; benevolent ; indulgent ; beneficent. 

sun, cube, full ; moon, fcJSt ; cow. oil ; linger or ink, -ftien, boxboN, chair, get. 




Cliarlatan, sliar'la-tan, n. A quack; empiric; mounte- 
bank. — Ckar'lataniBin, -izm, -tanry, -rl, n. Preten- 
sion to skill; quackery. 

Charles's Wain, chiirlz'ez-wan'. {Astron.) The clus- 
ter of 7 stars in the constellation Ursa Major, or 
Great Bear ; the Dipper. _ 

€harlotte-Russe, sliar'lot-roos, n. A dish of custard 
or whipped syllabub, inclosed in cake. 

'Charm, charm, n. Something' possessing occult power 
or influence; that which attracts irresistibly; fasci- 
nation. — V.t. [CHAKMED (charmd), CHAEMIXG.] To 
subdue, control, or suminoii by occult influence ; 
to attract irresistibly, delight exceedingly, fasci- 
nate, enchant, captivate ; to fortify with charms 
or supernatural influences. — v. i. To act as a 
charm, please greatly. 

•Charnel, chiir'nel, a. Containing remains of dead 
men or animals. 

Chart, chiirt, n. A sheet of paper, pasteboard, etc., con- 
taining information arranged methodically, or tab- 
ulated; a map representing water and the adjacent 
land. — V. t. To lay down in a chart ; to map. — 
Chai'^ter, n. (0. Eng. Law.) A deed, or conveyance. 
An instrument in writing, bestowing rights and 
privileges ; act of incorporation ; a special privilege 
or immunity. (Naut.) The letting or hiring a ves- 
sel by special contract. — v. t. [cuaeteeed (-terd), 
-TEEING.] To establish by charter; to liire or let by 
charter, as a ship. 

■Chary, char'T, a. Not inclined to be free or liberal; 
close ; cautious. 

Chase, chas, v. t. [chased (chast), chasing.] To 
pursue, hunt; to urge onward, drive, persecute. — n. 
Hunting; pursuit; thing hunted; hunting ground. 

— Chaster, n. One who, etc. {Naut.) A gun at the 
bow or stern, for use in a chase. 

Chase, chas, v. t. To engrave. — n. The forward part 
of a gun from the trunnions to the swell of the 
mouth, — this part being formerly engraved or em- 
bossed. See Cannon. 

Chase, chas, n. An iron frame to confine type. 

Chasm, kazm, n. A deep opening made by disrupture ; 
a cleft ; void space ; gap ; break. 

Chassepot, shas''po, n. A breech-loading rifle. 

Chasseur",' shas-ser', n. {Mil.) One 6f a body of light 
cavalry. An attendant upon persons of rank, wear- 
ing military plumes, etc. 

Chaste, chast, a. Pure from unlawful sexual inter- 
course ; virtuous ; pure from obscenity, or from bar- 
barous, affected, or extravagant expressions. — 
Chaste'ness, Chas'tity, -tT-tt, n. —Chasten, chas'n, 
V. t. [-ENED (-nd), -ENiNG.] To Correct by punish- 
ment; to inflict pain upon in order to reclaim, chas- 
tize; to purify from errors or faults. — Chast'^ener, n. 

— Chastize, chas-tiz'^, v. t. [-tized (-tizd''), -tizing.J 
To chasten. 

Chat, chat, v. i. To talk lightly and familiarly..— n. 
Light, idle talk; prate. (0)~nitk.) An American 
bird, of the warbler family. — Chat'ter, v. i. [-teeed 
(-terd), -TEEING.] To utter inarticulate sounds re- 
sembling language; to talk idly, carelessly, or rapid- 
ly ; to jabber, prate ; to make a noise by collision. 

— n. Sounds like a magpie's; idle talk. — Chafter- 
box, n. An incessant talker. — Chat'ty, -tT, a. 
Conversing freely ; talkative. — Chat'^tiness, n. 

Chateau, sha-to'', n. ; pi. -teaux, -toz'. A castlfi ; a 
country-seat. — Chatelet, shat-'e-la, n. A little castle. 

— Chat'ellany, -la-ni, n. Lordship or jurisdiction of 
a castellan, or governor of a castle. — Chat'^elaine, 
-e-lan, n. A cliain at a lady's waist-belt, for watch, 
trinkets, keys, etc. 

Chattel, chat'tl, n. {Law.) Any property except 
freehold, or things .which are.parcel of it. 

Chatter, Chatty, Chatterbox, etc. See Chat. 

Chauffeur, sho'fer', n. One who manages the run- 
ning of ap. automobile. 

Chauvinism, sho''\an-izm, n. Fanatical patriotism ; 
blind adherence to an obsolete party, leader, or idea. 

Chaw, chaw, v. t. Tchawed (chawd), chawing.] To 
masticate, as food; to ruminate, as the cud; to re- 
volve and consider. — n. Ori^., the jaw; as much as 
the mouth holds ; a chew. [Once in good use, but 
now vulgar. See Chew.] 

Cheap, chep, a. Bearing a low price ; of small cost ; 
of small value. — Cheapen, che-'pn, v. t. [-ened 

(-nd), -ENING.] To attempt to buy, chaffer for, beat 
down the price of. 

Cheat, chet, v. t. To deceive and defraud ; to trick, 
outwit, impose on. — n. An act of deception ; a 
fraud ; trick ; imposture ; one who cheats. 

Cheat, chet, n. Wheat ; bread ; chess, or false wheat. 

Check, cliek, n. A sudden or continued restraint ; 
hindrance ; obstruction ; a mark put against items, 
in going over a list -, a token to identify a thing or 
person. {Com.) An order for money, payable on 
sight. Any counter-register used as security, as 
the correspondent cipher of a bank-note ; a kind of 
checkered cloth, as plaids, etc. {Chess.) Exposure 
of the king to the attack of an adversary's piece. 
A small chink or cleft. — v. t. [checked (chekt), 
CHECKI^■G.] To put restraint upon; to hinder, re- 
press, curb; to rebuke or reprove ; to make a mark 
against, as against names, etc., in a list; to compare 
with a counterpart for correctness. — v. i. To make a 
stop, pause;' to interfere; to crack, as wood; to cruck 
in checks, as paint, etc. — Check''er, v. i. [-eueu 
(-erd), -EEING.] To variegate with cross-lines ; to 
form into squares ; to diversify with difterenf qual- 
ities, scenes, etc. — n. One who, etc. ; a piece iii tJie 
gauie of draughts or checkers.— Check'er, Check'er- 
work, -werk, n. Work varied alternately as to colors 
or materials. — Check'^ers, -erz, n.^ 
Draughts, — a game played on a^ 
board of (M squares of alternate 
colors. — Cheeky, Checquey, 
chek'T, n. {Her.) A field or ar- 
morial bearing divided in check- 
ers. — Check'mate, -mat, 71. The 
move in chess which renders fur- 
ther moving impossible, and ends 
the game; a complete check, de- 
feat, or overthrow. — v. t. {Chess.) 
To put (the adversary's king) in- Cheeky, 
extricably in check. To arrest completely, termi- 
nate. — Check'-roll, n. A List of employees.— -string, 
n. A string by which one in a carriage or railroad 
car can call the attention of the driver or engineer.— 
Check'er-ber'ry, K. {Bat.) The partridge -berrv ; 
also, the wintergreen. — board, n. Board for playing 
checkers upon. 

Cheddar, ched'der, n. A kind of cheese made at 
Cheddar, in England. 

Cheek, chek, n. The side of the face; assurance; im- 
pudence. pZ. {Mach.) Pieces of a machine which 
form corresponding sides, or are similar and in pairs. 

Cheer, cher, ?«. The countenance and its expres- 
sion; state of feeling or spirits; state of gayety or 
mirth ; provisions for a feast; entertainment ; ex- 
pression of good spirits, by shouting, acclamation, 
etc._; applause; encouragement, —^\t. [cheeked 
(cherd), cheeeing.] To cause to rejoice, render 
cheerful ; to infuse life, courage, hope, etc., into ; to 
urge or salute by cheers. — v. i. To grow cheerful. 

— Cheer'Tul, -ful, a. Having good spirits; calmly 
joyful; promoting happiness; expressing joy; lively; 
animated; sprightly. — Cheer'fully, adv. — Cheer'- 
fulness, n. — Cheer'ily, adv. Witn cheerfulness. — 
Cheer'iness, n. — Cheer'ingly, adv. — Cheer^less, a. 
Without joy, gladness, or comfort; gloomy; dreary. 

— Cheer'lessness, ti.— Cheer^'ly, a. (^ay; not gloomy. 

— adv. In a cheerful manner; heartily. — Cheer^y, 
-T, a. In good spirits; lively; promoting, or tending 
to promote, cheerfulness. 

Cheese, chez, n. Curd of milk, separated from the 
whey, and pressed; a mass of ground apples pressed 

Chef-d'oeuvre, sha'doovr', n. ; pi. Chefs-d'(euvee. A 
master-piece; capital work in art, literature, etc. [F.] 

Chemise, she-mez', n. A shift, or under-garment, for 
females ; a wall lining an earthwork. 

Chemistry, kem'is-trl, n. Science of the composition 
of substances and changes which thej' undergo. — 
Chem'ist, n. One versed in, etc. — Chem'ic, -ical, a. 
Pert, to, or resulting from the operations of the phe- 
nomena of, etc. — Chem-'ically, adv. [These words 

' were formerly written with y or i, instead of e, in 
the first syllable, chiimistry or chimistry, etc. ; and 
pronounced accordingly.] 

Chenille, she-neK, n. Tufted cord, of silk or worsted. 

Checque, Checquer. See Check, Checkee. 

Sm, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; 6nd, eve, term ; In, Ice ; Cdd, tone, 6r : 




Cherish, 0110^15)1, r. f. [cherished (-isht), -ishixo.] 
To treat with tenderness; to hold dear, foster, com- 
fort, support^ 

Cheroot, she-roof, n. A kind of cigar. " 

Cherry, cher''rl, n. (Bot.) A small stone-fruit, and 
the tree which bears it. A cordial composed of 
cherry -juice and spjrit. — a. Of the color of, etc. 

Chersonese, ker'so-nes, ti. A peninsula. 

Chert, chert, II. {Mill.) An impure, flint-like quartz 
or hornstone. 

Cherub, cher'ub, n. ; pi. Cher'cbs; Cuer'- 
UBIM. (Script.) A mysterious composite being, de- 
scribed in Ezek. i. and x. ; one of two symbolical 
figures, forming the .Mercy-scat upon the Ark of the 
Covenant. One of an order of angels; a beautiful 
child, — artists liaving represented cherubs as beau- 
tiful children. — Cherubic, -roo'bik, -bical, a. Pert, 
to, etc.; angelic. 

Cherup, cher'np, r. i. To chirp. — v. t. To excite 
by cliirping. — n. A short, sharp noise, as of a cricket. 

Chess, dies, ii. A game played by two persons on a 
board containing 04 squares. See Check. {Bot.) A 
kind of grass growing anion"; wlieat. 

Chest, chest, n. A box, to lioid articles; the part of 
the body inclosed by the ribs and breast-bone; thS- 
rax. (Com.) A case for transporting tea, opium, 
etc.; quantity such a case contains. 

Chestnut, Chesnut, ches'nut, n. {Bot.) Tlie fruit of 
a tree, inclosed in a prickly pericarp or bur; the tree 
itself: its timber. — «. Of the color of a chestnut; 
reddisli brown. 

Cheval-de-frise, shvaKde-frez, «• ; pl- Chevaux-de- 
F K I s E , shvo'-de-frez : F. 
proii. shvod'frez'. (Mil.) 
A timber traversed with 
spikes, used for defense. 

Chevalier, shev-a-ler'', n. A 
liorseman ; knight ; gallant 
young man ; a member of Cheval-de-frise. 
certain orders of knighthood. 

Chevron, shev'run, n. (Her.) An honorable ordi- 
nary, -representing two rafters of a house meeting 
at the top. (3fil..) Distinguishing marks on the 
sleeves of non-commissioned officers. (Ai-ch.) A 
zigzag ornament. 

Chew, choo, v. t. [chewed (chood), chewing.] To 
bite and grind with the teeth, masticate; to rumi- 
nate mentally, meditate. — v. i. To perform the 
action of, etc. ; to meditate. — n. Thing chewed, or 
held in the mouth a4 once; a cud. 

Chibouque, -bouk, che-bdok', n. A Turkish tobacco 
pipe. _ 

Chic, shek, n. _Style ; knack. — a. Stylish. 

Chicane. shT-kan^, n. An artful subterfuge, — esp. ap- 
plied to legal proceedings; shift; cavil; sophistry.— 
V. i. To use artifices. — Chica-'nery, -ner-T, n. Mean 
or unfair artifice, to perplex a cause; trick; quibble. 

Chich. chich, n. A dwarf pea; chick-pea. 

Chick, chik. Chicken, chik'en, n. The young of fowls, 
esp. of the domestic hen; a young person. — Chick''- 
en-pox, «. (Med.) A mild "disease of children, con- 
tagi(»us and eruptive. 

Chicory, chik'o-rT, n. A plant used for adulterating 
CDifce : succory ; endive. 

Chide, chid, v. t. [imp. cniD or (ohs.) chode; p. p. 
cnii) or CHIDDEN ; cnrDixr;.] To rebuke, reproacn, 
blame, scold. — v. i. To find fault; to make a rough, 
clamorous, roaring noise. 

Chief, chef, a. Highest in rank or office; most emi- 
nent, influential, or important; principal; prime. — 
V. Head or leader; chieftain ; commander; most im- 
portant person or thing. (Her.) The upper part of 
the escutcheon. — Chief'tain, -tin, n. The head of a 
troop, army, or clan ; leader. 

Chiffonier, she-to'nT-a'' or shif-fon-er'', 7i. A recepta- 
cle for ra^sor shreds; a movable closet; a rag-picker. 

Chignon, snen^yox, n. A woman's back-hair knotted 
at the back of the head. 

Chilblain. See under Chill. 

Child, child, n. ; j)l. Childrex, chiKdren. A son or 
daughter; immediate progen.y of human parents; a 
young person, yd. Descendants. — Child'hood, n. 
State of a child ; time in which one is a child. — 
Child'ish, a. Of, or pert, to, etc. ; puerile. — Child''- 
iahly, adv. — Child'^ishness, n. State or qualities of. 

etc.; weakness of intellect. — Child 'less, n. Desti- 
tute of offspring. — Child^lessness, n. 

Chiliad, kiKl-ad, n. A thousand ; esp. 1,000 years. 

Chill, chil, a. Moderately cold; tending to cause shiv- 
ering; cool; formal; distant; depressed; dispirited. 

— n. A disagreeable sensation of coolness, with 
shivering; a check to enthusiasm or warmth of feel- 
ing; discouragement. (Mttal.) A method of cast- 
ing iron, so as quickly to cool the surface; a mold in 
which to cast iron. — v. t. [chilled (child), en ill- 
IXG.] To strike with a chill, make chilly, alfect 
with cold; to check enthusiasm, depress, discour- 
age. (Metal.) To produce, by sudden cooling, a 
change of crj^stallization near the surface, increas- 
ing the hardness of the metal. — Chill 'y, -T, a. Mod- 
erately cold. — Chill'iness, Chill-'nesB, n. — Chil'- 
blain, -blan, n. A blain on hand or foot, caused by 
cold. — r. t. To produce chilblains upon. 

Chimb, Chime, chini. Chine, n. Edge of a cask, formed 
by the ends of the staves. 

Chime, chim, n. Harmonious sound of bells, or other 
musical instruments; a set of bells tuned to one an- 
other ; correspondence of proportion, relation, or 
sound. — ?•'. i. [cHorED (chimd), ciiimixg.] To 
sound in harmonious accord ; to be in harmony ; 
correspond; to jingle, as in rhyming. — v. t. To 
move, strike, or cause to sound in harmony. 

Chimera, kt-me'ra, n. (Myth.) A monster vomiting 
flames, and having a lion's head, goat's body, ana 
dragon's tail. A vain or foolish fancy. — Chimer- 
ical, -mer''ik-al, a. Merely imaginary; capable of 
no existence except in thought; fantastic; delusive. 

Chimney, chiiiT'nf, n. ; pi. Chim'xeys, -niz. Passage 
through which smoke is carried off; a glass tube 
above a flame, to create draught and promote com- 
bustion. (Mining.) A rich spot in a lode. 

Chimpanzee, chim-pan''ze, n. The African orang- 
outang, a species of mon- 
key resembling man. 

Chin, chin, n. The lower ex- 
tremity of the face, below 
the mouth. 

China, chi''na, n. A species | 
of earthen ware originallj- 
made in China ; porcelain'. 

— Chi-'na as'ter. (Bot.) \\ 
species of the Aster fam- j 
ily, having large flowers. 

— C. grass. (Bot.) An Asi- 1 
atic nettle, having fibers 
used for ropes, textile fab- 
rics, etc.; ramie. 

Chincapin, chink''a-pin, n. 
(Bot.) The dwarf chestnut. 

Chinch, chinch, n. The bed-bug; an insect resem- 
bling the bed-bug in odor, destructive to grain. 

Chinchilla, chin-chiKla, n. A small rodent animal, 
having soft pearly-graj' fur. [Sp.] 

Chincough, chin'kawf, n. (Med.) Hooping-cough. 

Chine, cliTn, n. The back-bone or spine of an animal; 
a piece adjoining the back-bone, cut lor cooking. 
See Beef. The chimb of a cask. — v. t. To sever 
the back-bone of. 

Chink, chink, ?;. A small cleft or fissure: a gap or 
crack. — v.i. To crack, open. — v.t. To open, or 
fofln a fissure in; to fill up the chinks of. 

Chink, chink, n. A clink, or sharp sound, as of metal 
struck lightly; money; cash. — ?-. t. [chixkei> 
(chinkt), cmxKiXG.] To cause to sound by collis- 
ion. — r. i. To make a small, sharp sound, as by 
the collision of metal. 

Chinse, chins, v. t. (Ncmt.) To thrust oakum into 
the seams or chinks of. 

Chintz, chints, n. Cotton cloth, printed in colors. 

Chip, chip, V. t. [chipped (chipt), ciiirpixo.] To 
cut into small pieces. — v. i. To break or fly off in 
small pieces. — ?i. A piece of wood, stone, etc., sep- 
arated by a cutting instrument; fragment broken 

Chipmunk, -monk, chip'^munk, -muck, -muk, n. A 
squin-el-like animal; the striped squirrel. 

Chipplng-blrd, chip^ping-berd, n. An Amer. sparrow. 

Chirograph, ki'ro-graf, w. (Old Laiv.) A writing re- 
quiring a counterpart, — a charter-party. — Chirogra- 
pher, -rog'ra-fer, n. One proficient In writing. — 


stln, cube, full ; moon, fd6t ; eow, oil ; linger or ink, ttien, boNboN, chair, get. 




Cliirograph''ic, -ical, a. Pert, to, etc. — Chlrog'- 
raphist, n. A chirographer: one who tells fortunes 
by examining the hand. — Chirog''rapliy, -f T, ?i. Art 
of writing ; writing done with one's own hand. — 
CMrurgeon, -rer^iun, n. A surgeon. 

{}hirp, cherp, v. i. [chirped (cherpt), chiepixg.] To 
make a short, sharp sound, as fowls, birds, crickets, 
etc., do. — v.i. To make cheerful, enliven. — n. A 
short, sharp note. —Chirrup, chtr-'rup, v. t. [chir- 
EUPED C-rupt), CHIRRUPING.] To animate'by chirp- 
ing; to cherup. — V. i. To chirp. — n. Act of chirp- 
ing: chirp. — CMr^rupy, -t, a. Cheerful; chatty. 

CMsel, Gliiz'^el, n. An instrument sharpened to a cut- 
ting edge, used in carpentry, .ioinery, sculp- 
ture, etc. — r. t. [CHISELED (-eld), -elixg.] To 
cut, pare, gouge, or engrave with a chisel; to 
cut close, as in a bargain. 

CMsleu, chis'lu, n. Tlie 9th month of the He- 
brew year, —parts of November and Decem- 
• Chit, chit, n. The first germination of a plant; 
a shoot; sprout; a child or babe. — Chifty, 
-tY, a. Full of sprouts. — Chit''chat, 11. Famil- 
iar or trifling talk: prattle. 

■Chitterlings, chit''ter-lingz, n. pi. {CooTcenj.) 
The smaller intestines of swine, etc., fried 
for food. 

<3hivalry, shiv'al-rY, n. A body of knights serv- chisel 
ing on horseback: cavalry; the diraity or sys- 
tem of knighthood ; practice of knight-errantry; 
qualifications or character of knights. {Eng. Law J) 
A tenure of lands by knight's service. — Chiv'alric, 
-alrous, -rus, a. Pert, to, etc.; gallant. — OMv'al- 
rously, adv. 

■Chives. See Gives. 

Chlorine, klo^rin, n. (Chem.) A heavy gas of green- 
ish color, — a constituent of common salt. — ^Chlo''- 
ric, a. Pert, to, or obtained from, etc. — Chlo^'rate, 
n. A salt formed by the union of chloric acid with 
abase. — Chlc'ride, -rid, n. A compound of chlo- 
rine with another element. — Chloride of lime. A 
combination of lime and chlorine, used in bleach- 
ing and disinfecting. — Chlorid'ic, a. Pert, to a 
chloride. — Chlc'ridize, -iz, -idate, -at. v. t. To 
treat with a chloride; esp. (Phot.) to cover a plate 
with chloride of silver. — Chlc'rous, -rus, a. Elec- 
tro-ne:^ative ; noting an acid containing equal parts 
of chlorine and oxygen. — Chloriiia''tion, n. A 
process for extracting gold by exposing auriferous 
material to chlorine gas. — Chlc'ral, n. A com- 
pound of chlorine, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, 
■obtained by the action of chlorine upon alcohol. 

— C. hydrate. A compound of chloral with water, 

— used as a hypnotic. — GhlCralism, -izm, n. A 
TOorbid condition, from excessive use of chloral. — 
ChloraKum, n. An impure solution of chloride of 
alumina, — antiseptic and disinfectant. — ChlC'ro- 
•dyne, -dm, Ji. An anodyne medicine containing 
chloroform, opium, etc. — Chlc'roform, n. A voP 
atile compound of carbon, hydrogen, and chlorine, 

— an important but dangerous anaesthetic agent. — 
V. t. To treat with, or place under the influence of, 
etc. — Chlorc'sis, -ro'sis, ». {Med.) Greensickness, 

— a disease of young females. {Bat.) A disease 
in plants, giving them a pale hue. 

Chock, chok, v. t. To stop or fasten as with a wedge, 
block, etc. — V. i. To fill up, as a cavity. — n. Some- 
thing to confine a cask, etc., by fitting into the space 
around or beneath it. — Chock''-full, -ful, a. Com- 
pletely full. 

Chocolate, chok^'o-lat, n. A paste made from the seeds 
of the Theohroma cacao ; the beverage made by dis- 
solving chocolate-paste in boiling water. 

Chogset, chog''set, n. An edible salt-water fish; the 
burgall, Conner, or blue perch. 

Choice. See under Choose. 

Choir, Quire, kwir, ;/. An organized company of 
singers. (Arch.) The part of a church appropri- 
ated to the singers ; the chancel. The corporate 
body of a cathedral. — Chorus, ko-'rus, n. Orig. a 
dance in a ring, round dance ; a dance with sing- 
ing; band of singers and dancers; that which is sung 
by, etc.; part of a song in which the company join 
the singer. — Cho^ral, «. Pert, to a choir: sung in 
chorus. — n. (_3Ius.) A hymn-tune. — Cho'rally, 

adv. — Choragic, -raj^ik, a. Pert, to a choragus,— 
the leader of a musical entertainment. — Chorister, 
kOr'is-ter, ?«. One of a choir; a singer in a concert; a 
leader of a choir. 

Choke, chok, v.f. [choked (chokt),CHOKiXG.] To ren- 
der unable to breathe; to stifle, suffocate, strangle; 
to obstruct by filling up or clogging; to hinder or 
check. — V. i. To have the windpipe stopped; to be 
checked, as if by choking. — Chok''er, n. One who, 
or that which, chokes or puts to silence; that which 
cannot be answered; a collar or cravat. — Chok''y, 
-t, a. Tending to, etc. — Choke''-full, a. Full to 
choking, quite full. [See Chock-flll.] — Choke'- 
cher'ry, -cner'rT, n. (£ot.) A species of wild cherry, 

and its astringent fruit. damp, n. Carbonic acid 

gas accumulated in wells, mines, etc., — destructive 
of life by preventing respiration. — pear, -par, n. 
A kind of pear having a rough, astringent taste. 

Choler, koKer, 71. The bile, — formerly supposed to 
be the seat of ii-ascibility; irritation of the passions; 
anger; wrath. — ChoKeira, -er-a, n. (Med.) A dis- 
ease characterized by bilious vomiting and purging, 
and by spasms in the legs and arms. — Cholera mor- 
hus. A milder form of the disease. — ChoKic, Cho- 
lin-'ic, a. Pert, to the bile. — ChoKeric, a. Abound- 
ing with clioler, or bile; irascible; angry. 

Choose, chooz, v. t. [imp. chose (choz);p.2). chosejs' 
or chose; choosixg.] "To make choice of, prefer, 
elect. — v.i. To make a selection, prefer; to have 
the power of choice. — Choice, chois, n. Act or 
power of choosing ; election ; preference ; care in, 
etc., discrimination ; thing chosen; best or prefer- 
able part. — a. Worthy of being, etc. ; selected with 
care; uncommon; rare. 

Chop, chop, V. t. [CHOPPED (chopt), CHOPPIXG.] To 

cut into pieces; to mince; to sever by blows; to seize 
or devour greedily. — v.i. To come upon or seize 
suddenly. — w. Act of chopping; a stroke; piece 
chopped off, esp. a piece of meat. 

Chop, chop, I'. <. To barter, exchange; to give back 
and forth, bandy. — v.i. To wrangle, altercate, 
dispute. (N'aiit.) To veer or shift suddenly. 

Chops, Chop-fallen, etc. See under Chap. 

Choral, Chorister, Chorus, etc. See under Choir. 

Chord, k6rd, n. String of a musical instrument. (Mus.) 
A harmonious combination of tones simultaneous- 
ly performed. (Geom.) A right line, uniting the 
extremities of the arc of a circle. See Segment. — 
V. t. To_provide with musical chords or strings. 

Chore, chor, n. A small job. pZ. Jobs about the house, 
barn, etc., to be attended to at set times. 

Chorea, ko-re-'a, M. (Med.) St. Vitus's dance; a dis- 
ease attended with irregular movements of the vol- 
untary muscles. 

Chorion, ko''rt-on, n. (Anat.) The exterior mem- 
brane investing the fetus in the womb. (Bot.) The 
outer membrane of seeds. — Oho^roid, n. {Anat.) 
The second coat of the eye. See Eye.,— a. Pert. 
to, etc. 

Chose, Chosen. See Choose. 

Chough, chuf, n. A bird of the crow family. 

Chouse, chows, v. t. [choused (chowst), chousixg.] 
To cheat, trick, defraud. — n. One easily cheated; 
a tool; gull; a trick; a sham; imposition. 

CJiO'Wcho'W, chow'chow, a. Of several kinds mingled; 
mixed. — n. A kind of mixed pickles. [Chin.] 

Chowder, chow'der, n. A dish of fish, pork, biscuit, 
onions, etc., stewed. — v. t. To make into, etc. 

Chrism, krizm, M. {Gr.SiRom. Cat h. Churches.) Oil 
consecrated by the bishop, formerly 
used in baptism, confirmation, ordina- 
tion, and extreme unction. — Chris- 
ma'' tion, 71. Act of applying, etc. — 
Cliris''matory, -to-rT, n. A vessel to 
hold the chrism. — Chris^om, -um, rt. 
Anointed with, etc. — n. A white ves- 
ture, so anointed, put on a child at 
baptism or on a dead infant. 

Christ, krist, n. The Axoixted, — an 
appellation of the Savior, synonymous 
with Heb. Messiah. —Christen, „, . 
kris^'n, v. t. [cheistexed (-nd), -ex- «.^nrisma- 
IXG.] To baptize ; to give a name, tory. 

denominate. — Christendom, kris-'n-dum, n. That 
portion of the world in which Christianity prevails, 

&m, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; end, eve, term ; In, Ice ; Qdd, tone. 6r ; 




opp. to lieathen or Mohammedan laiuls ; the whol ; 
body of Christians.— Christian, kris'chun, 71. A be- 
liever in the relij;ion of Christ; one born in a Chris- 
tian country. — a. Pert, to Christ or his religion; 
professin;.; Christianity ; pert, to the church : eccle- 
siastical. — C/iri.<tif(ii name. Tlie name jriven in 
baptism, — opp. to the surname.— Christiajiity, kris- 
cht-an'T-tl, n. The religion of Christians ; Christ's 
teachings. — Chris'tiamza''tion, -chun-I-za'shun, 
n. Conversion to Christianity. — Christianize, 
-chuu-iz, V. t. [-IZED (-izd), -izixG.] To make 
Christian. — Christian science, -si'ens. A system 
of healing disease of mind and body which teaches 
that all cause and effect is mental, and that sin, sick- 
ness, and death will be destroyed bv a full under- 
Btandin": of the Divine Principle of Jesus' teaching 
and healing. The svstem was founded b v Rev. Alary 
Baker Eddy, of Concord, X. H., in l.S(J(), and bases 
its teaching on the Scriptures as understood by its 
adherents. — Christian scientist, -si'en-tist. A be- 
liever in Chri-tian science; one who practices its 
teachings. — Christ'less, krisf-, a. Having no faith 
in Christ. — Christmas, kris-'mas, n. The festival 
of Christ's nativity, Dec. 25th. — Chrisfmas-box, n. 
A box in which presents are put at Christmas ; a 
Christmas present. — tree, v. An evergreen tree, 
hunar with presents and decorations at Christmas. — 
Christol'ogy, -jl, n. A treatise concerning Christ. 
Chromatic, kro-mafik, a. Relating to color. (J/u5.) 
Proceeding bv the smaller intervals (half-steps or 
semitones) of the scale, instead of the regular in 
tervals of the diatonic scale. — Chromatic scale. 
(J/ms.) The scale consisting of 13 tones, including 8 
scale-tones and 5 intermediate tones, — the interme- 
diate tones having formerl}^ been printed in colors. 

— Chromafics, 71. Science of colors. — Chrc'mo- 
lithog^raphy, n. Lithographv adapted for print- 
ing in oil colors. — Chromo-lith''ograph, Chro'mo, 
n. A lithographic picture in oil colors. 

Chrome, kroin, Chromium, kro'ml-um, 71. A hard, 
.brittle, grayish-white metal, difficult of fusion.— 
Chro'mic, a. Pert, to, or obtained fr., etc. — Chro''- 
mate, n. (Chem.) A salt obtained by the union of 
chromic acid with a base. 

Chronic, kron^'ik, -ical, a. Pert, or according to time; 
continuing for a long time. — Chronicle, k.ron'I-kl, 
n. A register of events in the order of time; a his- 
tory ; record. p7. Two books of the Old Testament. 

— V. t. [CHRONICLED (-kid), -CLING.] To record 
in historjs register. — ChronoKogy, -jt, «. Science 
of computing time by periods, and assigning to 
events their proper dates. — Chronol'oger, -ogist, n. 
One skilled in, etc. — Chronolog'ic, -ical, a. Pert. 
to, etc. ; according to the order of time. — Chron- 
olog'ically, adv. — Chronom'eter, n. A time- 
keeper; esp. a portable time-keeper of superior ac- 

Chryaaiidj kris'a-lid, Chrys^alis. n. ,• pi. CHRYS-iL- 
IDES, -saKT-dez. A form into which the caterpillar 
or larve of butterflies, moths, and some other in- 
sects, passes, and from which the perfect insect 
emorcres. — a. Pert, to, or resembling, etc. — Chrys- 
anthemum, -an'the-ninm, n. {Dot.) A genus of 
composite plants, including the sunflower, mari- 
gold, etc. 

Chubb, chub, n. A thick, fresh-water fish of the carp 
family. — Chub'bed, -by. -bT, «. Like a chub; 
plump, short, and thick. -Chub'tainess, n. 

Chuck, chuk, V. i. To iivike a noise like a hen calling 
her chickens ; to cluck, laugh mockino;ly, — in a 
broKen, convulsive manner. — r. t. To call," as a hen. 

— n. Call of a hen; a sudden small noise; word of 

Chuck, chuk, ?•. t. [chucked (chukt), chuceikg-] 
To strike gently; to throw, with Quick motion, a 
short distance; to pitch. {Jfech.) To place in, or 
hold by means of. a chuck. — n. A slight blow un- 
der the chin. {3/ac7i.) A contrivance fixed to the 
mandril of a turning-lathe to hold the material to 
be operated upon. 

Chuckle, chuk''!, v. t. Fchuckled (chukid), chuck- 
ling.] To call, as a hen her chickens; to cluck; to 
fondle, cocker. — n. A short, suppressed laugh of 
exultation or derision. — 1\ i. To laugh in a sup- 
pressed or broken manner. 

Chum, chum, n. A chamber-fellow, esp. in a college. 

— r. i. To occupy a chamber witli anotlier. 
Chunk, chunk, n. "A short, thick piece of anything. 

— Chunk'y, -T, a. Short and thick. 

Church, cherch,M. A building for Christian worship; 
a body of Christian believers worshiping together, 
or having thesan^e rites and ecclesiastical authority; 
the collective body of Christians; ecclesiastical in- 
fluence, authority, etc. — ?'. ^ [cmirciied (chercht), 
CIIUKCHIXG.] To unite with m imhlicly returning 
thanks in church, as after childbirth — Church'- 
man, n. ; pi. -men. An ecclesiastic or clergyman; 
ail Episcopalian, other Protestants. — 
Church^manship, ?). State of being, etc. — Church'- 
ward'en, -wawrd'n, n. An officer charged with the 
pecuniary interests of a church or parish^ — Church '- 
yard, n. Ground adjoining a church, in which the 
dead are buried; a cemeteiy. 

Churl, cherl, ??. A rustic; a "countryman or laborer; 
a rough, surlj-, ill-bred man; one illiberal or miserlj'; 
a niggard. 

Churn, chcm, n. A vessel in which cream is sshaken,. 
to separate the buttw from other parts. — v. t, 
[CHURNED (cluirnd), churning.] To agitate, in 
order to make butter; to shake violently. — v. i. To 
agitate cream, etc. 

Chute, shoot, n. A rapid descent in a river; an opening 
in a dam lor descent of logs, etc. ; a shoot, a funnel 
or slide for loading or unloading grain, coal, etc. 

Chyle, kil, »?. {Fhi/siol.) Amilkyfluid, derived from 
chyme, and enterinjc the circulation by the lacteal 
vessels. — Chylifac'tion, 7t. Act or process by which 
chyle is formed. — Chylifac'tive, -tiv, ChyKifica'- 
tory, a. Formin°; into chyle. — Chylifica'tion, n. 
Formation of chyle bj' digestive processes. — Chy'- 
lous, -lus, a. Consisting, or partaking of chyle. 

Ch3rme, kim, ?i. (Physiol.) The pulp formed" by food. 

in the stomach, mixed with the gastric secretions. 

Chymification, ktm''l-fT-ka''sliun. n. Process of be- 
coming chyme. — Chym'ify, -f 1, r. t. To form into- 
chyme. — Qhympus, kim'us, a. Pert, to chyme. 

Cicada, si-ka-'da, K. ; i^Z. -D.E, -de. (Entom.) A hem- 
ipterous insect, the male of which makes a shrilly 
grating sound; the harvest fly. 

Oicatrice, sik'a-tris, n. A scar remaining after a 
wound is healed. — Cicatrix, sWca'triks, n. ; pi. 
Cicatrices, sik-a-tri'sez. Same as Cicatrice. — 
Cic'atrize, -triz, v. t. [-trized (-trizd) -trizing.J 
To heal and induce the formation of a cicatrice in. 

— ?'. t. To heal or be healed. — Cic'atriza''tion, n. 
Process of, etc. 

Cider, si'der, n. A drink made from apple juice. 

Oi-devant, sed-voN', a. Former; previous. 

Cigar, sT-gar', 71. A roll of tobacco, for smoking. — 
Cig.arette'', -et-', n. A little cigar; tobacco rolled in 
paper for smoking. 

Cimeter, sim''e-ter, 72. A short sword with a recurv- 
ated point, used by Persians and Turks. 

Cimmerian, sim-me'^rT-an, a. Pert, to the Cimmerii, 
a fabulous people said to have dwelt in dark cavesj 
intensely dark. 

Cinchona, sin-ko'na, «. (Bot.) A genus of trees of 
the Andes in Peru and adjacent countries, produ- 
cing a medicinal bark, known as Peruvian or Jes- 
uit's hark ; the bark itself. 

Cincture, sink'cher, n. A belt ; girdle ; that which 
encompasses; inclosure. (Arch.) A ring at the top 
and bottom of a column, separating the shaft from 
the base and from the capital. 

Cinder, sin'der, n. A small particle remaining after 
combustion ; small coal, with ashes ; ember ; scale 
thrown olf in forging metal. 

Cinematograph, sin'e-mat'o-graf, w. A machine for 
taking successive photographs of moving objects j 
also, one for producing, by the rapidlv successive- 
projection of such pictures upon a screen, the effect 
of an animated scene. 

Cinnabar, sin-'na-bar, n. Red sulphuret of mercury 
or quicksilver; vermilion. 

Cinnamon, sin'na-mon, 71. The inner bark of a tree 
of Ceylon, aromntic and of a pungent taste. 

Cinque, sink, ?«. The number 5 upon dice or cards. — 
Cinque'foil, n. (Bot.) A plant having leaves resem- 
bling the fingers of the hand. (Arch.) An orna- 
mental foliation having 5 points or cusps. i 

eUzi, CQbe, fyll ; moon, f(J6t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, then, boNbox, chair, get. 




A young shoot or sprout of a 

A character [0] which, 
but • 


t/ion, Scion, si'un, 71. 

Cipher, si'^fer, n. {Arith.) 
standing by itself, expresses notliing, but when 
placed at the right hand of a whole number, in- 
creases its value tenfold. A 
person of no worth ; a combi- 
nation of letters, as tlie initials 
of a name ; an enigmatical char- 
acter ; a private alphabet for 
safe transmission of secrets. — 
V. i. [ciphered (-lerd), ci- 
PHERING.] To practice arith- 
metic. — V. t. To write in oc- 
cult characters; to represent. 

Oircean, ser-se'an, a. Pert, to Circe, a fabled en- 
chantress ; magical ; noxious. 

Circle, ser''kl,,H. A plane -figure, bounded by a curve 
line called its circumference, every part of ^-""^ 
which is ecjually distant irom a point / \ 

■within it called the center ; the line bound- 
ing such a figure ; a ci:cumierence. (As- 

iron.) An instrument of observation,, 

whose graduated limb consists of an entire Circle, 
circle. A round body ; spliere ; orb ; compass ; cir- 
cuit; a company assembled about a central point of 
interest ; a coterie; a series ending where it begins ; 
a form of argument in wliich unproved statements 
are used to prove each other ; a province or princi- 
pality. — i'. ?. [CIRCLED (-kid), CIRCLING.] To re- 
volve around ; to encompass, inclose. — v. i. To 
move circularly. — Cir'clet, -klet, n. A little circle, 
as of gold, etc. ; a round body ; orb. — Cir''c'alar, 
-ku-lar, a. Pert, to a circle; round; repeating itself; 
illogical ; inconclusive ; adhering to a fixed circle of 
legends; cyclic ; mean ; address to a number of per- 
sons having a common interest. — n. A circular letter, 
copies of which are sent to various persons. — Cir''- 
cularly, adv. — Cir^culate, -lat, i-. i. To move in a 
circle; to pass round; to pass from place to place, 
hand to hand, etc. — v. t. To cause to pass, etc.; to 
diffuse; disseminate. — CiT'culable, -la-bl, a. Capa- 
ble of being, etc. — Circula'tion, n. Act of, etc.; cur- 
rency: circulating coin, bills, etc.; extent to which 
anything circulates. — Cir'culator, -ter, n. — Cir''cu- 
latory, -rT, a. Circular; circulating. 

Circuit, ser-'kit, n. Act of moving or revolving 
around ; a journeying from place to place in the ex- 
ercise of one's calling ; region passed over in such a 
journey, esp. that over Avhich jurisdiction, as of a 
judge, etc., extends; that which encircles anything, 
as a crown ; distance around any space ; space in- 
closed witliin a circle, or within certain limits. — v. t. 
To move or make to go round. — Circiiito'as, -ku'I- 
tus, a. Going round in a circuit; indirect. 

Circumambient, ser-kum-am''bT-ent-,- a. Surrounding; 
inclosing on all sides. — Circumam''bulate, -lat, v. i. 
To walk round about. — Circumam''bTila''tion, n. 
Act of, etc. — Circumbend'ibus, n. A circuitous 
route. [Vulgar.'] — Cir'cumcise, -siz, v. t. [-cised 
<-sizd), -CLSixG.] To cut off the foreskin of, in the 
case of males, or the internal labia, in females. 
(Script.) To render holy. — Circumcision, -sizh'un, 
n. Act of, etc. (Script.) Rejection of the sins of the 
flesh; spiritual purification; the Jews, as disting. fr. 
Tincircumcised races. — Circumclusion, -klu'^zhun, n. 
Act of inclosing on all sides. — Circumduct, -dukt', 
v.t. To lead about or astray. (Laiv.) To contravene ; 
nullify. — Circumduc'tion, n. A leading about, an 
annulling. — Circum''ference, -fer-ens, n. The line 
that encompasses a circular figiire; periphery; space 
included in acircle; anything ci'-cular: external sur- 
face of a sphere or orbicular body. — Cir'^cumflex, n. 
A wave of the voice embracing both a rise and fall 
•on the same syllable; a character, or accent, denot- 
ing in Greek a rise and fall of the voice on the same 
-long syllable, marked thus[~or^], and in Latin 
and some other languages, a long and contracted 
syllable, marked [ a ]. — r. t. To mark or pronounce 
with a circumflex. — Circum'fluent, -fluous, -fl(x>-us, 
a. Flowing around; surrounding in the manner of 
a fluid. — Clreumfuse, -fuz'', v. t. To pour round, 
spread round. — Circunija''cent, -sent, a. Lying 
around; bordering on every side. — Cir'cumldcu''- 
tion, -ku'shun, n. A circuit of words; periphrase. 

— Circumnavigate, -nav-'t-gat, v. t. To sail around; 
pass round by water. — Circumnav''igable, -ga-bl, a. 
Capable of being, etc. — Cir'cumnav''iga''tion, n. Act 
of, etc. — Cir'cumnav'iga''tor, -ter, n. One who, etc. 

— Circumpo'lar, a. About or near the pole. — Cir'- 
cumposi'tion, -zish''un, n. Act of placing in a circle, 
or state of being so placed. — Cir^cumscribe, -skrib, 
V. t. [-SCRIBED (-skribd), -scribixg.] To inclose 
within a certain limit, hem in, limit, restrict, restrain. 

— Circumscrip'tion, -skrip'shun, n. Exterior line 
determining the form or magnitude of a bodj'; lim- 
itation by conditions, restraints, etc.; bound; limit. 

■ — Cir'cumspect, -spekt, a. Attentive to all the cir- 
cumstances of a case; cautious; watchful; vigilant. 

— Circumspection, -spek''shun, w. Attention to, etc.; 
deliberation; wariness; forecast. — Circumspect''ive, 
-iv, a. Looking round every way ; careful of con- 
sequences. — Cir''cumspect'ly, adv. — Cir'cumBpect''- 
ness, M. — Cir-'cumstance, -stans, n. The condition 
of things surrounding an event; something attend- 
ing on a fact, though not essential tiiereto ; a partic- 
ular incident or adjunct, pi. Condition in regard 
to worldly estate ; state of property. — v. t. [-stanced 
(-stanst), -STANCING.] To place relatively, or in a 
particular situation. — Circumstantial, -stan'shal, 
a. Consisting in, or pert, to, circumstances, or par- 
ticular incidents; abounding with, or exhibiting all 
of, the circumstances ; minute ; particular. — n. 
Something incidental to the main subject, but of 
less importance. — C. evidence. (Law.) Any evi- 
dence not direct and positive. — CiT'cumstan'tiaK- 
ity, -shl-aKl-tT, n. State of anything as modi- 
fied by circumstances ; particularity in exhibiting 
circumstances ; minuteness. — Cir^cumstan'tially, 
-shal-lT, adv. According to circumstances ; in every 
particular. — Cir'cTmistan''tiate, -shlf-at, v. t. To 
place in particular circumstances ; to enter into de- 
tails concerning. — Circumvallate, -vaKlat, v. t. To 
surround with a rampart. — Cir'cumvalla'tion, n. 
(Mil.) Act of surrounding with a wall; a line of field 
works surrounding the c&mi) of a besieging army. — 
Circumvent', v. t. To gain ad-\-antage over, by arts, 
stratagem, or deception; to deceive, delude. — Cir- 
cumvention, -ven''shun, n. Lecepticn: fraud; im- 
posture. — Circumvenfive, -iv, a. Deceiving by ar- 
tifices. — Circumvest', v. t. To cover round as with 
a garment. — Circumvolve, -vclv', v. t. [-volved 
(-volvdO, -voLvixG.] To roll round, cause to re- 
volve. — V. i. To revolve. 

Circus, s5r''kus, n. ; jpZ. Cir'^cuses, -ez. (Boman An- 
tiq.) An open or inclosed space, or the in- 
closing it, for games and shows. A ciicular inclos- 
ure, for feats of horsemanship; the company ol per- 
formers in a circus, with equipage. 

Cirrus, str'rus, m. ,• jsZ. Cir-'ri, -ri. (Bot.) A tendril. 
(Meteor.) A form of cloud composed ol tliin fila- 
ments, resembling a brush or masses of wooUj" hair. 
(Zool.) A slender, fringe-like appendage. 

Cisalpine, sis-aKptn, a. On the hither (Reman) side 
of me Alps, — i. e. south of the Alps. — Cisatlan''tic, 
a. On this side of the Atlantic Ocean. 

Cist, sist, n. (Arch.) A chest or basket. (Antiq.) A 
Celtic tomb having a stone chest covered with slabs. 

— Cis'tern, n. A reservoir for water or other liquids. 
Cistercian, sis-ter''shan, 71. One of an order of Bene- 
dictine monks established orig. at Citeaux, France. 

Cit, Citadel, Citizen. See under City. 

Cite, sit, V. t. To call upon ofiicially or authoritative- 
ly ; to summon ; to quote, name, or repeat, as the 
words of another ; to call or name, in proof or con- 
firmation of. — Cifal, n. Summons to appear; cita- 
tion; quotation. — Cita'tion, w. Oflficial call or no- 
tice to appear; paper containing such notice; act of 
citing a passage from another per.'ion; words quoted; 
enumeration; mention. — Cit 'atory, -rT, a. Having 
the power or form of citation. — Cit'^er, n. 

Cithern, sith'^ern, Cit'^tern, n. A musical instrument, 
like the guitar. 

Citron, sifrun, n. A tree cultivated for its fruit_; the 
preserved rind of the fruit. — Cit'rate, -rat, n. 
(Chem.) A salt formed by the union of citric acid 
and a base. — Cifric, a. Of, or pert, to, an acid in 
the juice of lemons and allied fruits. — Cifrine, -rin, 
a. Like a citron or lemon ; of a lemon color. — n. 
(Mill.) A yellow, pellucid variety of quartz. 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; 6nd, eve, tSrm ; to, Ice ; Odd, tone, 8r ; 




«Ut^, sifT, n. A large or corporate town ; inhabitants 
of a city. — Cit'izen, -T-zen, n. An inhabitant of a 
city ; a freeman of, etc., disting. ir. one not entitled 
to its franchises ; a native born or naturalized in- 
habitant of a country. — Cifizenship. n. State of 
being, etc. — Cit, n. A pert townsman. — Cit'adel, 
n. A fortress in a fortitted city. — Civic, siv'ik, a. 
Pert, to, or derived fr., a city or citizen. — CiVil, a. 
Pert, to a city or state, or to a citizen in his civic re- 
lations; lawful er political, as opp. to military; pert. 
to an organized community; civilized; having the 
manners of one dwelling in a citv; courteous; com- 
plaisant. — Civil death. {Law.) "that which cuts off 
a man from civil society, or its rights and benefits. 

— C. engineering. Science of constructing public 
works. — C law. The law of a state, city, or coun- 
try; esp., the municipal law of the Roman empire. 
— C ivar. A war between citizens of the same coun- 
try. — C. year. The legal year, apijointed by the 
government. — Civ'illy, -It, adv. — Civilian, st-viK- 
yan, n. One skilled in the civil law ; one engaged 
in pursuits of civil life, not military or clerical. — 
CiviKity, -T-tt, n. Courtesy of behavior; politeness ; 
good-breeding, pi. Acts of politeness ; courtesies. — 
Civilize, -iz, v. t. [-ized (-Izd), -izixg.] To re- 
claim from a savao:e state ; to educate, refine. — 
Civ'ilized, a. Reclaimed, etc. ; cultivated. — CiV- 
Uiz^able, a. — Civ'iliza'tioii, n. Act of, or state of 
being, etc. — Civ'ism, -izm, n. State of citizenship. 

Gives, sivz. Chives, chivz, n.; pi. 
A species of garlic, growing in 

Civet, siv'et, n. A substance of a 
musky odor, used as perfume. 
(Zobl.) A carnivorous animal 
producing civet, ranking be- 
tween the weasel and fox, na- ri-irof 
five of North Africa. '"^^^'=- 

Clabber, klab'berj.w. Milk turned so as to become thick 
or inspissated. — v. i. To turn thick. 

Clack, klak, v. i. [clacked (klakt), clackixg.] To 
make a sudden, sharp noise, as by striking or crack- 
ing ; to clink, click; to talk rapidly and continuallj''. 

— V. t. To cause to make a sudden noise; to clink; to 
utter rapidly and inconsideratelj'. — «. A sharp, ab- 
rupt sound made by striking; anything that causes 
a clacking noise; continual talk; prattle; prating. 

Claim, klam, v. t. [claimed (klamd), claimixg.] 
To call for, challenge as a right, demand as due. 
— V. i. To be entitled to anything. — n. A demand 
of a right or supposed right; a right to demand; title 
to anything in possession of another ; thing de- 
manded ; that to which one has a right, (ilining.) 
A space of ground worked under the law. — Claim''- 
ant, n. One who claims.— Cla''mant, a. Crying earn- 
estly ; clamorously beseeching. ^ Clam'' or, klam'- 
5r, n. Loud and continued shouting or exclama- 
tion; loud noise; uproar; vociferation. — v. t. [clam- 
ored (-5rd), -ORIN'G.] To salute or stun with noise. 

— V. i. To vociferate, make importunate demands. 

— Clarn'orous, -u.<, a. Noisy; turbulent. 
Clairvoyance, klar-voi'ans, n. A power, attributed 

to mesmerized persons, of discerning objects not 

present to tlic senses. — Clairvoy'ant, a. Pert, to, 

etc.— «. One who, etc. 
Clam, klam, n. {Conrh.) A bivalve shell-fish. pi. 

(Ship Carp.) Pincers for drawing nails, p?. (Alech.) 

A kind of vise. 
Clam, klam, v. t. [cl.^mmed (klamd), clammixg.] 

To clog, as with glutinous or viscous matter. — r. i. 

To be moist or sticky. — Clam'my, -mt, a. Soft and 

sticky. — Clam''mines3, n. 
Clamber, klam^ber, v. i. [-bered (-herd), -berixo.] 

To climb with difficulty, or with hands and feet. 
Clamor, etc. See under Claim. 
Clamp, klamp, n. A piece of timber or iron, to fasten 

work together; a mass of bricks heaped 

up to be burned, or of ore to be smelted, 

or of coal to be converted to coke. 

(Ship-bttilding.) A plank on the inner 

part of a ship's side, to sustain the 

beams. One of a pair of pieces of soft 

material, to cover the jaws of a vise ; a 

heavy footstep. — v. t. [clamped 

(klampt), clamping.] To unite or ren- 


der firm bj' a clamp. — v. i. To tread heavily or 
clumsily; to clump. 

Clan, klan, n. A tribe or collection of families, united 
under a chieftain, and bearing the same surname i 
a clique; a sect, societv, or bodv of persons. — Clan''- 
nish, a. Closely united, like a cfan; disposed to unite. 

Clandestine, klan-des'tin, a. Withdrawn from pub- 
lic notice; kept secret ; underhand; sly; fraudulent. 

Clang, klang, v. t. [clanged (klangd), clanging.} 
To strike together with a ringing metallic sound. — 
V. i. To produce, etc. — n. A ringing sound. — Clangor,, 
klan'gor, n. A sharp, shrill, harsh sound. — Clan'- 
gorous, -us, a. Making a clangor. — Clank, klank, 
n. The loud, ringing sound made by a collision of 
sonorous bodies. — r. t. and i. [clanked (klankt)^ 
CL.\NKiNG.] To make, etc. 

Clap, klap, r. t. [clapped (klapt), clapping.] To 
strike with a quick motion, making a noise by the 
collision; to thrust, drive, or put, liastily or abruptly'; 
to manifest approbation of, by striking the hands, 
together. — v. i. To come together suddenly with, 
noise ; to strike the hands together in applause ; 
to enter briskly. — ?i_ A loud noise made by collis- 
ion ; a stroke ; thrust ; sudden explosion ; striking of 
hands in approbation. — Clap'per, n. One who, or 
that which, etc.; the tongue of a bell. — Clapboard, 
klab'berd, n. In Amer., a board thicker at one edge 
than at the other, for covering houses; in Eng., a. 
stave. — V. t. To cover with clapboards. — Clap'trap, 
n. A trick to gain applause. — a. Not genuine. — 
Clap'perclaw, v. t. To fight and scratch; to revile,, 

Claque, klak, n. A collection of persons engaged to 
applaud a theatrical performance. — Claquer, kla- 
ker', n. One employed, etc. 

Clarence, klar^'ens, n. A close four-wheeled carriage. 

Clarendon, klar'en-dun, n. {Frini.) A narrow, heavy- 
faced type, of all sizes. 

15^" This line is in Clarendon type. 

Clare-obscure, klar'ob-skur, Claro-obscuro, kla'ro-ob- 
skoo^ro, 71. Light and shade in painting; a design 
of two colors. 

Claret, klar'et, n. A French pale wine ; a dark-red 
wine from Bordeaux, etc. 

Clarify, klar'I-fi, v. t. [-fied (-fid), -fying,] To make 
clear, purify from feculent matter, defecate, fine; 
to brighten or illuminate.^ r. ?'. To become pure, 
as liquors; to grow clear or bright. 

Clarion, klar'T-un, n. A kind of trumpet, whose note 
is clear and shrill. — Clar'ionef, ClaT'lnet, n. A 
wind reed instrument, used in military bands. 

Clash, klash, ii. i. [clashed (klasht), clashino.3 
To dash noisily together, come in collision, inter- 
fere. — V. U To strike noisily against. — n. A meet- 
ing with violence ; contradiction, as between con- 
flicting interests, purposes, etc. 

Clasp, Iclasp, n. A catch, for holding together the 
parts of anything; a close embrace, —v. t. [claspei> 
(klaspt), clasping.] To shut or fasten together 
with a clasp; to embrace, grasp. — Clasp'er, /?. One 
who, or that which, clasps, as a tendril. — Clasp'- 
knife, -nif , n. A knife, whose blade folds into the 

Class, klas, n. A group of individuals possessing 
common characteristics ; a number of students of 
the same standing ; an order or division of animate 
or inanimate objects. — v. t. [classed (klast), class- 
ing.] To form into classes, rank together. — v. i. 
To be grouped or classed. — Class'mate, n. One in 
the same class. — Clas'sic, -sical, a. Of the first 
class or rank, esp. in literature or art ; orig. pert, to 
the best Gi'eek and Roman writers, now, also, to 
the best modei-n authors ; pert, to the Greeks and 
Latins ; chaste ; pure ; refined. — Clas''Bic, n. A 
work of acknowledged excellence ; one learned in 
the classics. — Clas'sify, -sT-fi, r. t. [-fied (-fid), 
-fyixg.] To distribute into classes, arrange, rank, 
svstematize. — Clas^sifica'tion, n. . 

Clatter, klafter, v. i. [-tered (-terd), -tering.] To 
make rattling sounds ; to rattle with the tongue, 
prate. — v. t- To strike and make a rattling noise. — 
n. A repeated rattling noise. 

Clause, klawz, n. A separate portion of a written 
paper, paragraph, or sentence. ( Gram.) A portion 

siin, cQbe, full ; moon, tSbt ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, then, boNboN, chair, get. 




of a sentence containing a finite verb and its ad- 

CUujtral. See under Cloister. 

Clavicle, klav't-kl, n. (Anat.) The collar-bone. 

Claw, klaw, n. A sharp, hooked nail, as of a beast or 
bird; a talon. — r. t. [clawed (klawd), clawing.] 
To pull, tear, or scratch with claws or nails ; to get 
oit' or fscape. 

Olay, kia, n. A soft earth, consisting of alumina and 
silic.i, with wiiter. • {Foetr// and Sonpt.) Eartli 
in general, as representing the elementary particles 
of the human body ; the human body. — v. t. 
[CLAVEU (klad),] To manure with clay ; 
to purify and whiten with clay, as sugar. 

Claymore, kLi'mor, ;;. A two-handed sword formerly 
used by the Scottish Highlanders. 

Clean, kien, a. Free from dirt, or from that which is 
injurious; without defects; adroit; dexterous; free 
from restraint or limitation; complete; sinless; pure. 
(Script.) Free from ceremonial defilement. — adv. 
Without limitation or remainder; quite; entirely; 
dexterously; adroitly. — v. t. [cleaned (klend), 
CLEANING.] To free from dirt, purify, cleanse. 

— Clean^ly, klen'^lt, adv. In a clean manner; 
neatly. — Clean''ness, n. — Clean''ly, klen''II, a. 
Habitually clean, avoiding defilement ; innocent; 
pure; cleansing ; adroit ; artful. — Cleanlily, klen''- 
IT-IT, adv. In a cleanlj'' manner. — Clean''lines3, n. 

— Cleanse, klenz, v. t. [cleansed (klenzd), cle..\.ns- 
ING.] To render clean. — v. i. To become clean. 

Clear, kler, /*. {Carp.) Full extent ; distance be- 
tween extreme limits. — a. Free from opaqueness, 
blemish, guilt, obstacle, etc.; able to perceive clear- 
ly; acute; unbiased; distinctly heard ; audible; man- 
ifest; plain ; distinct. — adv._ Plainly; quite ; en- 
tirely. — V. t. [cleared (klerd), clearing.] To 
free from obscurity, etc.; to leap or pass by, or over, 
■without touching or failure; to remove so as to leave 
something unobstructed. — v. i. To become clear 
from cloiids or fog; to become disengaged. {Bank- 
ing.) To make exchanges and settle balances. 
'{Naut.) To obtain a clearance, and sail from port. 

— Clear-'ing-house, ?i. {Banking.) The place where 
clearing is carried on. — Clear'sighted, -slfed, a. 
Having acute sight.— Clear-sightedness, w.— Clear-- 
starch, V. t. To stiffen with starch, and then clear 
by clapping wi_th the hands. — Clear''-story, -stc'rT, 
Clerestory, kler''sto-rt or kler'es-to-rl, n. 
{Arch.) An tipper story or row of windows, 
€sp. in a Gothic church, rising clear above 
adjoining parts of the building. — Clear'- 
stuS, n^ Boards, etc., free from knots. 

Cleat, klet, n. {Carj).) A strip of wood nailed 
to something to strengthen or fasten it. 
{Naut.) A piece of wood, to belay ropes to. p, . 
A piece of iron to render shoes more durable, '-'^^ac. 

— V. t. To strengthen with a cleat. 

Cleave, klev, v. i. [imp. cleaved (klevd) or {ohs.) 
CLAVE ; p. p. cleaved ; cleaving.] To adhere 
closely, stick, hold fast ; to be united closely in in- 
terest or alfection; to be adapted; to agree. 

Cleave, klev, v. t. [imp. cleft or {ohs.) clave ajid 
clove; i). p. cleft or cleaved (klevd); cleaving.] 
To part or divide by force, split, rive; to part or 
open naturally, divide. — v. i. To part, open, crack. 

— Cleav'er, n. One who, or that which, cleaves, — 
esp. a butcher's meat-chopper. — Cieav^age, -ej, n. 
Act of, etc. {Cnjstullog.) Quality of splitting or di- 
viding naturally. — Cleft, n. An opening, or a piece, 
made by splitting ; crack ; crevice; chink. {Far.) 
A crack in the bend of the pastern. 

Clef, kief, n. {Miis.) A character in musical nota- 
tion to determine the position 
and pitch of the scale as rep- 
resented on the staff. 

Cleft. See under Cleave. 

Clematis, klenT'a-tis, ?i. A ge- „ „, ,. „ „, 
nusof climbing plants. "^ L/iet. a <^lei. 

Clement, klem'^ent, a. aiild in . " Clef. 

temper and disposition; lenient; tender; indulgent. 

— Clem''ency, -sT, 71. Quality of being, etc. 
Clench. See Clinch. 

Clerestory. See under Clear. 

Clergy, kler''jT, n. The body of ecclesiastics, as disting. 
fr. the laity; in Eng., ministers of the establisheVl 

church ; benefit of clergy. — Bem'fit of clergi/. 
{Eng. Laio.) Exemption of clergymen from crim- 
inal process before a secular judge — once ex- 
tended to all who could read, but now abolished. 

— Cler'gyable, a. Entitled to, or admitting, the 
benefit of clergy.— Cler'gyman, ?».; ;jZ. -men. An 
ordained minister. — Cleric, kler'ik, n. A clerk, or 
clergyman. — dermic, -leal, a. Pert, to the clergy; 
also to a clerk or copyist. — Cler'icallsm, -izm, n. 
Clerical domination or influence. —Clerk, klerk, w. 
Orig., an educated person; scholar; in Eng., a lay 
parish officer, who leads in reading the responses o'f 
the Episcopal church service, and otherwise assists 
in it; a scribe; penman; accountant; an assistant in 
a shop or store, who sells goods, keeps accounts, etc. 
[Pron. Mark in England.] — Clerk^ly, a. Scholar- 
like. — Clerk'^sliip, n. Condition or business of, etc. 

Clever, klev'er, a. Possessing skill, talent, or adroit- 
ness; showing skill in the doer; having iitness, pro- 
priety, etc.; well-shaped, handsome, good-natured, 
kind-hearted, [^mer.] — Clev'erly, adv. — Clev'er- 
ness, n. 

Clevis, klev'is, Clevy, klev'r, n. A draft- , 
iron on the end of a cart-tongue or plow- 

Clew, Clue, klu, n. A ball of thread; thread j 
used as a guide in a labyrinth; that which p, 
guides one in anything doubtful or iiitri- *^J-S'^s. 
cate. {Naut.) The outer lower corner of a sail. — 
V. t. [clewed (klud), clewing.] {Naut.) To draw 
Lip to the yard, as a sail. To direct, as by a thread. 

Click, klik, v. i. [clicked (klikt), clicking.] Tc 
make a small, sharp noise, as by gentle striking; tu 
tick. — n. A small, sharp sound; a peculiar articu- 
lation used by natives of Southern Africa, —n. A 
small piece of iron, falling into a notched wheel; a 
detent; pawl. 

Client, kli''ent, n. {Rom. Aniiq.) A citizen under the 
protection of a patron. A dependent; one who aiJ- 
plies to a lawyer for advice, direction, etc., in a 
question of law. 

Cliif, klif, n. A high, steep rock; precipice. 

Climacteric. See under Climax. 

Climate, kli'mat, ?i. {Anc. Geog.) Oneof 30 zonesof 
the earth, parallel to the equator. Condition of a 
place in relation to temperature, moisture, etc. — 
Climat'^ic, -ical, a. Pert, to, or limited by climate. 

— Cli''matize, -tiz, v. t. [-tized (-tizd), -tizing.] To 
acclimate. — v. i. To become acclimated. — Clima- 
tology, -jT, n. Science of, or a treatise on, climates. 

Climax, kli'maks, n. {Rhet.) An arrangement in 
which a sentence rises, as it step by step, in impor- 
tance, force, or dignity. The highest point. — Cli- 
macteric, kli-mak'ter-ik or klim-ak-tgr''ik, a. Pert, 
to a critical period of life. — n. A critical period in 
human life, or one in which change is supposed to 
take place in the constitution; any critical period. 

— Grand or great climacteric. The 6-jd year. 
Climb, klim, v. i. ort. [climbed (klimd) or {ohs. or vul- 

gar) clomb (kl5m), climbing.] To ascend by means 
of hands and feet; to mount laboriously or slowly. 

Clime, klim, n. Same as Climate. 

Clinch, klinch, Clench, v. t. [clinched (klincht), 
clinching.] To make or hold fast, grasp, gripe; 
to render firm, confirm, establish. — n. Act or pro- 
cess of, etc.; or that which serves to hold fast; a 
pun. {Naut.) A kind of knot and seizings to fasten 
a cable or gun to ring-bolts. 

Cling, kling, v. i. [clung, clinging.] To adhere 
closely, hold fast, esp. by winding round or em- 
bracing. — V. t. To cause to adhere to. 

Clinic, klin'^ik, -ical, o. Pert, to abed; confined to 
bed by illness ; bed-rislden. — Clin^ic, n. One con- 
fined, etc. — Clinique, -ek'', n. An examination of 
diseased persons by medical professors in presence 
of their pupils. [F.] 

Clink, klink, j;. t [clinked (klinkt), clinking.] To 
make a small, sharp, ringing sound. — n. A ring- 
ing sound. — Clink'' er,n. Several bricks united by 
heat; scoria, or refuse of a furnace; vitrified mat- 
ter ejected from a volcano. 

Clip, kilip, V. t. [clipped (klipt), clipping.] Ori"., 
to embrace, encompass; to cut off, as with a single 
stroke; to curtail,- cut short. — v. i. To move swift 
ly. — n. An embrace; a cutting; shearing; product 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; end, eve, term ; tn, ice ; 6dd, tone, 6r ; 




of a siny:le shearing; a blow or stroke with the hand. 

— Clip'per, n. One who clips; csp. who cuts ott 
edges of coin. {Xaut.) A fust-sailing vessel, hav- 
ing the bow sharp and long. — Clip'ping, n. Act 
of embracing, cutting off, or curtailing ; thing 
clipped off. 

Clique, klek, w. A narrow circle of persons; coterie. 

Cloak, klok, n. A loose, outer garment; a disguise or 
pretext. — !-•. (. [cloaked (klokt), cloakixg.] To 
cover with a cloak; to hide or conceal. 

Clock, klok, n. An instrument for measuring time. 

Clod, klod, n. A lump or mass, esp. of earth, turf, or 
clay; the ground, earth; the body as compared with 
the soul; a dull, stupid fellow; a dolt. — v.i. To 
collect into concretions ; to clot. — v. t. To pelt 
with clods. 

Clog, klog, V. t. [CLOGGED (klogd), CLOGGiXG.] To en- 
cumber, or load, esp. with something tkat sticks fast; 
to obstruct so as to hinder motion, choke up, em- 
barrass, impede, hamper. — v. i. To become loaded 
or encumbered; to coalesce or adhere. — n. That 
which hinders motion; an embarrassment; a heavy 
shoe; wooden shoe. 

Cloister, klois'ter, n. A covered arcade; a monastic 
establisliment. — v. t. [cloisteked (-terd), -tee- 
ixo.] To confine in a cloister. — Clois'tral, Claus''- 
tral, klaws'tral, a. Pert, to, or confined in, etc. — 
Clois'terer, n. An inmate of, etc. 

Cloke. See Cloak. 

Close, kloz, V. t. [closed (klozd), closing.] To 
bring together the parts of ; to stop, shut; to bring 
to an end, conclude; to inclose, encompass, confine. 

— V. i. To come together, unite or coalesce; to end, 
terminate. — n. Union of parts; junction; terminal 
tion; end; a grapple in wrestling. {Mus.) End —n 
of a strain of music; cadence. An inclosed —W 
place; esp. a field or piece of land; a passage T] 
from a street to a court, and the houses witn- JJ 
in ; the precinct of a cathedral or abbey. — pi„s.p 
Clo'sure, -zhur, n. Act of shutting ; a clos-^ °^' 
ing; that wliich shuts, incloses, or confines; end; 
conclusion. — To close ivith. To accede, consent, or 
agree; to grapple with. — Close, klos, a. Shut fast; 
closed; tignt: pent up; confined; secret; stagnant; 
without motion or ventilation; secretive; reticent; 
parsimonious ; niggardly ; dense ; solid ; compact; 
adjoining; near; intiniate; confidential; adhering 
to rule; strict; accurate; precise; evenly balanced; 
doubtful. — adv. In a close manner. — Clos'et, 
kloz'et, n. A room for retirement or privacy; a 
small, close apartment, for utensils, articles of fur- 
niture, etc. — I', t. To shut up in a closet ; to take 
into a private room for consultation. 

Clot, klot, n. A concretion, esp. of a soft, slimy char- 
acter; a coagulation. — v.i. To concrete or coagu- 
late; to be formed into clots or clods; to become 

Cloth, kloth, n. A woven stuff of fibrous material; a 
profession, or the members of it, esp. the clerical 
profession. — Clothe, kloth, r. t. [clothed (klotlid) 
Of clad, CLOTHIXG.] To put garments upon, fur- 
nish with raiment ; to cover or invest, as with a 
garment. — v. i. To wear clothes. — Cloth'ing, n. 
Raiment: covering. — Cloth'ier, -yEr, «. One who 
makes, sells, dresses, or fulls cloth. 

Cload, klowd, n. A collection of visible vapor sus- 
pended in the atmosphere; a mass of smoke or dust 
resembling vapor; a dark vein or spot in marble, 
etc.; that which has a lowering or threatening as- 
pect; a great crowd or multitude. — v. t. To be 
overspread with clouds; to render dark or obscure; 
to variegate with colors. — v. i. To grow cloudy or 
obscure. — Cloud'y, -T, a. Overcast or obscured 
with, or consisting of, clouds ; lacking clearness ; 
not easily understood ; having the appearance of 
gloom ; marked with veins or spots. — Cloud'ily, 
-T-lt, nr/r. — Cloud 'iness, n. — Cloud'less, a. Un- 

Clout, klowt, n. A piece of cloth, leather, etc., for a 
patch; the center of an archer's butt; an iron plate 
on an axletree. — v. t. To cover with cloth or other 
material; to patcli, join in a clumsy manner ; to 
guard with an iron plate. 

Clove, klov, n. A pungent aromatic spice, the unex- 
panded flower-bud of the clove tree. 

Clove, klov, n. (Bot.) One of the small bulbs devel. 
oped in the axils of the scales of a large bulb. 

Clover, klo'ver, «. {Hot.) A plant of the grass kind. 

Clown, klown, 7t. A husbandman; rustic; an ill-bred 
man ; the fool in a play, circus, etc. — v. i. To act 
as a clown. — Clown'ish, a. Like, etc.: ungainly; 
boorish. — Clown^ishly, adv. — Clown 'ishness, n. 

Cloy, kloi, t'. /. [cloyed (kloid), CLOYING.] To glut, 
or satisfy, satiate, surfeit. 

Club, klub, n. A heavy staff, -wielded with the hand; 
one of the suits of cards, having a figure like the 
clover-leaf. — r. ^ To strike with a club. — Club'- 
foot, n. A short, deformed foot. 

Club, klub, 71. An association of persons for some 
common object, at joint expense. — v. i. and t. To 
combine to promote some conunon object; to pa}' 
one's proportion of a common expense. 

Cluck, kluk, V. i. [clucked (klukt), clicking.] To 
make the noise of a brooding hen. — v. t. To call, as- 
a hen does her chickens. — n. (I'roti.) A peculiar 
articulation used by natives of South Africa. 

Clue. Same as Clew.~ 

Clump, klump, n. A shapeless mass of wood, etc.: a 
cluster of trees; the compressed clay of coal strata. 

Clumsy, klunT'zt, a. Without grace of shape, man- 
ners, etc.; awkward; uncouth. 

Clung. See Cling. 

Cluster, klus'ter, n. A number of similar things 
growing, joined, or collected together; a crowd. — 
V. i. [clustered (-terd), -tering.] To grow in 
clusters, gather in a bunch or mass. — v. t. To col- 
lect into a bunch or close body. 

Clutch, kluch, V. t. [clutched (klucht), clutching.I 
■To seize, clasp, or gripe 
with the hand ; to close 
tightly, clinch. — v.i. To 
catch, snatch. — n. A- 
gripe ; seizure; grasp.' 
ilfacli.') A projecting 
piece, for connecting 
shafts, so as to be disen- 
gaged at pleasure ; the 
aross-head of a piston-rod. 
pi. The hands ; hence, power ; rapacity. 

Clutter, klufter, ?i. A confused collection; confu- 
sion; disorder. — I', t. [cluttered (-terd), -teking.} 
To crowd together in disorder, fill with things in 
confusion. — v. i. Ta make a bustle, or fill with 

Clyster, klis'^ter, n. {Med.) An injection into the 

Coach, koch, n. A large, close, four-wheeled carriage. 
— v.t. To convey m a coach; to cram, or prepare 
for an examination. 

Coadjutor, ko-ad-ju'^ter, n. One who aids another, or 
is empowered to perform the duties of another; as- 
sistant ; co-worker. — Coactju'trix, n. A feTuale as- 
sistant. — Coad^jutant, a. Mutually assisting. 

Coagent, ko-a^jent, n. An assistant or associate. 

Coagulate, ko-ag'u-lat, v. t. To cause to change intO' 
a curd-like state, — said of liquids. — v.i. To un- 
dergo coagulation, thicken, curdle. 

Coal, Kol, n. Wood charred, or partially burnt; char- 
coal. (3Jin.) A black, solid, combustible substance,, 
consisting mainly of carbon, used for iuel. — v. t. 
[coaled (kold), coaling.] To burn to coal, char; 
to mark with charcoal; to supply with coal. — v.i. 
To take in coal, — said of steani-ves^els. — Coal'- 
ery, -er-T, Colliery, koKyer-1, n. A place where coal 
is dug. — Coll'ier, -j'er, n. A digger of, or dealer in, 
coal; a vessel for transporting coal. — CoaKy, -T, o. 
Pert, to or containing coal. — Colly, kOKl, ??. Black, 
grime or soot of coal or burnt wood. — v. t. [col- 
LiED (koKid), -lying.] To render black. 

Coalesce, ko'a-les', v. i. [coalesced (-lest''), coa- 
lescing.] To grow together: unite into one massr 
unite in society'. — Coalition, -lish-'un, ?i. Union in 
a body or mass; a temi)orafy combination of per- 
sons, parties, states, etc., having different interests;- 
confederacy; coinbination: consjiiracy. 

Coamings, Combings, kom'ingz, ?;./<?. (N'aut.') The 
raised borders or edges of the hatches. 

Coaptate, ko-ap''tat, v. t. To adjust, as parts to each 
other, — esp. (Surr/.) to adjust the parts of a broken 
bone. — Coaptation, -ta''shun, n. Adaptation of, etc. 


stin, cube, full ; moon, f(56t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, tlien, boxboN, chair, get. 




Coarse, kors, a. Large in bulk, or composed of large 
parts; not refined or nice; gross; rougn; indelicate. 

— Coarse'ly, -IT, adv. — CoarsCness, 7i. 

■Coast, kost, w. Orig. the exterior line, or border of a 
country; edge of the land next to the sea; sea-shore. 

— V. i. To approach; to sail by or near a coast; to 
sail from port to port in the same country; to slide 
down a hill on a sled, upon snow or ice. — Coast'er, 
n. A person or vessel tnat sails along a coast trad- 
ing from port to port. — Coast'-line, n. Outline 
of a coast; shore line. — Coast'wise, ac/n. Byway 
of, or along, the coast. 

■Coat, kot, n. A man's outer garment ; the habit or 
vesture of an order of men ; an external covering, 
as fur or hair of a beast ; a layer of any substance 
covering another ; a tegument ; that on which en- 
signs armorial are portrayed. — v. t. ' To cover with 
a coat. — Coat of arms. (Her.) A habit worn by 
knights over armor : an armorial device. 

•Coax, koks, V. t. [COAXED (kokst), coaxing.] To 
persuade by insinuating courtesy, flattery, or fond- 
ling; to wheedle, fawn. 

'Cob, kob, n. The top or head ; hence, that which is 
large, round, etc. ; a person at the top, or distin- 
guished ; a rich, covetous person ; a lump or piece, 
as of stone; a spider ; a short-legged and stout vari- 
ety of horse ; trie spike on which grains of maize 
frow. — Cob'ble, C. stone, Cob'^stone, n. A rounded 
ragment, as of coal, stone, etc. — Cob'nut, n. A 
large nut; a child's game played with nuts, also the 
nut winning the game. — Cob'web, n. A spider's 
net ; a snare or device. — v. t. To cover with, or as 
with, cobwebs. 

'Cobalt, ko'^bawlt, n. A reddish-gray metal, brittle, 
and difficult of fusion : its oxides are used in glass 
manufacture to produce the blue varieties called 

-Cobble, kob''bl, n. A fishing-boat. See Coble. —A 
stone. See under Cob. 

■Cobble, kob'bl. v. t. [cobbled (-bid), cobbling.] 
To make or mend coarsely, as shoes; to do bun- 
glingly. — Cob'bler, ?i. A mender of shoes; a clumsy 
workman ; a beverage composed of wine, sugar, 
lemon, and broken ice. 

•Coble, kob'l, iu A boat used in herring fisherv. 

-Cobra de capello, ko'^bra-da-ka-peKlo. The nooded 
snake, a venomous^ reptile of the East Indies. 

•Cochineal, koch''I-nel, n. A plant-louse found upon 
the Mexican cactus; the dried insects used as a scar- 
let dye-stuff, from which carmine is made. 

•Cochlea, kok'le-a, n. (Aiiat.) The spiral cavity of the 
internal ear. 

•Cock, kok, n. The male of birds, esp. of domestic 
fowls ; a vane shaped like a fowl, weathercock ; a 
chief man, leader ; an instrument to let out liquor 
from a cask, spout. — Cockade, -ad', w. A rosette er 
knot of ribbons, etc., on the hat. — Cock'atoo', n. 
A bird of the parrot kind, having a crest of feathers 
which it can raise or depress. — Cock'atrice, -tris, 
n. The basilisk : a fabulous serpent, hatched by a 
serpent from a cock's egg, and whose breath or 
look was fatal.— Cock''crow, -crowding, n. The time 
at which cocks crow ; early morning. — Cock^'er, n. 
One who follows cockfighting; a dog of the spaniel 
kind, used for starting up woodcocks, etc. — Cock"'- 
erel, n. A young cock. — Cock'flght, -fight'ing, 
-match, n. A contest of game-cocks. — loft, n. 
The top-loft ; upper room. — pit, n. An area where 
game-cocks fight. [See also under Cockboat.] — 
Cocks'^comb, -kom, n. The caruncle or comb of 
a cock. (Bat.) A plant of different genera. A 
vain, silly fellow ; a fop. — Cock'^spur, ?i. The spur 
on a cock's leg. (Bat.) A variety of hawthorn. 

■Cock, kok, 71. A pile of hay.— w. L [cocked (kokt), 
cocking.] To set up in piles. 

Cock, kok, n. Act of turning or setting up ; thing set 
up; the gnomon or style of a dial. — v. t. To set 
erect, turn up ; to place upon the head jauntily. 

— Cock'eye, ». A squinting ej^e. 

•Cock, kok, n. Tfie hammer of a gun-lock. — v. t. To 
draw back the cock, in order to fire. — Cock''- 
feather, n. (Arch.) The feather above the notch, 
when the arrow is fitted to the string. 

Cock, Cockboat, kok'bSt, n. A ship's small boat. 

— Cock'bill, n. (Naut.) Position of the anchor. 

Cocoa tree. 
(IcAtk.) A 

when suspended from the cat-head, ready to drop- 

pit, n. A room under the lower gun-deck, used 

for the wounded during action. — Cockswain, kok'- 
sn, w. The person who steers a boat. 

Cockchafer, kok-'chaf-er, ?(. (Entom.) The May-bug 
or dor-beetle. — Cock^roach, -roch, n. An insect 
of several species, infesting houses, ships, etc. 

Cocker, kok'er, v. t. [cockered (-erd), -eking.] To 
treat with tenderness, fondle, pamper. 

Cockle, kok'l, n. (Bat.) A weed that grows among 
corn, corn-rose ; the darnel. — (Conch.) A bivalve 
shell fish having a corrugated 
shell. — V. t. To contract into 
wrinkles, like ridges of the cockle- 
shell. — V. i. To take the form of 

Cockney, kok-'nT, n. ; pi. -neys, -niz. 
An eifeminate person; a resident of 
London. — a. Pert, to or like, etc. 

Cocoa, ko'ko, n. (Bat.) A palm tree 
producing the cocoa-nut. A prepa- 
ration made from cacao seeds ; a 
beverage made from it. — Cocoa 
shells. The dried husks of cacao 
seeds. _ 

Cocoon, ko-koon'', n. An oblong case 
which contains the silkworm in its 
chrysalis state; the case constructed 
by an insect to contain its larve. 

Cod, kod, n. A husk or envelope con- 
taining seeds ; a pod ; the scrotum, 
fish inhabiting the northern 
seas. — Coddling, n. A young 
cod. — Cod'liver oil. A fixed 
oil obtained from livers of 
the cod, very nutrient, and 
used medicinally for rheuma- Cod. 

tism, skin diseases, pulmonary consumption, etc. 

Coddle, kod'dl, v. t. [-dled (-did;, -dling.] To par- 

. boil ; _to treat tenderly. 

Code, kod, n. A collection, system, or digest of laws.— 
Comdex, n. ; pi. Codices, kod''I-sez. A manuscript; 
book; code. — Cod'ify, -fi, v. t. [-fied (-fid), -ey- 
ing.] To reduce to a code or digest, as laws. — 
Cod'ifica'tion, n. Act of, etc. — Cod'icil, -I-sil, «. 
A supplement to a will. 

Codger, kod'jer, n. A mean person ; curmudgeon ; 
odd old person. 

Coe£B.cient, ko-ef-fish''ent, a. Cooperating ; acting 
in union to the same end. — n. That which unites, 
etc. (Math.) A known quantity put before letters 
or quantities, to show how often to take them. 

Coequal, ko-e''kwal, a. Equal with another ; of the 
same rank, dignity, or power. — n. One who is, etc. 

— Coequality, -kwoKT-tT, n. State of being, etc. 
Coerce, ko-ers', v. t. [coerced (-erst'), coercing.] 

To restrain by force, constrain, repress, compel. 

— Coercion, -er'shun, n. Act or process of, etc.; re- 
straint.— Coer^cive, -siv, a. Compelling, or able to 
compel ; compulsory. 

Coeternal, ko-e-ter'nal, a. Equally eternal. — Co- 
eter'nity, -tt, n. Equal eternity with another. 

Coeval, ko-e'val, a. Of equal age. — n. One of the 
same age. 

Coexist, ko-egz-isf, v. i. To exist at the same time. 

— Coexist'ence, n. Existence at the same time with 
another. — Coexisfent, a. Existing, etc. 

Coextend, ko-eks-tend', v. t. To extend through the 

same space with another. — Coexten'sion, -shun, n. 

Equal extension. — Coexten'sive, -siv, a. 
Coffee, kof'fe, n. The berries of a tree growing in 

warm climates of Asia and 

America ; a drink fnade from 

the roasted berry, by decoc- ^ 

tion. — Coffee-house, n. A /© 

house for the sale of coffee and 

other refreshments. null, n. ^ 

A mill for grinding coffee.— 

-pot, n. A covered pot in 

which coffee is boiled, or 

brought upon the table. 
Coffer, kof'fer, n. A chest, esp. mffpp 

for money. (Arch.) A sunken ^oiiee. 

panel. (Fort.) A hollow work across a dry moat, 

serving as a parapet with embrasures. A lock to re- 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; end, eve, term ; TCn, ice ; Odd, t5ne, 6r ; 




ceive a barge. — v. t. [coffered (-ferd), -fering.] 
To place in a coffer. — Coffer dam. {Engin.) A 
box of timber, to exclude water while constructing 
piers, etc. 

Coffin, kof'fin, n. The case in which a bodv is 
inclosed for burial. {Far.) The hollow part of a 
horse's hoof. (Print.) A wooden frame inclosing 
the stone on which forms are imposed. — v. t. [cof- 
FINED (-find), -FINING.] To put into, etc.— Cof- 
fin-bone, n. {Far.) A horse's foot-bone inclosed 
within the hoof. 

Cog. kog, r. «. andt. [cogged (kogd), cogging.] To 
wheedle, deceive ; to thrust in, by deception. — n. 
A tooth on a wheel, transrnitting motion. 

Cogent, ko'jent, a. Having great force; pressing on 
the mind; not easily resisted; convincing. 

Cogitate, koj'T-tat, v. i. To engage in continuous 
thought, reflect. — Cogita'tion, n. Act of thinking; 
meditation; contemplation. 

Cognac, kon^'yak, «. A brandy formerly made at 
Cognac, France. [Written improp. Cogniac] 

Cognate, kog'nat, a. Allied by blood or birth; kin- 
dred in ongin, formation, etc. — n. (Latv.) One 
connected with another bv kindred; one related to 
another on the female side; one of several things 
allied in origin. 

Cognize, kog'^niz, v. t. To recognize, perceive. — 
Cog'nizance, kog'- or kon't-zans, ii. Knowledge or 
notice; observation; recognition; judicial knowl- 
edge or jurisdiction. (Law.) An acknowledgment 
or confession. A badge, to indicate the party to 
which one belongs. — Cognizant, kog''^ or kon''I- 
zant, a. Having knowledge of. 

Cognomen, kog-no'men, n. A surname; the last of 
the 3 names of an ancient Koman, denoting his 

Cohabit, ko-hab'it, v.' i. Orig., to dwell with, or in- 
habit the same place or country; to live together as 
husband and wife. 

Co-heir, ko-ar', n. A joint heir.— Co-heiress, ko-ar'es, 
n. A joint_heiress. 

Cohere, ko-her'', v. i. [cohered (-herd''), cohering.] 
To stick together; to follow regularly in the natural 
order 5 to cleave, fit. — Coher'ence, -ens, -ency, -sT, 
n. A sticking together: suitable connection; consist- 
ency. — Coher'ent, a. Sticking together; connected 
bv some relation of form, order, etc.: consistent. — 
Coher^'ently, ac/i'. — Coherer, ko-her'er,r?. (Elec.) A 
device, used in wireless telegraphy, for detecting the 
presence of electric waves. It usually consists^of a 
number of small conducting particles,'as metallic fil- 
ings, inclosedin aglass tube and forming a connec- 
tion between two electrodes. — Cohe'sion, -zhun, n. 
Actof sticking together; attraction by which particles 
of liomogeneous bodies unite ; a state of connection or 
dependence. — Cohe'sive, -siv, a. Having the power 
of cohering. — Cohe'siveness, n. 

Cohort, ko'hort, w. (Rom. Antiq.) A body of about 
500 or 600 soldiers. Any band of warriors. 

Coigne, koin, Quoin, koin or kwoin, n. A comer or 
external angle; corner-stone; a wedge. 

Coil, koil, w. ^ [coiled (koild), coiling.] To wind 
in rings, as a rope. — n. Rings formed by winding. 

Coin, koin, n.' A corner or external angle; a wedge 
to raise, lower, fasten, or level anything, as a can- 
non, printer's form, etc.; a piece of metal stamped 
with characters, making illegally current as money; 
that which serves for payment or recompense. — v. t. 
[coined (koind), coining.] To stamp and convert 
into money, mint, fabricate.— Coin''age, -ej, n. Act 
of coining; money coined; expense of coining; act 
or process of forming ; invention ; fabrication. — 
Coin'er, w. One who makes coin; aminter; coun- 
terfeiter; inventor or maker. 

Coincide, ko'in-sTd, v. i. To fall together, aeree in 
position, correspond, be identical. — Coincid'er, n. 
— Coin'cidence, -st-dens, n. Act or condition of 
falling together; agreement or concurrence, esp. of 
events at the same time. — Coin^cident, a. Having 
coincidence; agreeing. 

Coir, kwoir, n. Cocoa-nut fiber for matting, ropes, etc. 

Coition, ko-ish'un, n. Sexual intercourse; copulation. 

Coke, kok, 71. Mineral coal charred, or deprived by fire 
of volatile matter.- v. t. [coked (kokt), coking.] 
To convert into coke. 

Colander, kuKen-dfr, n. A vessel with a perforated 
bottom for straining liquids. 

ColcMcum, koKkT-kum, n. A genus of plants, inclu- 
ding the meadow saffron, whose bulbs are used me- 
dicinally for gout and rheumatism. [L.] 

Cold, kola, a. Destitute of warmth, physical or moral;, 
bleak; chill; indifferent; spiritless; reserved. — n. 
Absence of warmth; sensation produced by escape- 
of heat; chilliness. (Med.) A morbid state of tne 
animal system produced by cold; catarrh. — Cold'- 
blood'ed,"-blud'ed, a. Having cold blood; without 
sensibility; hard-hearted; not thoroughbred, — said 

of animals. chis^el, n. A hard chisel for cutting" 

cold metal. — short, o. Brittle when cold. — sore,. 
n. (Pathol.) A herpetic eruption, about lips or nos- 
trils, attending catarrhal inflammation. 

Cole, kol, n. A plant of the cabbage family; esp. the- 
species called also rape, which does not" head like 
the cabbage. — Cole'wort, -wert. n. Cabbage cut 
young, before the head is firm. 

Coleus, ko'le-us, n. A plant of the mint family, hav- 
ing variegated leaves. — Coleop'teral. -terous, -op'- 
ter-us, a. Having wings covered with a case or 
sheath, as beetles. " 

Colic, koKik, 71. (Med.) Acute pain in the bowels,, 
growing more severe at intervals. 

Coliseum. Same as Colosseum. 

Collaborator, kol-lab^o-ra'ter, n. An associate in 
labor, esp. literary or scientific; co-worker; assistant. 

Collapse, kol-laps', v. i. [-lapsed (-lapsf), -lapsing.] 
To fall together suddenly, shrink up. — n. A falling 
together, as of the sides of a hollow vessel. (Med^- 
A sudden failing of the vital powers. 

Collar, koKlar, n. Something worn round the neck, 
(Arch.) A ring or cincture; astragal of a column. 
(Mech.) A ring-like part of a machine, for holding- 
something to its place. (Naitt.) An eye in the bight 
of a shroud, to go over the mast head. — r. t. [col- 
lared (-lard), -laring.] To seize by the collar, 
put a collar on. — CoKlar-beam, n. (Arch.) A 
horizontal piece of timber bracing two opposite raf- 
ters. — bone, 7!. (Anat.) The clavicle, a bone joining 
the breast-bone and shoulder-blade. 

CoUate, kol-lat', v. t. To compare critically; to gather 
and place in order, as sheets of a book for binding.. 
(^Eccl.) To present and institute in a benefice. — v, 
I. (Eccl.) To place in a benefice, as by a bishop. 
— Collation, -la'' shun, n. Act of bringing together 
and comparing; act of bestowin":. (Eccl. Law.) Pre- 
sentation to a benefice bv a bishop. An unceremo- 
nious repast or lunch. — CoUa'tive, -tiv, a. Passing 
or held by collation. — Colla''tor, -ter, w. One who 
collates manuscripts or books. (Eccl. Law.) One 
who collates to a benefi.ce. 

Collateral, kol-lafer-al, a. On the side of; subordi- 
nately connected; indirect. (Genealogy.) Descend- 
ing from the same ancestor, but not one from the 
other. — n. A collateral relation; security given in 
addition to a principal promise or bond. 

Colleague, koKleg, n. One united with another in the 
discharge of some duty; partner; associate. — v.t.ov 
i. To unite with in the same office. 

Collect, kol-lekf, r. t. To gather into one body or 
place, bring toeether; to infer as a consequence, de- 
duce. — V. i. To be assembled together, accumu- 
late; to infer, conclude. — CoUecfible, -T-bl, a. Ca- 
fiable of being gathered or inferred. — Collect, koK- 
ekt, 77. A short, comprehensive prayer.— Collecta'- 
nea, -ne-a, n. pi. Passages selected from various 
authors: anthology; chrestomathv. [L.] — CoUecta'- 
neous. -ne-us, a. "Gathered; collected. — Collection, 
-lek'shun, n. Act of collecting; thing gathered; 
contribution; assemblage; crowd; mass; compila- 
tion ; selection. — Collective, -iv, a. Formed by 
gathering; gathered into a mass, sum, or body; de- 
ducing consequences. (Gram.) Expressing an ag- 
gregate of individuals. Tending to collect. — Col- 
lect'ively, a(/r. In a body; unitedly. — Collect' or, 
-er, n. One who collects or gathers. (Cojii.) An. 
oflficer who receives customs, taxes, or toll. — Col— 
lecforship, -orate, n. Office or jurisdiction of, etc- 

College, kol'lej, n. A collection or society of men; a. 
society of scholars incorporated for study or instruc- 
tion; an establishment for students acquiring lan- 
I guages and science. 

siin, cube, f 1^ ; moon, fd&t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, tiien, boNboK, chair, get. 




Collide, kol-l!d'', v. i. To strike or dash together. — 
CoUison, -lizh-'un, h. Act of, etc. ; a state of op- 
position ; in- 
terf e r c n c e ; 

Collie, Colly, 
koKII, n. A 
Scotch shep- 
herd's dog. 

Collier, Col- 
liery. See un- 
der Coal. 

kol - lik ' we- 
fak'.shun, n. 
A melting to- 
gether of bod- 

Collocate, koK- 
lo-kat, V. t. To 
set or place; 
station. — Col- 
loca''tion, n. 
Act of pla- 
cing ; state of 
being placed, 
e s p . with 

Collodion, kol- Colossus of Rhodes, 

lo'dl-un, n. ( Chem.) An adhesive solution of gun- 
cotton in ether and alcohol, used to close wounds, 
and in photography. 

Collop, koKlop, n. A slice of meat; piece of anything. 

Colloquy, koKlo-kwT, n. Mutual discourse; confer- 
ence ; dialogue. — Collo''quial, a. Pert, to, or used 
in, common conversation. — Collo''quialism, -izm, ?i. 
A common form of expression. — Col'loquist, -kwist, 
n. Speaker in a conversation. 

Collude, kol-lud', v. i. To conspire in a fraud, act in 
concert. — Collu'sion, -zhun, n. Secret agreement 
and cooperation for fraud ; deceit ; connivance. — 
CoHu'sive, -siv, a. Fraudulently concerted. 

Colocynth, koKo-siuth. n. {Med.) The coloquintida, 
or bitter apple ; the pith of a species of cucumber, — 
a strong cathartic. 

Cologae, KO-lon', n. A toilet liquid, composed of al- 
cohol and aromatic oils, — orig. made in Cologne. 

Colon, ko'lon, n. (Anat.) The largest of the large 
intestines. (Gram.) A point [:] marking a pause 
greater than a semicolon, less than a period. [Gr.] 

Colonel, ker''nel, n. {Mil.) The chief commander of 
a regiment. 

Colonnade, koKon-nad', n. {Arch.) A series of col- 
umns placed at regular intervals. 

Colony, koKo-nT, n. A company of people in a re-' 
mote country, and subject to the parent state ; the 
country colonized. — Colo'nial, a. Pert, to, etc. — 
Col-'onist, n. A member of, etc. — CoKonize, v. t. 
[-iriZED (-nizd), -yizi>"G.] To plant a colony in ; to 
people by colonies. — r. i. To settle in a distant 
country. — Col'onizer. n. — CoFoniza'tion, n. Act 
of, or state of being, etc. — CoFoniza'tionist, n. An 
advocate of, etcl esp. of colonizing Africa by 
negro emigrant^s from America. 

Coloquintida. Same as Colocyxtii. 

Color. kuKer, n. A property of light causing the eye 
to distin^\iish differences in the appearance of ob- 
jects ; a hue or tint as distinguished from white: 
that used to give color: paint: pigments: false show; 
pretense. {Phren.) The organ indicating percep- 
tion of color. See Phrexology. pi. A ilag, ensign, 
or standard. — r. i. [colored (kuKerd), -oring.] 
To change the hue of ; to give color to, dye, tinge, 
paint, stain ; to give a specious appearance to, palli- 
ate, excuse. — v. i. To turn red, blush. — Col'ora- 
"ble, a. Designed to cover or conceal ; specious ; 
plausible. — CoKorature, n. {Mas.) A variation or 
shading of notes for harmony. — Col'ored, -erd, a. 
Having color or plausible appearance. — Colored 
■people. Persons of negro descent. — Colorif'ic, a. 
Communicating or producing color. — CoKorist, n. 
A painter skilled in coloring. — CoKorless, a. Des- 
titute of color. — Colorim''eter, n. An instrument 
for measuring the depth of color, esp. in liquids. 

— CoKor-blindness, n. Imperfect perception of col- 
ors ; Daltonism. 

Colorado beetle, kol-o-ra'do-be'tl. The potato-bug, — 
a destructive yellow beetle, orig. fr. Colorado. 

Colossus, ko-los'sus, n. ; L. pi. -sr, -si ; E. pi. -suses, 
-ez. A gigantic statue ; esp. that at the entrance of 
the harbor at Rhodes. — Colos'^sal, -se'an, a. Gigan- 
tic. — GoloBse'^um, ?i. Vespasian's amphitheater in 
Rome. [Also written Coliseuin.'] 

Colporteur, kol-por-ter', CoKporter, n. One who ped- 
dles religious tracts and books. — CoKstaff, ?i. A 
stafE for carrying burdens on two persons' shoul- 
ders. _ 

Colt, kolt, n. The young of the horse kind ; a young, 
foolish fellow.— Colt's'foot, n. A plant whose leaves 
were once used medicinally. 

Colter, Coulter, kol'ter, n. The sharp fore iron of a 
plow, to cut the sod. 

Column, koKum, n. {Arch.) A cylindrical 
support for a roof, ceiling, etc., composed 
of base, shaft, and capital ; a pillar. {Mil.) 
A body of troops in files with a narrow 
front. {Xaut.) A body of ships in line, so 
as to follow in succession. (Print.) Figures, 
words, or lines set perpendicularly one 
above another. — Colum-'nar, a. Formed in ■ 
or Uke, etc. — Columella, -la, M. (Bot.) An Colter, 
axis, supporting the carpels of some fruits ; the 
stem in mosses, which is the axis of the capsule. 

Colza, koKza, 71. A variety of cabbage whose seeds 
afford an oil used in lamps. 

Coma, ko''ma, H. (Med.) Morbid propensity to sleep; 
lethargy. — Co'matose, -<■"= -+"«=! -t^o « r>,.^-r.TCT-. 

bid pre _ 
-tons, -tus, a. 

. tos, -tons, -tus, a. Drowsy; 

Comb, kom, n. An instrument with teeth, for adjust- 
ing hair, wool, etc. ; the crest on a cock's head ; the 
top, or crest of a wave ; the structure of wax in 
which bees store honey. — v. t. [combed (komd), 
COMBIXG.] To separate, disentangle, cleanse, ad- 
just, or lay straight. — v. i. (A'aui.) To roll over, as 
the top of a wave ; to break with white foam. 

Combat, koiiT'bat or kum''bat, v. i. To struggle or 
contend, as with an opposing force. — v. t. To fight 
with, oppose by force, resist, oppose. — n. A strug- 
gle to resist or conquer. (Mil.) An engagement; 
conflict; encounter. — Com'batant, a. Contending; 
disposed to contend. — n. One who, etc.; a cham- 
pion. — Com''bater, n. — Com^bative, -iv, a. In- 
clined to, etc. — Com''bativeness, ?i. Disposition to, 
etc. (Phren.) The organ indicating it. See Phre- 

Combine, kom-bin', v. t. [-bixed (-bind''), -bixixg.] 
To unite or join. — v. i. To form a union, confeder- 
ate; to unite by affinity. — Combin^able, a. Capable 
of, etc. — Combina''ti6n, n. Union or connection; 
coalition : conspiracy. (Math.) Variation of any 
number of quantities in all possible ways. 

Combustible, kom-bus'tl-bl, a. Capable of taking 
fire and burning ; inflammable ; easily excited ; 
quick; irascible. — n. A substance tha^t will, etc. 
— Combus^'tibleness, -tibil'ity, ?j. — Combus'^tion, 
-chun, n. A taking fire and burning: conflagration. 

Come, kum, v. i. limp. c.\jie ; p. pi. come ; comixg.] 
To move hitherward, draw near, approach ; to ar- 
rive at some state or condition, occur, happen ; to 
become evident, appear. 

Comedy, konr'e-dl, n. A dramatic composition of 
an amusing character. — Come'dian, n. An actbr in, 
or writer of, etc. — Come'dienne', -ma'dl-en'', n. An 
actress in, etc. [F.] — Come''dietta, -ta, n. A little 
comedy. [It.] — Commie, 
-ical, a. Pert. to. etc.: ex- 
citins mirth; laughable. — 
Comi^caUy, adv. — Com'- 
icalness, n.— ComicaKity, 
-T-tl, n. That which is, 

Comely, kum'lY, a. Hand- 
some; graceful; well-pro- 
portioned. — adv. In a be- 
coming or graceful man- 
ner. — Come'liness. n. 

Comestibles, ko-mes'tl-blz, 
n. pi. Eatables. 

Comet, kom'et, n. A member of the solar system. 


am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; end, eve, term ; In, ice ; Sdd, t«ae, *r ; 




moving in an eccentric orbit, and consisting of a 
nucleus, an envelope, and a tail. 

Comfort, kum'furt, i-. t. To relieve or cheer under 
atHiction or depression ; to solace, invigorate, re- 
fresh, animate. ^?2. Strength and relief under af- 
fliction ; support : a state of quiet enjoj-inent, or 
whatever causes it. — Com''forter, ?(. One who, etc. 
(Script.) The Holy Spirit. A woolen tippet; wadded 
quilt. — Com''fortable, a. Affording or enjoying, 
etc.; free from pain or distress — n. A coverlet. — 
Com'fortably, of/c — Com''fortableness, ». — Com'"- 
fortless, a. Miserable ; forlorn. 

Comic, Comicality, etc. See under Comedy. 

Comity, kom'I-tl, n. Courtesy of intercourse ; civil- 
ity ; good breeding. 

Comma, korn'ma, n. A character [,] marking the 
snwUest grammatical division of a sentence. 

Command, kom-mand'', v. t. To order with authority; 
to exercise supreme authority over ; to have under 
influence, control, or vision ; to exact or enforce, 
bid, direct, overlook, claim, — v. i. To have au- 
thority, possess chief power, govern. — n. An au- 
thoritative order ; exercise of authority ; right or 
possession of authority ; abilitj^ to overlook, control, 
or watch ; a body of troops under a particular of- 
ficer. — Command''er, n. A leader; the chief officer 
of an army, or a division of it. {]Var>/.) An officer 
next above a lieutenant. A heavjf, wooden mallet. 

— Command'ery, -er-t, -ry, -rt, n., A belong- 
ing to an order of knights, and controlled by a com- 
mander ; a preceptory ; a lodge of the Freemasons 
called knights templars. — Command'^ing, a. Fitted 
to control; imperious. — Command'ment, w. An au- 
thoritative order ; precept. (Scrij^t.) One of the 10 
laws given by God to the Israelites at Mount Sinai. 

Comjneasurable. Same as Commen'surable. 
Commemorate, kom-mem''o-rat, v. t. To call to re- 
membrance, or celebrate with honor and solemnity. 

— Commern'ora'tion, 71. Act of, etc.; a public cele- 

Commence, kom-mens', v. i. [-iiENCED (-menst''), 
-MEXCING.] To begin, originate; to take the first 
university degree. — v. t. To enter upon, begin, 
begin to be or to appear. — Commencc'ment, n. First 
existence of anything ; rise ; origin ; beginning; the 
day when university degrees are conferred. 

Commend, kom-mend'', i\ t. To commit or intrust 
for care or preservation; to present as worthy of re- 
gard; to praise; to recommend to the kind reception 
of. — Commend''able, a. Capable or worthy of, etc. 

— Commend'ably, adv. — Commenda'tion, n. Act 
of, etc. ; praise ; applause ; a message of respect ; 
compliments. — Commend'atory, -to-rl, a. Serving 
to commend; holding a benefice in commendam. — 
Commen''dam, n. (Eccl. Law.) A vacant benefice 
committed to the holder until a pastor is supplied. 
The holding of such a benefice. 

Commensurate, kom-men'shoo-rat, a. Having a com- 
mon measure; commensurable; equal in measure or 
extent; proportional, —v. t. To reduce to a common 
measure.— Commen'surately, arfc— Commen'snra'- 
tion, n. State of being commensurate. — Commen''- 
Burable, a. Having a common measure. 

Comment, kora^'ment, i\ i. To explain by remarks, 
criticisms, etc.; to write annotations. — n. An ex- 
planatory remark, observation, etc. ; annotation ; 
stricture. — Com'mentary, -ta-rt. n. A series, collec- 
tion, or book of comments, etc. ; a memoir of partic- 
ular transactions. — Com''mentator, -menter, n. 

Commerce, kom'mers, n. Exchange of mercliandise 
between different places or communities; extended 
trade or traffic; social or personal intercourse; famil- 
iarity. — Commercial, -iner'shal, a. Pert, to, or en- 
gaged in commerce; mercantile. 

Commination, kom-mt-na'sliun, n. A threat; denun- 
ciation of punishment or vengeance. — Comminato- 
ry, -min-'a-to-rt, a. Threatening punishment. 

Commingle, kom-min''gl, v. t. [-mingled (-gld), -mix- 
GLIXG.J To mingle together in one mass, or inti- 
mately; to blend. —w. I. To mix together, become 

Comminute, kom'mY-nut, v. t. To reduce to minute 
particles, pulverize, grind. — Comminu'tion, n. Act 
of reducing to small particles; pulverization; atten- 
uation by removing small particles. 

Commiserate, kom-miz'er-at, i'. t. To feel sorrow, 
pain, or regret for; to be sorry for; to pity, feel for, 

Commissary, kom'mis-sa-rT, n. A deputy; commis- 
sioner. {Mil.) An officer in charge of a special de- 
partment, esp. that of subsistence. — Commissa''- 
riat, n. (JUL) That department charged with sui> 
plying provisions for the soldiers; tiie body of ofti- 
CLTs in that department; office of a commissary. 

Commit, kom-mit', v. t. To give in trust; to do, per- 
form, elfect; to place beyond one"s control; to pledge 
or bind, — used reflexively. — Commiftal, «. Act 
of Committing; a pledge. — Committer, /(. — Com- 
miftible, «. Capable of being, etc. — Commission, 
-misli-'un, ?i. Act of committing, doing, or per- 
forming; a formal warrant of committing some trust 
to a person; a company of persons joined in the ex- 
ercise of some duty. (Com.) The acting under au- 
thority of, or on account of, another; thing to be 
done as agent for another; brokerage or allowance 
made to an asrent. — v. t. [-missioxed (-mish''und), 
-MissiOxiXG.l To give a commission to, appoint, 
depute. — Commis''smner, n. One commissioned to 
execute some business for an employer; an officer in 
charge of some department of the public service. — 
Commis'sionaire'', -nar', n. A factor; commission- 
merchant; one stationed in a public resort to receive 
commissions or act as guide, messenger, etc. [F.] — 
Commis'sion mer'chant. One who transacts busi- 
ness on commission, as the agent of others, receiv- 
ing a rate per cent, as his reward. — Commit'' tee, -te, 
n. A select number of persons appointed to attend 
to any business, by a legislative body, court, or any 
collective body of men acting togetlier. — Commit'*'- 
teeship, n. Office of a committee. 

Commis, kom-miks'', v. t. ori. [-jii.ved (-miksf), -mix- 
ixG.J To mix or mingle ; blend. — Commix'ture» 
-chur, n. Act of, or state of being, etc. ; mass formed 
by niingling ; compound. 

Cemmode, kom-mod'', 7i. A woman's head-dress; a 
chest of drawers; a bedroom convenience, — a close- 
stool. — Commc'dious, -dt-us, a. Affording ease and 
convenience ; fit ; comfortable. — Commod'^ity, -t-tl, 
n. That which affords convenience or advantage, 
esp. m commerce ; goods, wares, etc. 

Commodore, kom'' mo-dor, n. The commander of a 
squadron; leading ship in a fleet of merchantmen. 

Common, kom''un, a. Belonging equally to more than 
one, or to many indefinitely; serving for the use of 
all; general; public; often met with; not distin- 
guished by rank or character; commonplace; mean; 
vulgar. — n. An uninclosed tract of public ground. 
(Law.) The right of taking a profit in the land of 
another. — v. i. To have a joint right with others in 
common ground; to board together; eat at a table in 
common. — Com''mons, -munz, n. p?. The mass of 
the people ; the commonalty ; the loAver house of 
the Eng. parliament; provisions, food, fare; a club 
where all eat at a common table. — Com''mona,ble, a. 
Held in common; allowed to pasture on common 
land. — Corn'monage, -ej, n. Right of pasturing on 
a common; joint right of using anj^thing in common 
with others. — Com''monalty, -al-tT, n. Tlie common 
people ; body of citizens. — Com''moner, n. One 
under the degree of nobility; a memberof the House 
of Commons; one having'a joint right in common 
ground; a student of the second rank in the univer- 
sity of Oxford, England.— Com''monly, ar/?'. Usu- 
ally; ordinarily; for the most part. — Com'^monness, 
n. — Com^monish, a. Common-place; vulgar.— Com'- 
mon-place, a. Common ; trite : hackneyed. — n. 
(Rhet.) A general idea applicable to different sub- 
jects; a trite remark. — v. t.' To enter in a com- 
mon-place book, or to reduce to general heads. — 
Com''mon-place'-book, n. A book for recording 
things to be remembered. — Commonweal, -wel^ 
-wealth, -welth, n. Prop., a free state; a popular 
government ; republic ; whole body of citizens. 

Commotion, kom-mo''shun, n.' Violent motion; agita- 
tion; a popular tumult; perturbation or disorder of 
mind ; excitement. 

Commune, kom-mun', v. i. [-mun^ed (-mundOt -MU- 
xiXG.] Toconverse together familiarly, confer; to re- 
ceive the communion, partake of the Lord's supper. 
— Commune, kom''mun, n. A small territorial dis- 

Bun, cQbe, full ; moon, fdt>t ; cow, oil ; linger or iQk, -Hien, boNboN, chair, get. 




trict in France ; municipal self-government. (-F. 
Hist.) A socialistic political party in France, — esp. 
in Paris. — Com''mimism, -nizni, n. Doctrine of com- 
munity of property among all citizens of a state or 
society; socialism. — Com 'munist, ?i. An advocate 
of, etc. — Commu'nity, -n i-tl, n. Common possession 
or enjoyment; a society of persons having common 
rights, interests, etc.; society at large; the public, or 
j)eople in general.— CoBiinu''iiicate, -nt-kat^t'- f- To 
Impart for common possession, bestow, confer; to re- 
veal, or give, as information. — v. i. To share or 
participate; to have intercourse or means of inter- 
•course. — Cominu''nicable, a. That may be, etc. — 
Coinmu''iiicableness, -cabil'ity, n. — Commu'nica''- 
"tioii, 71. Act of communicating; intercourse; means 
of passing from place to place; that which is com- 
municated ; commerce; correspondence; news. — 
Cominu''iiicative, -tiv, a. Inclined to communicate. 
— Commu'nicativeness, n. — Coiimiu''iiicator, -ter, 
n. — Commu'nicatory, -to-rl, a. Imparting knowl- 
edge. — Comiaunion, -mun-'yun, ??. Intercourse be- 
tween persons; union in religious faith; fellowship; 
a body of Christians having one common faith and 
discipline; the celebration of the Lord's supper. — 
Commu'iiicant, n. A partaker of the Lord's supper. 

(Commute, kom-mut', v. t. To put one for the other, 
exchange; to substitute, as a greater penalty for a 
less; to pay less for in gross than would be paid for 
separate trips. — v. i/ To bargain for exemption; to 
arrange to pay in gross. — Commu'' table, a. Capable 
of being exchanged. — Commu'tabiKity, -1-ti, n. — 
Commuta'tion, n. Change; barter. (Law.) Sub- 
stitution of one penalty for another. Purchase of a 
right to go upon a certain route during a specified 
period, for less than the aggregate charge for separate 
trips; an outright sum given as equivalent for a^jro 
rata payment. 

'Compact, kom-pakt', a. Closely and firmly united; 
solid; dense; brief; succinct. — v. t. To drive or 
press closely together, consolidate; to unite or con- 
nect firmly, as in a system. 

Compact, kom'^pakt, n. An agreement between par- 
ties; covenant; contract. 

•Company, kum''pa-nt, n. State of being a companion ; 
act of accompanying; an assemblage or association 
of persons; guests, disting. fr. the members of a fam- 
ily; a corporation; a firm; partners whose names are 
not mentioned in the title of the firm. {Mil.) A 
subdivision of a regiment. (Naut.) The crew of a 
ship. — V. i. To associate. — Companion, kom-pan''- 
yun, n. One associated with another; comrade; ally; 

(Compare, kom-par'', v. t. [-pared (-pard''), -paring.] 
To examine the mutual relations of; to represent 
as similar, for purposes of illustration; to liken. 
(Gram.) To inflect according to degrees of com- 
parison. — IK i. To hold comparison; to be like or 
equal; to admit of comparison. — Comparable, kom'- 
pa-ra-bl, a. Capable or wortJiy of comparison. — 
Com'^parably, adv.— Comparative, -pSr-'a-tiv, a. Es- 
timated by, or proceeding from, comparison; hav- 
ing power of comparing. (Gram.) Expressing a 
greater or less degree of a quantity, or quality, than 
the positive. — Compar'^atively, ac/v. In a compara- 
tive manner; hy comparison; relatively. — Compax'- 
ison, -T-sun or -T-sn, n. Act of comparing; compara- 
tive estimate. See Phkexology. (Gram.) Inflec- 
tion of an adjective or adverb in its several degrees. 
(Rhet.) A simile or similitude. 

■Compartment, kom-parfment, n. One of the parts 
into which a thing is divided. 

'Compass, kum'pas, n. A circuit; 
circumference; an inclosing 
limit; boundarj'; an inclosed 
space; area; extent; capacity. 
(Mus.) Range of notes compre- 
hended by any voice or instru- - ., 
ment. A magnetic instrument, s^*^ 
to determine the cardinal ^^^^ 


points. — V. t. [^OMl'ASSED Ji^^ 

<-past), -PASSING.] To go about 

or around; to inclose on all 

sides; to besiege or invest; to 

get within reach, or within Mariner's Compass. 

one's power; to purpose, im- 

agine, plot, gain, consummate. — Mariner's compass. 
One which has its needle permanently attached to 
a card, so that both move together, the card being 
divided into 32 parts, or points. — To fetch a compass. 
To go round in a circuit. — Com'^passable, a. Capa- 
ble of being, etc. — Com'passes, -ez, «. pZ. An in- 
strument to describe circles, measure figures, etc. 

Compassion, kom-pash-'un, n. A suffering w^ith an- 
other; sorrow excited by another's distress; pity; 
sympathy. — Compas'slonate, u. Full of compas- 
sion; tender; merciful. — v. t. To have compassion 
for; commiserate. — Compas'sionately, adv. — Corn- 
pas'' sionateness, n. — Compatible, -put'I-bl, a. Co.- 
pable of existing in harmony; consistent; agreeable; 

Compatriot, korn-pa''trI-ut, n. A fellow-countryman. 

Compeer, kom-per'', 7i. An equal; companion; peer. 

Compel, kom-peK, v. t. [-i>elleu (-peld'), -celling.] 
To drive irresistibly; to necessitate; to take by force 
or violence, constrain, coerce. — Compulsion, -puK- 
shun, ?i. Act of, or state of being, etc.; constraint; 
restraint. — Compul'sative, -tiv, -satory, -to-rl, 
-sory, -so-rT, a. Compelling. — Compul'sive, -siv, a. 
Having power to, etc. — Compul'sively, -sorily, -rl- 
IT, adv. Forcibly. —Compul'siveness, n. 

Compellation, kom-pel-la''shun, n. iManner of ad- 
dress ; appellation. — CompeKlative, -la-tiv, n. 
(Gram.) The name by which one is addressed. 

Compend, kom'^pend, Compend'ium, -I-um, n. A 
brief compilation; abridgment; epitome; summary. 

— Compend ''lous, -I-us, a. Summed up within nar- 
row limits. 

Compensate, kom'pen-sat or kom-pen'sat, v. t. To 
make equal return to, give an equivalent to, re- 
munerate, requite; to be equivalent to in value or 
effect, counterbalance. — v. i. To make amends, 
supply an equivalent. — Compensa''tion, ».. Actor 
principle of, etc.; an equivalent. (Law.) Payment 
of a debt by a credit of equal amount. — Compen''- 
sative, -tiv, -satory, -to-rl, a. Affording compensa- 

Compete, kom-pet', v. i. To contend, as rivals for a 
prize. — Competition, -tish^'un, n. Common strife for 
the same object; emulation; opposition; jealousy. 

— Compet'itive, -1-tiv, a. Producing or pert, to, 
etc. — Compefitor, -t-ter, 7i. One who claims what 
another claims; a rival. 

Competent, kom''pc-tent, a. Answering to all require- 
ments; having adequate power or right; fitted; qual- 
ified. — Com'petence, -teney, -ten-si, n. State of 
being competent; sufficiency, esp. of means of sub- 
sistence. (Law.) Legal capacity or qualifications; 
right or authority. 

Compile, kom-piK, v. t. [-piled (-pild''), -piling.] To 
put together or compose out of materials from other 
books or documents. — Compila'^tion, ti. Act of com- 
piling; thing compiled; esp. a book. 

Complacent, kom-pla''sent, a. Accompanied with 
pleasure; displaying satisfaction. — Compla''cenca, 
-cency, -sen-sT, ?«. A feeling of quiet pleasure; the 
cause of pleasure; kindness of manners; civility. — 
Com'plaisant', -pla-zant', a. Desirous to please; 
kindly attentive; courteous; well-bred. [F.] — Com'- 
plaisant'ly, adv. — Com-'plaisance', n. Kind com- 
pliance with others' wishes; urbanity; suavitv\ [F.] 

Complain, kom-plan'', v. i. [-plained (-pland'), 
-plaining.] 'To express distress or censure ; to 
bring an accusation, make a charge, murmur, la- 
ment, repine. — Complain'^ant, n. One who, etc. 
(Law.) A plaintiff. [F.] — Complainf, n. Expres- 
sion of grief, censure, etc.; cause of complaining; 
A malady; disease. (Law.) Allegation that some^ 
person has been guilty of a designated offense. [F.] 

Complanate, kom''j5la-nat, V. t. To make level or even. 

Complete, koni-plef, a. Free from deficiency; per- 
fect; finished; ended; entire; total. — v. t. To bring 
to a perfect state ; to bring to pass, achieve. — Com- 
plete''ness, n, — Comple^'tion, n. Act of, or state of 
being, etc.; fulfillment; realization. — Comple'^tive, 
-tiv, a. Making complete. — Com^plement, -ple- 
ment, n. That which completes or supplies a defi- 
ciency ; quantity required to make complete. 
(Astron.) Distance of a star from the zenith, as 
compared with its altitude. (Trigon.) Difference 
between an arc or angle and 90". (Anth.) Differ- 

am, fame, f ar,_pass or opera, fare ; end, eve, t5rm ; In, ice ; 5dd, tSne, 6r ; 




ence between a number and 10, 100, 1000, etc. (Jfics.) 
Interval wanting to complete the octave. — Com- 
plemenfal, a. Supplyins, or tending to supply, 
a deticiency ; fully completing. — Complement"'- 
ary, a. Serving to complete. — Comple'tory, -to-rt, 
a. Making complete. — n. Evening: the compline. 

— Com-'pliiie, -plin, -plin, n. {Etc!.) The closing 
prayer of the Roman Catholic breviary, recited after 

Csmplex. kom'pleks, a. Composed of two or more 
parts; complicated; intricate. — n. Assemblage; col- 
lection. — Com'^plezness, Complex''edneBS, -ed-nes, 
-ity, -X-tT, n. Intricacy. — Com'plexly, adv. — Com- 
plex'^ure, -Ur, n. Involution or complication of one 
thing with others. — Complexion, -plek'shun, n. 
State of being complex; connection of parts; frame 
or texture; hue of the skin, esp. of the face; general 
appearance. — Complex'ional, -ionary, «. Pert, to 
the complexion, or to tlie care of it. — Com''plicate, 
-pll-kat, V. t. To fold or twist togetlier, interweave; 
to render complex, involve. — a. Composed of parts 
united ; complicated. — Com''plicately, adv. — Com''- 
plicateness, -cacy, -ka-sl, n. State of being, etc. — 
Complica'tion., n. Intricate or confused blending 
of part.s ; entanglement. — Com'plicative, -tiv, a. 
Tending to involve. — Complicity, -plis'l-tl, n. Con- 
dition of being an accomplice. 

Compline. See under Complete. 

Complot, kom^plot, n. A confederacy in some evil 
design; conspiracy; cabal. — ComploV, v. t. and i. 
To plot together, conspire, join in a secret design. 

Comply, kom-pli', v. i. [-plied (-plid'), -plyixg.] To 
yield assent, accord, acquiesce. — Compli'ance, -ans, 
n. Act of, or disposition to, etc.; concession; obedi- 
ence. — Compli^ant, a. Pliant; yielding to request. 

— Compli'antly, adr. — Com'pliment, n. Compli- 
ance with the wishes of another; manifestation of 
approbation, regard, etc.; delicate flattery. — v. t. 
To flatter; express respect for. — v. i. To use com- 

Component. See under Compose. 

Comport, kom-port', v. i. To agree, accord, suit. — 
V. t. To behave, conduct, — with a reflexive pro- 

Compose, kom-poz', v. t. [-posed (-pozd'), -posing.] 
To form by uniting, put together ; to constitute ; 
to originate, become the author of; to place in form, 
reduce to order ; to free from disturbance, set at 
rest. {Print.) To place in proper order for print- 
ing, as tvpe. — Composed, -pozd', p. a. Free from 
agitation: calm; tranquil. — Compos'edly, -ed-lT, 
adv. — Compos'edness, n. — Compos'^er, n. One wlio 
composes ; an author, esp. of a piece of music. — 
Composition, -zish'un, n. Act of composing, esp. a 
literary work. {Fine Arts.) That combination of 
parts in which each has its due proportion. Arrange- 
ment of type for use in printing. State of being 
composed ;'thing formed bj' composing. {Laiv.) Ad- 
justment of a debt, by compensation mutually 
agreed on. — Com/iositio7i of forces. {Mech.) The 
finding of a single force equal to two or more given 
forces acting in given di- 
rections. — Compos'lng- 
stick, 71. {Print.) An in- 
strument of adjustable 
width, in which type is 
arranged into words and 


lines. — Composite, -poz'it, a. Made of distinct parts 
or elements; compounded. {Arch.) Belonging to an 
order of architecture made up of the Ionic grafted 
upon the Corinthian. See Capital. — Composite 
number. {Math.) One which can be measured ex- 
actly by a number exceeding unity. — Compos'ltive, 
-pSz'T-tiv, a. Compounded, or having power of com- 
pounding. — Compos'itor, -ter, n. One who sets in 
order. {Print.) One who sets type. — Compo^'nent, 
a. Composing; serving or helping to form; consti- 
tuting. — n. A constituent part; aji ingredient. — 
Compos'itae, -te, ?i. pZ. {Bot.) A family of dicoty- 
ledonous plants, having their flowers arranged in 
dense heads, —including the daisy, dandelion, and 
aster. — Com'post, -post, ?i. {Agi-ic.) A mixture for 
fertilizing land. — v.t. To manure with compost. 
— Compos'^nre, -zhur, n. Act of composing; tning 
composed; a settled'state; calmness; tranquillity. 

Compound, kom-pownd'', v. t. To put together, as ele- 
ments, or parts to form a whole ; to combine or 
unite ; to settle amicably, adjust by agreement. — 
V. i. To come to terms of agreement, settle by com- 
promise. — Com'ponnd, a. Composed of elements, 
ingredients, or parts. — n. That which is com- 
pounded; mixture of elements, ingredients, or parts. 

Comprehend, kom-pre-hend'', v. t. To include by con- 
struction or implication ; to take into the mind, ap- 
prehend the meaning of, understand.— Comprelien''- 
sion, -shun, n. Act of, etc. ; thing comprehended 
or inclosed within narrow limits ; summary : epit- 
ome ; capacity of the mind to understand ; percep- 
tion. —Compfehen'sive, -siv, a. Including much 
within narruii' limits; extensive; full. — Compre- 
hen'sively, adv. — Comprehen'siveness, n. 

Compress, kom-pres', r. t. [-pkessed (-presf), -press- 
ing.] To press together, bring within narrower 
limits, crowd, condense. — Com'^press, n. {Surg.) A 
folded piece of Unen, to make pressure on any part. 

Comprise, kom-prlz', v. t. [-pkised (-prizd'), -pris- 
ing.] To comprehend, include, embrace, imply. 

Compromise, kom'pro^iiz, n. A mutual promise to 
refer a dispute to the decision of arbitrators; adjust- 
ment by mutual concessions. — v. t. [-miskd (-mizd), 
-MisiNG.] To adjust by mutual concessions, com- 
pound; to commit, hazard, compromit. — Com-'pro- 
mis'er, n. — Com'promit, v. t. To pledge, promise; 
to put to hazard, Dy some act which cannot be re- 
called, bring into danger, compromise. 

Comptroller. See under Control. 

Compulsion, Compulsory, etc. See under Compel. 

Compunction, kom-punk^'shun, n. Poignant grief or 
remorse; the stin^ of conscience. 

Compute, kom-put'', v. t. To determine by calcula- 
tion, cast up, count, enumerate. — Compnta''tion, n. 
Act or process of, etc.; reckoning; account. 

Comrade, kom'rad, n. A mate, companion, or associ- 

Comtism, koNt''izm, n. Positivism ; the doctrine of 
the F. philosopher, August Comte, that all knowl- 
edge is experience of facts acqiiired through the 
senses, and that we know notliing of causes or 
laws, but only phenomena. 

Con, kon. An abbr. of L. contra, against : in the 
phrase pro and con, for and against, it denotes the 
negative or contrarj' side of a question; as a sub- 
stantive, it denotes one who is in the negative. 

Con, kon, v. t. [conned (kond), conning.] Orig., to 
know; to study, try to fix in the mind, peruse. 

Concatenate, kon-kafe-nat, v. t. To link together, 
unite in a series. — Concat'ena''tion, n. A series of 
links united, or of things depending on each other. 

Concave, kon'kav, a. Hollow and curved or rounded, 
^said of the interior of anything hemispherical. 
See Lens. — n. A hollow; arched vault. — v. t. 
[concaved (-kavd), -caving.] Tojnake hollow. 

Conceal, kon-seK, v. t. [-cealed (-seld'), -cealing.] 
To hide or withdraw from observation ; to withhold 
from utterance, disguise, secrete. — Conceal'ment, n. 
Act of, or state of being, etc.; place of hiding; secret 
place. {Laiv^ Suppression of truth. 

Concede, kon-sed'', v. t. To yield or suffer to pass ; to 
admit to be true, grant, admit, give up, surrender. 
— V. i. To make concession. — Conces'^sion, -sesh'- 
un, n. Act of granting ; thing granted ; boon ; a 
privileo;e, orjight granted by government. 

Conceit, kon-set', n. That which is conceived in the 
mind ; idea ; thought ; image ; a quaint fancy ; af- 
fected conception; opinion; estimation; esp. overes- 
timation of one's self; vanity. — v. t. To conceive, im- 
agine. — V. i. _To form an idea, judge. 

Conceive, kou-sev', v. t. [-ceived (-sevd'), -ceiving.] 
To receive into the womb and breed ; to form in the 
mind, as a purpose ; to picture to the imagination, 
understand, believe, think. — v. i. To become preg- 
nant; to have a conception, idea, or opinion; to 
think. — Conceiv'able, a. Imaginable. — Conceiv'- 
ableness, ?i. — Conceiv'ably, «rti-. — Concept, kon'- 
sept, n. An abstract general conception. — Concep- 
tion, -sep'shun, n. Act of conceiving; state of being 
conceived; formation in the mind of an image, idea, 
etc.; apprehension; image, etc., formed; notion; a 
universal; power or faculty of forming an idea in 
the mind. 

sttn, cube, fuU. ; moon, f(56t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, liien, boNboN, chair, get. 




Concent, kon-senf, n. Concert of voices; harmonj'. 
Concenter, -tre, kon-sen'ter, v. i. [-cexteked or 

-TRED (-terd), -TERIXG Or -TKIXG.] To coiiie to a 
point, or meet in a common center. — v. t. To draw 
to a center, bring to a point. — Concentrate, kon- 
sen'trat or kon'sen-trat, v. t. To bring to a com- 
mon center, unite more closely, combine. — Concen- 
tra'tion, H. Act of, etc. (Chem.) Volatilization of 
part of a liquid, to the f*;rength of the re- 
mainder. — Concen'trative, a. Serving to, etc. — 
Concen'trativeness, H. (I'hrcn.) Power of concen- 
trating intellectual force. See Phrexologv. — 
Con'^centrator, -ter, ?i. {Hining.) A pneumatic ap- 
paratus for separating dry comminuted ore, accord- 
ing to the specific gravity of its particles. — Con- 
cen'tric, a. Having a common center. 

Concern, kon-sern', v.t. [-cerxed (-sernd''), -cern- 
iXG.j To relate or belong to, be of importance to ; 
to take an interest in ; to disturb, make uneasy. — 
n. That which relates to one, or affects the wel- 
fare; interest in, or care for, any thing. {Com.) 
Persons connected in business ; a farm and its busi- 
ness. — Concern'mg, prep. Pert, to; regarding; with 
respect to. 

Concert, kon-sert'', v. t. To plan together; to plan, 
devise. — v. i. To act in harmony, form combined 
plans, take counsel. — Con'cert, n. Agreement m a 
plan; harmony; musical accordance or harmony; a 
musical entertainment. — Concer''to, )i. A musical 
composition written for a principal instrument, with 
accompaniments for a full orchestra. [It.] — Con- 
certina, -te'na, n. A musical instrument of the ac- 
cordion species. 

Concession. See under Co?fCEDE. 

Conch, konk, n. A marine shell. (Arch.) The domed 
semicircular or pol.vgonal ter- 
mination of the choir of a 
church; apsis. See Apsis. — 
Concha, koQ'ka, n. (Anat.) 
The external ear, by which 
sounds are collected and trans- 
mitted to the internal ear. See 
Ear. [L .] — Conchology. -koK- 
o-jT, 71. Science of shells and 
animals inhabiting them; mal- 
acology. — ConchoKogist, n. 
One versed in, etc. _ * 

Conciliate, kon-siKl-at, v. t. To win over; to gain 
from a state of indifference or hostilitv. — Concil'- 
ia'tion, 7i. Act of, etc.: reconciliation. —Concil'- 
iator. -ter, n. — Concil'iatory, -to-rl, a. Tending to 
conciliate; pacific. 

Concise, kon-sis'', a. Expressing much in a few words-, 
laconic; terse; succinct; condensed: brief and com- 
prehensive; —used of style in reading or speaking. 

— Concise 'ly, nrf?;. — Cohcise'ness, n —Concision, 
-sizh'un, H. A cutting off; division; faction; circum- 

Conclave, kon''klav, n. A private apartment, esp. 
that where the cardinals meet to elect a pope; as- 
sembly to elect a pope; the body of cardinals; a pri- 
vate meeting. 

Conclude, kon-klud', v. f. To close, as an argument, 
bymferring; to bring to an end; to make a final 
judgment or determination of; to infer, finish, end. 

— r. i. To come to an end, close; to form a final 
judgment. — Conclu'sion, -zhun, w. Last part of 
anything; decision; deduction from premises; an 
experiment. (Law.) End of a pleading; an estoppel 
or bar by which one is held to a position which he 
has taken. — Conclu'sive, -siv, a. Pert, to a close; 
ending debate or question; final; decisive: defini- 
tive. — Conclu'sively, adv. — Conclu'siveness, n. 

Concoct, kon-kokt', r. t. To digest; to mature, per- 
fect, ripen; to devise, plan, plot. 

Concomitant, kon-kom'l-tant, a. Accompanying, or 
conjoined; concurrent; attending, — n. One who is, 
etc.; an accompaniment. 

Concord, kon-'kerd, n. A state of agreement : har- 
mony; union. (Oram.) Agreement of words with 
^ne another, in gender, number, person, or case. 
(Mtis.) A consonant chord: consonance; harmony. 

— Concord'ance, -ans, n. Agreement; accordance; 
a verbal index to a work, in which passages con- 
taining the same word are arranged alphabetically, 


with references to the text.— Concord'ant, a. Agree- 
ing ; correspondent ; consonant. — Concord'antly, 
a:/v. — Concor'dat, n. A compact or agreement, — 
esp. between the pope and a sovereign for the regu- 
lation of ecclesiastical matters. 
Concorporate, kon-kor'po-rat, v. i. To unite in one 

mass or budj'. — a. United in, etc. 
Concourse, kon'kors, n. A moving or running to- 
gether; an assembly; crowd: place of meeting. 
Concrete, kon^kret, u. United in growth; formed by 
coalition of particles into one Dod3-; united in a 
solid form. (Logic.) Existing in a subject; not ab- 
stract. — 71. A compound or mass formed by con- 
cretion. (A7-ch.) A mass of stone chippings, peb- 
bles, etc., cemented by mortar. (Logic.) A term 
designating both a quality and the subject in which 
it exists; a concrete term. — Concrete', r. i. To 
unite orcoalesce, as separate particles into a mass. — 
V. t. To form into a mass. — Concre''tion, n. Act 
of concreting, mass or solid matter formed by con- 
gelation, condensation, coagulation, or other like 
natural process. ( Geol.) A nodule, produced by 
aggregation of material around a center. 
Concubine, kon'ku-bin, 7i. A paramour ; a woman 
who cohabits with a man without being his wife; a . 
wife of inferior condition. 
Concupiscence, kon-ku-'pis-ens, w. Unlawful desire, 

esp. of carnal pleasure; lust. 
Concur, kon-ker'', v. i. [-curred (-kerd'), -cuekixg.] 
To meet in the same point; to act jointly; to unite 
in opinion, approve. — Concur^rence, n. A com- 
ing together; union; conjunction; joint rights, im- 
plj'ing equality in different persons. — Concur^rent, 
a. Acting in conjunction; cooperating; associate; 
concomitant ; joint and equal in authority. — h. 
Joint or contrit)utor.y cause. — Concur'rently, adv. 
Concussion, kon-kush'un, ?i. Act of shaking or agi- 
tating, esp. by the stroke of another body; state of 
being shaken; shock. 
Condemn, kon-dem', v. t. [-demxed f-demd''), -dem- 
KiNG (-dem'ning).] To pronounce to be wrong, 
blame, censure, pronounce judicial sentence against, 
pronounce unfit for service. — Condem''ner, 7i. — 
Condem'nable, a. Worthy of, etc.; blameworthy; 
culpable. — Condemna-'tion, 7i. Act of, or state of 
being, etc. : reason of a sentence; judgment. — Con- 
dem'natory, -to-rT, a. Bearing condemnation. 
Condense, kon-dens', v. t. f-DEXSED (-densf), -dexs- 
ING.] To make more close, compact, or dense: to 
compress, consolidate, thicken. — v.i. To becon^e 
close ; to grow thick or dense. — Conden'sate, -sat, 
V. t. & i. Same as condense. — Condens'er, n. One 
who, or that which, etc.; esp. (Much.) a vessel for 
condensing vapor into a liquid form. See Ste.\m 
Engine. — Condens'able, a. Capable of being, etc. 
— Condensa'tion, n. Act of, etc. — Conden''sativ6, 
-tiv, a. Having power or tendency to, etc. 
Condescend, kon-de-send'", v. i. To let one's self 
down; to relinquish rank, or dignity of character; 
to recede willingly from one's riglits ; to deign, 
vouchsafe. — Condescend''ingly, at/r.- Condescen- 
sion, -sen-'shun, 7i. Act of, etc. : complaisance ; 
courtesy; affability. 
Condign, kon-din'', «. Desepved; merited; suitable. 
Condiment, kon'dt-ment, n. Something to give relish 

to food. 
Condisciple, kon-dis-si''pl, n. A fellow-disciple; school- 
Condition, kon-dish'un, n. State or situation as re- 
gards externa! circumstances ; quality ; property ; 
attribute: that which must exist as the occasion'or 
concomitant of something else: stipulation: article: 
terms. —I', i. [-ditioxed (-dish'und), -tioxixg.] 
To make terms, stipulate. — r. t. To contract, stip- 
ulate ; to impose conditions on. — Condi'tional, a. 
Containing, implying, or depending on, etc. ; not 
absolute. (Gram. Si. Logic.) Expressing a condition 
or supposition. 
Condole, kon-doK, v. i. [-doled C-dold''), -doling.] 
To express sorrow at the pain of another. [L. C07i 
and dole7'e, to grieve.]— Condol'er, n. — Condole'^- 
ment, -do'lence, n. Expression of sympathy, etc. 
Condone, kon-don'', v. t. [-doxed (-dondO, -doning.] 
(Eccl. Law.) To pardon; to forgive for a violation 
of the marriage vow. 

., „ « ».. ^».<.^^v<. Mit"*"-'-'*-*-*^**»-lJ , Ui LUC IliaillltgC VUW. 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; 6nd, eve, term ; Tn, Ice ; 6dd, >5ne, 6r ; 




Condor, kon'dor, n. A large bird of the vulture fam- 
ily, found in the Andes; a 

Rold coin of Chili and the 

U. S. of Colombia, wortJi 

10 pesos, or more than ^\). ^ 
t'ondottiere, kon-dot-te-a-'ra, ; 

n. ;///. -EUi,-a''re. In Italy, 

the leader of a band of 

mercenary soldiers, living 

Dy pillage; a brigand. 
conduce, kon-dus', v. t. 

[-DUCKD (-dQsf), -DU- 

ciNG.] To promote, answer, i-^^ 
or further an end: to tend, 
contribute. — Co n'd uc t , 
-dukt, n. Act or metlmd of 
leading, commanding, 
etc.; skillful guidance; 
generalship ; that wliicli 
leads, guides, escorts, or Condor, 

brings safely ; convoy ; 

guard; warrant; manner of guiding one's self ; be- 
havior; deportment ; demeanor. — Conduct', v. t. 
To lead or guide, e.^cort, attend; to lead as a com- 
mander, direct, control; to manage, re<rulate, carry. 

— V. i. To behave, act. — Conduct'ible, «. — Con- 
duct'ibil'ity, n.— Conduction, -duk'shun, n. (,P/ii/s- 
i£S.) Transmission tlirough, or by means of, a con- 
ductor. — Conducfive, -iv, a. Conducting. — Con- 
ductiv'ity, n. Quality or power of conducting or 
giving passage to molecular action. — Conducfor, 
-er, n. One who conducts; a leader; guide; man- 
ager; one in charge of a railroad train. (^Phi/sics.) 
A substance, esp. a metallic rod, forming a medium 
for the transmission of some substance or fluid, 
esp. of heat or electricity. — Conducfress, n. A 
woman who, etc. 

Conduit, kon'- or kun-'dit, ?i. That which conducts or 
conveys; esp. a pipe, canal, etc. 

Cone, kon, n. A solid body, tapering to a point from 
a circular base. {Bot.) The conical 
fruit of evergreen trees, as of the pine, 
fir, cedar, etc. — Conic, kon^'ik, -ical, 
a. Formed like, resembling, or pert, 
to, etc. —Conic aection. {Geom.) A 
curve line formed by the intersection 
of a cone and plane, — a parabola, hy- 
perbola, or ellipse. — Co'niform, a. i^ 
Cone-shaped ; conical. — Conif^erous, ~ 
-nifer-us, a. {Bot.) Bearing cones^ Cone, 
as pines, etc. — Co'noid, -noid, n. Anything cone- 
shaped. {Geom.) A solid formed by the revolution 
of a conic section about its axis. — Co'noid, -noid'- 
al, a. Nearly, but not exactly, conical. 

Confect, kon'fekt, )i. A sweetmeat; comfit. — Confec'- 
tion, n. A preparation of fruit, etc., with sugar ; act 
of making confects. — Confec'tioner, n. One who 
makes or sells confections, candies, etc. — Confec'- 
tionery, -er-T, n. Sweetmeats in general; confections; 
candies ; place for makiiig or selling, etc. 

Confederate, kon-fed'er-at, o. United in a league; 
engaged in a confederacy. — n. A person or nation 
engaged in a confederacy; an ally. — v. t. and i. To 
unite in a league. — Confed'eracy, -a-sT, n. A 
league or covenant ; union between persons or 
states ; persons, etc., united by a league. (Law.) 
An unlawful combination ; conspiracy. — Con- 
federa''tion, ;j. Act of confederating; league; com- 
pact for mutual support; parties to a league. — 
Confed'erative, -tiv, a. Pert, to, etc. 

Confer, kon-fer'', v. t. [-kekreu (-ferd''), -ferrixg.] 
To grant a permanent possession; to bestow, award. 

— V. t. To discourse or converse seriously ; to com- 
pare views. — Conference, -ens, n. Act of convers- 
ing; interchange of views ; meeting for consulta- 
tion ; interview. 

Confess, kon-fes', r. t. [^-fessed (-fesf), -fessing.] To 
acknowledge or admit, as a crime, fault, debt, etc. ; 
to own or recognize ; to admit as true, assent to. 
(Eccl.) To declare (one's sins) to a priest, in order to 
receive absolution ; to hear suclj confession ; to dis- 
close or reveal, as an eifcct its cause. — v. i. To 
make confession. — Confes'sion, -fesh'un, n. Ac- 
knowledgment ; admission of a debt, obligation, or 
crime. (Eccl.) Act of disclosing sins to a priest. 

A formulary stating articles of faitli.— Confes'sional, 
n. The seat where a confessor sits to hear confessions. 

— Confes''sionalism, -izm, n. The principle of mak- 
ing confession ; principle of formulating the beliefs 
of a church into a confession of faith, and exacting 
acceptance thereof from its members. — Confes'- 
sionary, -a-rl, a. Pert, to auricular confession. — 
Confess 'or, -er,n. One who acknowledges his sins or 
obligations. {Eccl.) One who professes faith in the 
Christian religion. A priest who hears confessions. 

Confide, kon-fid'', v. i. To put faith, believe. — r. t. 
To give in charge. — Confidanf, n. m., -fldante'', 
n. /., -fT-dant''. A contidential friend. [OF.] — 
Con'fidence, -tT-dens, n. Act of confiding ; belief 
in the reality of a fact or integrity of a person ; 
that in which faith is put ; feeling of security; self- 
reliance ; assurance ; expectation ; hope ; courage. — 
Cbn'fidence-man, n. One who appeals to another's 
Confidence in order to swindle him ; a plausible 
scoundrel. — Con'fident, a. Having confidence ; 
trustful ; self-reliant ; having an excess of assur- 
ance; occasioning confidence. — Con'fidently, adv. — 
Confiden'tial, -shal, a^ Enjoying confidence; com- 
municated in confidence. — Confiden'tiaUy, adr. 

Configure, kon-fig-'ur, r. ^ [-figuised (-urd), -urixg.] 
To arrange or dispose in a certain form, figure, or 
shape.— Config'ura'tion, ?i. External form. (Astrol.) 
Relative position or aspect of the planets. [F.] 

Confine, kou'lin, n. Common boundary ; border ; 
limit. — Confine', v. t. [-fined (-find'), -fining.] 
To restrain within limits ; to bound, immure, re- 
strict. — r. i. To have a common boundary ; to 
border. — Confine'ment, ?i. Restraint within limits; 
imprisonment; detention by sickness, esp. by child- 

Confirm, kon-ferm', v. t. [-firjied (-fermd'), -firsi- 
IXG.] To make firm, give strength to, render fixed 
or certain ; to render valid by formal assent. (Eccl.) 
To administer confirmation to. — Confirm'able, a. 

— Confirma'tion, n. Act of confirming, or estab- 
lishing; that which confirms, convincing testimony; 
ratification. (Eccl.) A rite in Episcopal churches 
by which one baptized is admitted to the full privi- 
leges of the church. — Confirm'ative, .-tiv, a. Hav- 
ing power to confirm. — Confirm'atory, -to-rt, a. 
Servina; to confirm ; corroborative ; pert, to the rite 
of confirmation. 

Confiscate, kon'fis-kat or kon-fis'kat, v. t. To appro- 
priate, as a penalty, to public use. — a. Appropri- 
ated, etc. 

Conflagration, kon-fla-gra'shun, n. A great fire. 

Conflict, kon'flikt, ?». Violent collision ; a stri^^ng 
to oppose or overcome ; the last struggle of life ; 
pang ; agony. — Conflict', v. i. To strike or dash 
together, meet in collision, struggle, strive, battle. 

ConiQ.uence, kon'flu-cns, n. The meeting or junction 
of streams ; place of meeting ; running together of 
people ; crowd. — Con'fluent, a. Flowing together; 
running one into another ; meeting in a common 
current or basin. (Bot.) United at the base. — n. 
A small stream flowing into a large one ; place Qf 
meeting of streams,' etc. — Con'flux, n. A flowing 
together of currents; assemblage; concourse. 

Conform, kon-form', v. t. [-formed (-f6rmd'), -form- 
ing.] To shape in accordance with, make alike, 
bring into harmony or agreement with. — v. i. To 
conduct in accordiJince, comply, yield, render obe- 
dience. (Eng. Eccl. HM.^ To be a conformist. — 
Cvnforma'tion, n. Act of, or state of being, etc. ; 
agreement ; harmony ; structure of a body ; form ; 
make. — Conform'ist, n. One who complies with 
the worship of the church of England. — Conform'- 
ity, -t-tt, n. Correspondence in character, etc. ; 
congruity. (^Emj. Eccl. Bi.^t.) Compliance with the 
usages of the established church. 

Confound, kon-fownd', r. t. To mingle and blend, 
so as to be indistinguishable ; to throw into confu- 
sion ; to abash, dismay, defeat, ruin, intermingle. 

Confraternity, kon-frji-ter'nT-tT; n. A brotherhood. 

— Confrere, koN'frar, ti. An associate. 
Confront, kon-f runt', v. t. To stand facing, or in front 

of; to face; to stand in direct opposition to, oppose; 
to set together for comparison, compare. 
Confuse, kon-fuz', v. ^. [-fused (-itizd'), -fusing.] To 
jumble together, render indistinct or obscure, dis- 

6un, cube, full ; moon, fd&t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, then, boNboN, chair, get. 




order, abash, disconcert, perplex, distract. —Con- 
fusion, -I'u'zhun, n. State of being mixed or blend- 
ed so as to produce indistinctness or error ; loss of 
self-possession ; shame ; overthrow ; defeat ; ruin. 

Confute, kon-tut'', v. t. To put to silence; to prove to 
be false or defective, disprove, set aside, oppugn. 

Conge, kox'zha o/- kon'ie, «. Act of taking leave ; 
parting ceremony; a bow or courtesy. (Arch.) A 
molding in form of a quarter round; a cavetto ; 
apophygee. See Molding. — v.i. [congeed (-zhad 
or -jed), CONGEING.] To take leave with civilities; 
to bow or courtesy. 

Congeal, kon-jeK, v. t. [congealed (-jeld'), -geal- 
INO.] To freeze, stiffen with cold, or from terror. — 
V. i. To grow hard or stilf . 

Congener, kon'je-ner, n. A thing of the same genus, 
or allied in kind. 

Congenial, kon-jen'yal, a. Partaking of the same 
feeling; kindred; sympathetic. — Congen''ite, -jen''- 
it, -ital, a. Of the same birth; begotten together; 
dating from birth. 

Conger, kon''ger, Con'ger-eel, -el, ?i. A large species of 

Congeries, kon-je'^rT-ez, n. sing, and pi. A collection 
of particles into one mass ; a heap ; combination. 

Congest, kon-jest', v. t. To collect into a mass or ag- 
gregate. — Congestion, -jes'chun, h. {Med.) An un- 
natural accumulation of blood in any part of the 
body. — Congest'lve, -iv, n. Indicating, or attend- 
ed by, accumulation of blood. 

Conglomerate, kon-gloni''er-at, a. Gathered together 
in a mass; collected. {Dot.) Closely clustered to- 
gether. {Geol.) Composed of stones, pebbles, etc.; 
cemented together. — v. «. To gather into a round 
body. — n. Collection ; accumulation. {Geol.) A 
rock, composed of pebbles, cemented by mineral 
substance. — Conglom'era''tion, n. A gathering 
into, etc.; accumulation. 

Congo, kon'go, Con-'gou, -goo, n. A black tea, a su- 
perior quality of Bohea. 

Congratulate, kon-grat'u-lat, v. t. To wish joy to on 
some happy event; to felicitate.— Congratula'tion, 
n. Act of, etc. — Congrat'ulator, n. — Congratula- 
tory, a. Expressive of, etc. 

Congregate, kon''gre-gat, v. t. To collect into an as- 
semblage. — V. i. To come together ; assemble ; 
meet. — Congrega'tion, n. Act of, etc.: collection 
of separate things; assembly of persons, esp. a re- 
ligious assembly. — Congrega'tional, a. Pert, to a 
congregation, to the system of Congregationalism, 
or, esp., to that of the associated evangelical Trini- 
tarian Congregational churches; independent.— Con- 
grega'^tionalism, -izm, n. A system of church gov- 
ernment which vests ecclesiastical power in each 
local church, as a self-governing body; independ- 
ency. — Congrega'tionalist, n. 

Congress, korc'gres, n. A meeting of individuals; esp. 
of two persons of opposite sexes for sexual inter- 
course; an assembly, as of deputies, envoys, or com- 
missioners; the assembly of senators and representa- 
tives of a nation, esp. of a republic: convention; con- 
vocation. — Congressional, -gresh'un-al, n. Pert, to, 
etc. — Congres'sive, -siv, a. Encountering; coming 
together. — Con'gress-man, n. ; ]il. -jien. A member 
of tlie U. S. Congress. 

Congruence, kon'grob-ens, n. Suitableness of one 
thing to another ; agreement. — Congru'ity, -T-tT, 
n. Quality of being, etc.; fitness; harmony. — Con'- 
gruous, «. Having congruity; pertinent; appropri- 
ate. — Con'gruously, uifv. 

Conic, Coniferous, etc. See under Coxe. 

Conium, ko'nT-um, n. {Bat.) An umbelliferous plant, 
poison hemlock. 

Conjecture, kon-jek'chur, n. Formation of an opin- 
ion on presumptive evidence; surmise. — v. t. and i. 
r-TUUED(-churd), -TURING.] To infer on slight evi- 
dence, surmise, suspect, guess. — Conjee 'turable, 
a. — Conjec'tural, a. Depending on, etc. — Con- 
jec'turally, adv. 

Conjoin, kon-join', v. t. [-.toined (-joind''), -joining.] 
To join together, associate, connect. — t'. i. To 
unite, join, league. — Conjoinf, a. United; asso- 
ciated. —Conjoint'ly, adv. 

Conjugal, kon'ju-gal, -ju'gial, -jY-al, a. Belonging to 
the marriage state; matrimonial; connubial; nuptial. 

Conjugate, kon'ju-gat, v. t. (Gram.) To inflect, as 
verbs. — n. A word agreeing in derivation with an- 
other. — a. United in pairs; yoked together. {Gram.^ 
Agreeing in derivation witli other words. — ConjQ- 
ga'tion, ». {Gram.) Act of inflecting, as a verb; a 
scheme exhibiting all the parts of averb; aclassof 
verbs inflected in the same manner through their 
varioiis forms. 

Conjunct, kon-junkf, a. United; conjoined; concur- 
rent. — Conjunc'tion, n. Act of, or state of being, 
etc. {Astron.) Meeting of two or more stars or 
planets in the same degree of the zodiac. {Gram.) 
A connective or connecting word.— Conjunc'tive, 
-tiv, a. Closely united; serving to unite. {Gram.) 
Following or introduced by a conjunction; con- 
tingent. —Conjunc'tively, Conjuncfiy, ac/f.— Con- 
juncture, -junk''chur, n. Act of, or state of being, 
etc.; connection; combination; an occasion or crisis 
as the effect of the combination or concurrence of 
circumstances. — Conjunc'tiva, -tT-va, n. (Anat.) 
The mucous membrane covering the eye-ball and 
inner surface of the lids. [L.] 

Conjure, kon-joor'', i\ t. [-.juked (-joord''), -jurixg.] 
To call on or summon 'solemnly, adjure. — Comur''- 
er, n. — Conjure, kun'^jer, v. t. To affect, proauce, 
excite, etc., as if by magic, or by supernatural pow- 
er ; to enchant, charm, bewitch. — 1\ i. To practice 
magical arts. — Con'jurer, ?i. One who conjures, or 
practices magic or legerdemain. — Conjura'^tion, ?i. 
Earnest or solemn entreaty ; practice of magic arts ; 

Connate, kon'nat or kon-nat', a. Born with another j 
existing from birth. (Zioi.) United 
in origin; united into one body. 

— Connas'cence, -sens, -cency,^ 
-sen-sT, n. The common birth of!" 
two or more at the same time; a 
being: produced with another ; 
act of growing together, or at the 
same time.— Connas^cent, a. Pro- 
duced at the same time. — Con- „ i t x 
natural, kon-nach'er-ral, a. Connate I.eaf. 
Connected by nature ; inborn; inherent ; participa- 
ting of the same nature. 

Connect, kon-nekf, v. t. To knit or fasten together ; 
to establish association between. — v. i. To become 
coherent, have close relation. — Connect'edly, adv. 

— Connection, -nek'shun,, n. Act of, or state of 
being, etc. ; persons or things connected together ; 
continuity ; junction ; dependence ; relationship. — 
Connecfive,' -iv, a. Having power to connect. -;- 
n. {Gram.) A word that connects other words or 
sentences ; a conjunction. 

Connive, kon-niv', v. i. [-nived (-nivd''), -nivixg.] 
To close the eyes upon, wink at, forbear to see. — 
Conniv'ance, n. Voluntary oversight; collusion. 

Connoisseur, kon-is-ser'', n. A criticaljudge or master 
of any art, esp. of painting, music, and sculpture. 

Connubial, kon-nu-'bT-al, a. Pert, to marriage or the 
marriage state ; conjugal ; nuptial. 

Conoid, etc. See under Cone. 

Conquer, kon'ker, v. t. [-quered (-kerd), -quering.] 
To acquire by force ; to subdue, vanquish, sur- 
mount, master. — Con'queror, -er, n. — Conquest, 
kon'kwest, w. Act of, etc.; thing conquered. {Feu- 
dal Law.) Acquisition of property otherwise than 
by inheritance. 

Consanguineous, kon-san-gwiu'e-us, a. Of the same 
blood ; i-elated by birth. — Consanguin'ity, -I-tl, n. 
Relationship by birth. 

Conscience, koii'^shens, n. The faculty which decides 
on the lawfulness of our actions and affections; 
moral faculty ; moral sense ; determination of con- 
science ; truth; justice; honesty; reasonableness. 
— Con'scienceless, a. Having no conscience. — Con- 
scientious, -shl-en'shus, a. Governed by strict re- 
gard to the dictates of conscience; scrupulous: just; 
upright. — Conscien'tiously, adv. — Conscien'tious- 
ness, n. — Con'scicnable, -shun-a-bl, a. Governed 
by conscience ; just. — Con''scious, -shus, a. Pos- 
sessing the faculty of knowing one's thoughts or 
mental operations'; capable of perceiving sounds, 
acts, or sensations ; made the object of conscious- 
ness; aware; apprised; sensible.— Con'sciousness, n. 
Knowledge of what passes in one's own mind; im- 

fim, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; gnd, eve, term ; Yn, ice ; 5dd, tone, 6r ; 




mediate knowledge of any object; state in which 
one knows what is passing around one. 

Conscript, kon'skript, a. Enrolled; written; regis- 
tered. — n. One taken by lot, to serve as a soldier or 
sailor. — Conscript'', v. t. To enroll, by compulsion, 
for military service. 

Consecrate, kon'se-krat, v. t. To make, or declare to 
be sacred; to appropriate to sacred uses; to enroll 
among the gods or saints, apotlieosize, canonize; to 
render venerable, dignitv. — a. Consecrated; de- 
voted; sacred. — Consecra'^tion, v. Act or ceremony 
of consecrating ; dedication ; canonization ; apothe- 
osis. — Con'secrator, 71. 

Consecution, ko7i-se-ku''shun, n. A sequel : train of 
things that follow one another. — Consec'utive, -u- 
ti V, a. Following in a train ; uninterrupted in succes- 
sion ; following Its a consequence or result. (Miis.) 
Following in the same order. — Consec'utively, 
adv. — Con'sequence, -se-kwens, n. That which 
flows out of, antl follows, something on which it de- 
pends. (Lou-) A conclusion which results from rea- 
son or argument ; inference : deduction ; connec- 
tion of cause and effect. — Con'sequent, a. Follow- 
ing as a result or inference. (Log.) FoUpwing by 
necessary inference, or rational deduction. — n. 
That which follows, etc. (Log.) A conclusion or 
inference. (Math.) The second term of a ratio. — 
Con''sequently, adr. — Consequential, -kwen'shal, 
a. Following, etc.; assuming an air of consequence; 
pompous. — Consequen-'tially, adr. With just de- 
duction of consequences; logically; by consequence; 
in a regular series; with assumed importance. 

Consensus, kon-sen'sus, n. Agreement ; accord. — 
Consent'', n. Agreement in opinion or sentiment; 
correspondence in parts, qualities, or operations; 
voluntary accordance with what is done or proposed 
by another; accord; concurrence; free-will. — v. i. 
To agree in opinion or sentiment; to yield to guid- 
ance, persuasion, or necessity; to give assent, ac- 
cede, comply, permit, acquiesce. — Consent'' er, n. 

Conserve, kon'serv', v. t. [-served (-servd''), -serv- 
ing.] To save, preserve, protect;, to prepare with 
sugar, etc., for preservation, as fruits, etc. — n. Any- 
thing conserved, esp. a sweetmeat, of fruit, etc., 
prepared with sugar. — Conserv'able, a. Capable 
of being, etc. — Conserv'ant, a. Preserving from 
destruction or decay. — Conserv'ancy, -sT, Conser- 
■va''tion, n. Act of, etc. — Conserv'ative, -tiv, a. 
Preservative; disposed to maintain existing institu- 
tions. — n. One who, or that which, preserves from 
ruin, injury, or radical change; one who desires to 
maintain existing institutions and customs. — Con- 
serv'atism, -tizm, n. Disposition or tendency to 
preserve what is established; opposition to change. — 
Conserv'atory, -to-rt, a. Having the quality of pre- 
serving from loss, decay, or iniurj'. — n. A place for 
preserving things, esp. a jjreenfiouse for plants; that 
which preserves from injury; a public place of in- 
struction in learning or art. 

Consider, kon-sid'er, i'. t. [-sidered (-sid^'erd), -er- 
IXG.] To think on with care, fix the mind on; to 
have regard to, take into view or account; to esti- 
mate, think, view. — v. i. To think seriouslj', ma- 
turely, or carefully, deliberate. — Consid''erable, 
a. Possessing consequence; of some distinction; 
noteworthy; respectable: of importance or value; 
moderately large. — Consid''erablene3s, /;. Some de- 
gree of iniportance, etc. — Consid'erably, adv. — 
Consid''erate, a. Given to consideration or sober 
reflection; mindful of the rights, claims, and feel- 
ings of others. — Consid'^erataly, adv. — Consid''er- 
ateness, h. — Consid'era'tion, n. Act of consider- 
ing; careful thought; deliberation; appreciative re- 
gard ; claim to notice ; some degree of consequence; 
ground of opinion: influence. (Law.) The material 
cause of acohtract ; compensation; equivalent. 

Consign, kon-sin'', v. t. [-sig.ned (-sind''), -signing.] 
To give, transfer, or deliver, formally; to commit, 
intrust. (Coot.) To give into the hands of an agent 
for superintendence, sale, etc. To assign, appro- 
priate. — Consign''ment, 71. Act of, etc. (Vom.) 
Thing consigned; goods sent to a factor for sale; 
the writing by which a thing is consigned. 

Consist, kon-sist'', i'. i. To be in a fixed or permanent 
state; to be, exist, subsist; to be consistent or har- 

monious. — Con8ist''ent, a. Possessing firmness or 
fixedness ; having agreement with itself at different 
times, or harmony among its parts; accordant; con- 
gruous ; uniform. 

Console, kon-sol'. v. t. [-soled (-sold'), -solixg.J To 
cheer in distress, comfort, soothe. — ConsoKer, «.-■ 
ConsoKable, a. — Consola''tion, n. Act of comfort- 
ing or state of being comforted; that which com- 
forts.— Consolatory, -t-SKa-to-rt, a. lending to com- 
fort; pert, to consolation. 

Console, kon''sol, n. (Arch.) A bracket; a projecting 
ornament on the keystone of anarch. 

Consolidate, kon-soKl-dat, v. t. To ' 
make solid, unite or press together 
into a compact mass; to unite, as va- 
rious particulars, into one body, con- 
dense, compress. — v. i. To grow 
firm and hard, unite and become 
solid. — a. Consolidated. 

Consomme, ko.v-som-ma'', n. (Cook- . Console. 
erij.) A broth made very strong by boiling. 

Consonant, kon''so-nant^a. Having agreenient; con- 
gruous; consistent. (3fus.) Harmonizing togeth- 
er ; accordant. — 71. An articulation which is uttered 
with a more open sound called a vowel; a letter rep- 
resenting such articulation. — Con''sonance, -nancy, 

• n. (Jlus.) A pleasing accord of sounds produced 
simultaneously. Agreement; unison; harmony. 

Consort, kon''»6rt, w. A companion or partner; esp. a 
wife or husband; spouse. — Consort'', v. i. To unite 
or keep company ; associate. — v. t. To join, as in 
affection, company, etc. 

Conspectus, kon-spek'tus, n. A general sketch or out- 
line of a subject; synopsis; epitome. — Conspic'uous, 
-u-us, a. Obvious to the eye; manifest; noted; illus- 

Conspire, kon-spTr'', i>. i. [-spired (-spTrd'), -spiring.] 
To covenant for an evil purpose, plot together; to 
concur to one end, agree, combine, league. — v.t. 
To plot, concur in.— Conspiracy, -spTr''a-sT, n. A 
combination of persons for evil; concurrence to one 
event ; combination ; plot. — Conspir''ator, -ter, n. 

Constable, kun''sta-bl, n. A high officer in medieval 
monarchical establishments. (Law.) An officer of 
the peace, bound to execute warrants of ju-licial 

Constant, kon'stant, a. Not liable to change; stead- 
fast; permanent; perpetual; resolute; firm. (Math. 
& Phtfsics.) Remaining unchanged or invariable. — 
n. That which is not subject to change. (Math.) A 
quantity whose value always remains the same in 
trie same expression. — Con''stantly, adv. — Con''- 
stancy, -si, n. Quality of being, etc.; freedom from 
change; firmness of mind, esp. under sufferings, in 
attachments, or in enterprise ; stability ; resolution. 

Constellation, kon-stel-la''shun,re. A group of fixed 
stars; assemblage of splendors or excellencies. 

Consternation, kon-ster-na''shun, n. Amazement or 
terror that confounds the faculties; horror; amaze- 

Constipate, kon''stT-pat, v. t. To stop, as a passage, by 
filling it, and preventing motion through it; to ren- 
der costive. — Constipa''tion, n. Act of crowding; 
state of being crowded ; condensation ; costiveness. 

Constitute, kon''stT-tut, v. t. To cause to stand, es- 
tablish, enact; to give formal existence to, compose, 
form ; to appoint, depute, or elect to an office or 
employment. — Con''stituter, n. — Constit''uent, -u- 
ent, o. Serving to form, etc. ; component ; element- 
al ; having power to elect or appoint. — n. The per- 
son or thing which establishes, etc. ; component 
part ; element ; one who assists to appoint or elect 
a representative to an office. — Constitu''tion, n. Act 
of constituting ; form.ition ; state of being ; natural 
condition; conformation; princioles or fundamental 
laws which govern a state or otner organized body 
of men ; an authoritative ordinance, regulation, or 
enactment. — Constitu''tional, a. Pert, to or inher- 
ent in the constitution ; in accordance with, or au- 
thorized by, the constitution of a government or so- 
ciety ; regulated by, dependen*: on, or secured by, 
etc. ; for the benefit of tli£ constitution. — n. Exer- 
cise for the constitution, or health. 

Constrain, kon-stran'', v. t. [-strained (-strand''); 
-STRAINING.] To secure by bonds, bring into a nar- 

stln, cube, full ; moon, f(3t)t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, then, boNboN, chair, get. 




row compass, hold back by force, urge with irresist- 
ible power, necessitate. — Constrain'able, a. — Con- 
strain'^edly, adc. — Constraint, -strant'', n. Act 
of, or state of being, etc. ; tliat which constrains ; 
compulsion ; urgency. — Constrict', v. t. To draw 
together into a "narrow compass, contract. — Con- 
stric'tion, ?i. Act of, or state of being, etc. — Con- 
Btricfive, -iv, a. Serving to bind. — Constrict'or, 
-er, n. That which, etc. ; esp. a serpent which sur- 
rounds its prey with its folds and crushes it. — Con- 
stringe, -strinj"', v. t. [-stringed (-strinid'), -strin- 
ging.] To draw together, contract. — Constrin^gent, 
a. Having the quality of contracting. 

Construct, kon-strukf, v. t. To put together the 
constituent parts of ; to devise and put in an or- 
derly arrangement.— Con'struct, a. Formed bj% or 
pert, to, construction, interpretation, or inference. 
— Construct 'er, n. — Construc'tion, n. Act of con- 
structing; act of building, or of devising and form- 
ing ; fabrication ; composition ; manner of putting 
together the parts of anything. (Gram.) Syntac- 
tical arrangement. The metliod of construing or 
explaining a declaration or fact ; understanding ; 
interpretation; sense. — Construcfiveness, w. Ten- 
dency to, etc. (P/tren.) The faculty which leads 
to the formation of parts into a whole. See Phre- 
nology.— Construe, -stroo', r. t. [-STRUED (-strood'); 
-STRUiNG.] To exhibit the construction of, as of a 
sentence or clause ; to interpret, translate. 

Consubstantial, kon-sub-stan'shal, a. Having the 
same essence. — Con'substan'tia'tion, n. Identity 
of substance. (I'/teol.) The actual presence of the 
body of Christ with the bread and wine of the 
Lord's supper. 

Consul, kon'sul, n. One of the 2 chief magistrates 
of the Roman republic, after the expulsion of the 
kings ; one of the 3 supreme magistrates of France 
from 1799 to 1804 ; an officer appointed by a govern- 
ment to protect the interests of its citizens abroad. 

Consult, kon-sulf, v. i. To seek opinion or advice, 
take counsel, deliberate. — r. t. To ask advice of ; 
to deliberate upon. — Consult'er, n. — Consulta''- 
tion, n. Act of consulting or deliberating ; a meet- 
ing, esp. of lawyers or of doctors, to consult. 

Consume, kon-sum', v. t. [-susied (-sumd''), -sum- 
ING.] To destroy, as by decomposition, dissipation, 
waste, or fire ; to swallow up, absorb, dissipate. — 
V. i. To waste away slowly. — Consum'able, a. — Con- 
sump 'tion, n. Act of, or state of being, etc. {Med.) 
A gradual decay or diminution of the body ; esp. a 
disease seated in the lungs, attended with hectic 
fever, cough, etc. — Consump'tive, -tiv, a. Having 
the quality of consuming ; destructive ; affected 
with, or inclined to, consiimption. 

Consummate, kon'sum-mat or -sum'mat, v. t. To 
bring to completion, raise to the highest point or 
degree, perfect, achieve. — Consum'mate, a. Carried 
to the utmost extent ; complete ; perfect. — Con- 
sum'mately, adv. — ConsHmma'tion, n. Act of, etc. ; 
completion ; close ; perfection. 

Contact, kon'takt, n. A close union of bodies ; a 
touching or meeting. — Contagion, -ta'jun,n. Trans- 
mission of disease from one person to another, by 
contact; a medium or agency to transmit disease; 
pestilential influence ; act or'means of propagating 
influence or effect. — Conta'gious, -jus, a. {Med.) 
Communicable by contact or approach ; infectious; 
catching. Containing or generating contagion ; pes- 
tilential ; communicable from one to another. — 
Contig''uous. -u-us, a. In contact ; adjoining. — 
Contig'uously, adr. — Contig'uousness, -tigu'ity, n. 
State of being, etc. — Contin'gent, -jent, a. Liable, 
but not certain to occur ; dependent on what is un- 
known ; incidental; casual. {Law.) Dependent 
for effect on something tliat mav or may not occur. 
— n. A contingency ; what falls to one in an ap- 
portionment_; quota ; proportion. _ 

Contain, kon-tan', v. t. [-tained (-tand'), -taining.] 
To hold within fixed limits, comprehend, comprise; 
to be able to hold, inclose, ^j'. i. To live incon- 
tinence or chastity. — Content', a. Having the de- 
sires limited by present enjoyment ; satisfied ; at 
rest. — V. i. To satisfy the mind of, appease, please, 
gratify. — n. Satisfaction ; moderate happiness ; 
that which contents. — Con'tent or Content', /(., 

gen. in pi. That which is contained; power of con- 
taining ; capacity. — Content'ed, a. Content; satis- 
fied. — Content'edly, adr. — Content'edness, n. — 
Content'ment, n. Satisfaction of mind ; acquies- 
cence ; that which affords satisfaction ; gratifica- 
tion. — Con'tinent, n. {Geog.) One of the large 
bodies of land on the globe. Tne main land of Eu- 
rope, as disting. fr. the islands, esp. fr. England. — 
a. Restraining the indulgence of desires or pas- 
sions, esp. as to sexual intercourse ; temperate ; 
Contaminate, kon-tam't-nat, v. t. To soil, stain, or 
corrupt by defiling contact ; to pollute, defile, taint. 

— o. Having defilement; corrupt. 

Contemn, kon-tem', v. t. [-te.mned (-temd'), -tem- 
NiNG (-tem'ning).] To consider and treat as un- 
worthy of regard ; to reject with disdain, despise, 
scorn. — Contempt', n. Act of, or state of being, 
etc. {Law.) Lisobedience of the rules of a court 
of justice or legislative body. — Contempt'ible, a. 
Worthy of, etc. ; abject ; vile ; mean : base ; pitiful. 

— Contempt'ibleness, ?i. — Contempt'ibly, adv. — 
Contempt'uous, -u-us, a. Manilestiug, etc. ; scorn- 
ful; insolent; fastidious. — Contempt'uously, ac/i;. 

Contemplate, kon'tem-plat or -teni'plat, r. t. To 
look at on all sides, regard with care, meditate on, 
study ; to have in view, as contingent or probable, 
look forward to, ponder, plan, purpose. — v.i. To 
think studiously, muse, meditate.— Contem'plative, 
-tiv, a. Pert, or'addicted to, etc.; studious; thought- 
ful ; having tlie power of thought or meditation. — 
Contem'platively, adv. — Contem'platLveness, n. 

Contemporaneous, kon-tem'po-ra'ne-us, a. Living, 
acting, or transpiring at the same time ; contem- 
porary. — Contem'porary, -po-ra-rT, o. Living, act- 
ing, or transpiring at the same time. — n. One who 
lives at the same time with anotlier. 

Contempt, Contemptuous, etc. See under Contemn. 

Contend, kon-tend', (■. L To strive in opposition, or 
in debate, engage in discussion, dispute. — Conten'- 
tion, n. A violent effort to obtain or resist; strife in 
debate ; struggle; quarrel; feud; competition; dis- 
cord. — Conten'tious, -shus, a. Apt to contend; in- 
volving contention; quarrelsome; litigious; perverse, 

Content, Contentment, etc. See under Contain. 

Conterminate, kon-ter'mi-nat, -minal. -mlnous, -nus. 
a. Having the same bounds or boundaries; contigu- 

Contest, kon-test', v. t. To make a subject of dispute; 
to strive earnestly to maintain ; to dispute, contro- 
vert, oppose. {Law.) To resist, as a claim, bj' course 
of law. — V. i. To engaM in dispute, strife, etc.; to 
emulate.— Con'test, n. Earnest dispute; strife; com- 
bat; battle: debate; difference; strife. —Contest'- 
able, a. — Contest'ant, n. One who, etc. 

Context, kon'tekst, n. The parts of a discourse which 
precede or follow a particular passage. 

Contiguous, Contingent, etc. See under Contact. 

Continent. See under Contain. 

Continue, kon-tin'u, v.i. [-tinued (-tin'ud), -tinu- 
ING.J To remain in a given place or condition; to 
be permanent or durable, steadfast or constant; to 
endure, last, persevere, persist, stay. — r. t. To pro- 
long, persist in. — Contin'uer. ??.— Contin'uous, -u- 
us, a. Without break, cessation, or interruption; 
constantly prolonged ; extended. — Contin'ual, a. 
Proceeding without interruption; very frequent: 
often repeated; of frequent recurrence; perpetual; 
incessant. — Contin'ually, adv. — Contin'ua'tion, n. 
Act of continuing, or the state of being continued; 
that whicli extends, increases, supplements, etc. — 
Contin'uative, -tiv, n. {Rhet.) A statement express- 
ing permanence or duration. {Gram.) A connect- 
ive; conjunction. 

Contort, kon-t6rt', v. t. To twist togefher, writhe. — 
Contor'tion, n. A twisting; partial dislocation of a 
limb. — Contor'tive, -tiv, a. Expressiu'' contortion. 

Contour, kon-toor', n. Bounding line; outline; periph- 

Contraband, kon'tra-band, a. Prohibited by law or 
treaty ; forbidden. — n. Prohibited merchandise or 

Contract, kon-trakt', v. t. To draw together or nearer, 
reduce to less compass; to bring on, be liable to; to 

ilm, fame, f iir, pass o7- opera, fare ; end, eve, term ; In, Ice ; 8dd, tone. Or : 




make a bargain for; to betroth, affiance. (Gram.) 
To unite into one long vowel or diphthonjr, — said 
of concurrent vowels. — v. i. To be drawn together 
or reduced in compass: to make an agreement, cov- 
enant, bargain. — Con'' tract, n. An agreement be- 
tween parties, imposing obligations and conferring 
rights upon each; covenant; compact; stipulation; 
obligation; a formal writing containing such agree- 
ment. (.Gram.) A word in which concurrent vow- 
els are contracted. — Contrac'tion, n. Act of, or 
state of being, etc. (Mot/i.) Process of shortening 
any operation. Anything in a state of abbreviation. 
< Gram.) The shortening of a word, by uniting con- 
current vowels or omitting a vowel or syllable. — 
Centract'or, -er, ii. One who, etc.; esp. one who 
contracts to perform work upon specified terms. 

Contradict, kon-trd-dikf, v. t. To assert the contrary 
of, deny: to be contrary to, oppose. — Contradict'*- 
er, n. — Contradie'tion, n. An assertion of the con- 
trary to what has been said; opposition or repug- 
nancy; incongruity; contrariety. — Contradlc'tious, 
-shus, a. Filled with contradictions: inclined to con- 
tradict. — Contradicfive, -iv, a. Contradictory. — 
Contradicfory, («. xVffirming the contrary; imply- 
ing denial; inconsistent; repugnant. (Lo/jic.) Op- 
posed in every possible respect. — ??. A proposition 
which denies or opposes another in all its terms; 
contrarietj'; inconsistency. — Contradicforily, adv. 

Contradistinguish, kon-tra-dis-tin''gwish, v. t. [-tin- 
GUisuED (-gwisht), -GUiSHiNG.] To distinguish by 
contrast. — Con'tradistinc'tion, n. 

Contralto, kon-traKto, n. (Mus.) The part sung by 
the highest male or lowest female voices ; alto or 
counter-tenor; the voice or singer performing tlois 
part. — a. Pert, to, etc. 

Contrary, kon'tra-rT, a. Oppcsite; different; contra- 
dictory; given to opposition; perverse; wayward. 
(Lofjic.) Opposed in quality only. — n. A thing of 
opposite qualities; a proposition contrary to another. 

Contrast, kon-trasf, r. t. To set in opposition, in 
order to show superiority or give effect. — v. i. To 
stand in opposition; exhibit contrast. — Con'trast, ??. 
Opposition of things or qualities; comparison by 
contrariety of qualities. 

Contratenor, kon'tra-ten-er, n. (Mus.) A middle part 
between tenor and treble; counter-tenor; contjalto. 

Contravene, kon-tra-ven', v. t. [-vexed (-vend'), 
-VEXING.] To meet in the way of opposition, come 
in conflict with, contradict, obstruct, oppose. — Con- 
traven'tion, -ven^'shun, n. Act of, etc. 

Contretemps, kox-tr-to^', n. An unexpected acci- 
dent, creating confusion; mishap. 

Contribute, kon-trib''ut, v. t. To give to a common 
stock or for a common purpose. — v.i. To give a 
part, lend assistance. — Contrib'utor, -ter, n. — Con- 
trib^utable, a. — Contribu'tion, m. Act of, etc.; thing 
contributed. {3HI.) Imposition levied on a con- 
quered people. (Law.) Payment, by several jointly 
liable, of their shares of a loss by one of the num- 
ber, or payment by him for all, with reference to 
their common liability. 

Contrite, kon'trit, a. Broken down with grief or pen- 
itence: repentant; humble; sorrowful.— Contri''tion, 
-trish''un, n. State of being contrite; deep sorrow 
for sin; compunction; self-reproach; remorse. 

Contrive, kon-trlv', v. t. [-TKivEoC-trivd''), -triving.] 
To form by exercise of ingenuity, devise, invent, 
plan, plot. — r. i. To make devices, plan. — Con- 
triv'er, >!.- Contriv'able, a.— Contrivance, n. Act 
of, etc.; thing contrived; an act of cunning; scheme; 
invention; project; artifice; shift; 

Control, kon-tror, n. Orig., a register kept to check 
another register ; that which serves to check, re- 
strain, or hinder; power to check; restraining influ- 
ence; direction; superintendence. — v. t. [-trolled 
<-trold'), -TROLLING.] To restrain, govern, over- 
power, counteract. [ Formerly written comptrol and 
co)itroul.] — ContToVleT, n. One who, etc. — Con- 
troller, Comptroller,' kon-troK'Jr, n. An officer ap- 
pointed to keep a counter register of accounts, or to 
control or verify the accounts of other officers. 

Controversy, kon'tro-ver-sT, n. Maintenance of opin- 
ions discordant with those of others ; dispute; de- 
bate; hostility. — Con'trovert, v. t. To make matter 
of controversy; to contest; to debate, deny. — Con''- 

troverter, -vertist, -ver'sialist, -viSr-'shal-ist, n. One 
who, etc. ; a disputant ; polemic — Controvert'ible, 
a. Capable of being, etc. — Controvert'ibly, adv. 

— Controver'sial, -slial. a. Pert, to, etc.; disputa- 
tious. -Controver-'sially, adv. 

Contiunacy, kon'tu-ma-sl, n. Persistent obstinacy ; 
stubborn perverseness. {Law.) Willful contempt 
of, and disobedience to, lawful summons or rules of 
court. — Contumacious, -ma'shus, a. Exhibiting 
contumacy; contemning authority. 

Contumely, "kon'tu-me-lT, H. Kudi:ness compounded 
of hautjhtincss and contempt; reproach.— Contume'- 
lious, -Il-us, a. Overbearingly contemptuous; inso- 
lent; reproachful. — Contume'Iiously, adv. 

Contuse, kon-tuz', v. t. [-tused (-tuzd'), -tusing.] 
To beat, pound, or bray together ; to bruise by beat- 
ing.— Contu'^sion, -zhun, n. Act of, or state of being, 

Conundrum, ko-nun'drum, n. A sort of riddle in 
which some odd resemblance between unlike things 
is proposed for discovery ; a puzzling question, 
whose answer involves a pun. 

Convalesce, kon-va-le&C, v. i. [-lesced (-lest'), -les- 
CiNG.] To recover health and strength after sick- 
ness. — Convales'cence, -sens, -cency, n. Recovery, 
etc.; state of a body renewing its vigor after sick- 
ness. — Convales'cent, n. Recovering, etc. — n. One 
recovering, etc. — Convales'cently, cidv. 

Convene, kon-ven', v. i. [-vened (-vend'), -vexing.] 
To come together, meet in the same place, assemble, 
unite. — V. t. To cause to assemble, call together, 
convoke ; to summon judicially to meet or appear. 

— Conven'able, «. — Conven'er, w. — Conven'ient, 
-yent, a. Adapted to an end; fit; becoming: afford- 
ing convenience ; commodious. — Conven'iently, 
adv. — Conven'ience, -yens, -iency, n. State of be- 
ing, or that which is, convenient ; an accommoda- 
tion. — Con 'vent, 71. A community of recluses de- 
voted to a religious life ; a body of monks or nuns; 
a house occupied by such a community ; abbey ; 
monasterjs nunnery. — Conven'tion, n. Act of com- 
ing together; arbitrary custom; usage; an assembly 
of delegates for a delioerative purpose; an informal 
or preliminary compact, as between belligerents, etc. 

— Conven'tional, ffl. Formed by agreement; stipu- 
lated ; growing out of, or depending on, custom; 
sanctioned by usage. 

Converge, kon-verj', v. i. [-verged (-verjd'), -veh- 
GiNG.J To tend to one point, incline and. approach 
nearer together. 

Converse, n. and a. See under Convert. 

Converse, kon-vers', v. i. [-versed (-versf), -vers- 
ing.] To keep company, or have familiarity; to 
commune ; to talk f amiliarl}^ chat. — Con'versant, 
a. Having customary intercourse; familiar by use 
or study; versed; having concern or relation. — Con- 
versa'tion, M. Familiar intercourse; close acquain- 
tance ; informal talk : discourse ; colloquy ; confer- 
ence.— Conversa'tional, a. Pert, to, etc.; colloquial. 

Convert, kon-vert', v. t. To change from one form, 
substance, religion, party, use, etc., to another ; to 
turn, transmute, appropriate. — v.i. To be turned 
or changed; to undergo a change, be transmuted. — 
Con'vert, n. One converted from one opinion or 
practice to another ; esp. one who turns from sin to 
holiness; proselyte; neophyte; pervert.— Convert'- 
er, n. — Con' verse, -vers, n. (.Logic.) A proposition 
produced by interchanging the terms of another. 
(Math.) A change in the form of a proposition, in- 
verting its order and making the conclusion the 
premise. — a. Turned about; reciprocal. — Con'- 
versely, adv. — Conver'sion, n. Act of changing 
from one condition to another ; transmutation ; 
change from one side, party, etc., to another. (Laiv.) 
An appropriation of property. (Logic.) Act of inter- 
changing the terms of a proposition. (Math.) A 
change of the form of a proposition. (Mil.) A change 
of front. (Theol.) A radical change of heart or moral 

Convex, kon'veks, a. Rising or swelling into a 
rounded form. — n. A convex body. See Lens. 

Convey, kon-va', v. t. [-veyed (-vad'), -veying.] To 
carry from one place to another ; to transfer to an- 
other, make over; to communicate. — Convey'able, 
a. — Convey'ance, n. Act of conveying; transmis- 

siin, cube, full ; moon, fd&t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, tlien, boNboN, chair, get. 




elon; transference; instrument or means of convey- 
ing. {Law.) A written instrument by which prop- 
erty or title is conveyed from one to another.— Con- 
Vey'ancer, n. (Laiv.) One who draws up convey- 
ances of property. — Convey'ancing, m. (.Law.) Act 
or practice of, etc. — Convoy', v. t. [-voyed (-void'), 
-TOYING.] To accompany lor protection.— Con' voy, 
«. Act of, etc. ; a protecting force accompanying 
fillips or property; tJie ship or fleet protected; prop- 
erty convoyed; a drag or brake upon wheels of a 
vehicle when going down hill. 
Convict, kon-vikf, v. t. To prove guilty of an of- 
fense charged ; to pronounce guilty, as by legal 
decision; to show by proof; to confute, confound. 

— Con'vict, n. One proved guilty of crime ; male- 
factor ; felon ; criminal. — Convic'tion, n. Act of 
proving, finding, or adjudging guilty ; act of con- 
vincing of error ; confutation ; state of being con- 
vinced, esp. of being convicted of sin, or by one's 
conscience, — Convict'ive, -iv, a. Fitted to, etc. — 
Convince', r. t. [-vinceu (-vinsf), -vincing.] To 
overcome by argument, satisfy by proof, persuade, 

Convivial, kon-viv'T-al, a. Relating to an entertain- 
ment; festal; jovial; social; gaj'. — Conviv'ial'ity, ■«. 
Good humor attending festive occasions. 

Convoke, kon-vok', v. t. [-voked (-vokt'p, -vokixg.] 
To call together, convene. — Convoca'tion, n. Act 
of, etc. ; assembly or meeting. 

Convolve, kon-volv', v. t. [-volved (-volvd'), -VOLV- 
IXG.] To roll together, twist. — Con'volnte, -Itit, a. 
(Bot.) Rolled together, or one part on another. — 
Convolu'tion, Ji. Act of rolling or winding together, 
or one thing on another; state of being, etc. 

Convoy. See under Coxvey. 

ConvTilae, kon-vuls', r.?. [-vuLSED(-vulst'),-vuLSixG.] 
To draw or contract violently and irregularlv, as the 
muscular parts of the body;'to agitate, rend'. — Con- 
VUl'sion, -shun, n. (Med.') Unnatural contraction 
of the muscular parts. Any violent and irregular 
motion ; commotion ; disturbance ; spasm. — Gon- 
vul'sive, -siv, a. Producing, or attended with, etc. 

Cony, ko'nl or kun'I, n. A rabbit. 

Coo, koo, V. i. [cooed (kood), cooing.] To make a 
low sound, as pigeons. 

Cook, kd6k, v. t. [cooked (k(5&kt), cooking.] To 
prepare, as food for the table, by boiling, roasting, 
baking, broiling, etc.; to concoct," tamper with, alter. 

— V. I. To prepare food for the table. — n. One 
who, etc.— Cook'ery, -er-T, n. Art or practice of, etc. 

Cooky, kd&k'l, n. A small, thin, sweet cake. 

Cool, kool, a. Moderately cold ; producing coolness ; 
calm, or free from excitement by passion ; dispas- 
sionate; self-possessed; manifesting coldness or dis- 
like; chilling ; negligent of propriety in minor mat- 
ters ; impudent, — n. A moderate state of cold. — 
V. t. [COOLED (koold), COOLING.] To make cool or 
cold ; to moderate the excitement of ; to allay, as 
passion ; to calm, moderate. — v. i. To become less 
not; lose heat; to become more moderate. — Cool'- 
er, n. That which cools or abates heat or excite- 
ment; a vessel in which liquors, etc., are cooled. — 
Cool'ish, a. Somewhat cool. — Cool'ly, adv. In a 
cool manner. — Cool'ness, ?(. 

Cooly, -lie, kob'lt, n. An East Indian porter; a la- 
borer transported from the East, for service else- 

Coop, koop, n. A barrel or cask; a grated T)ox orin- 
closure for_small animals, esp. poultrv. — i'. t. 
[COOPED (koopt), COOPING.] To confine in a coop, 
orin a narrow compass; to crowd, confine, imprison. 

— Cooper, k(3t)p- or koop'er, n. One wlio makes bar- 
rels, tubs, etc. — !•. ^ To do cooper's work upon. 

Cooperate, ko-op'er-at, w i. To act or operate jointly 
with another. — Cobp'era'tion. n. Act of, etc. ; con- 
current effort or labor. — Coip'erative, -tiv, a. Op- 
erating jointly. — Coop'erator, -ter, n. 

Coordinate, ko-6r'dt-nat, a. Equal in rank or order ; 
not subordinate. —r. t. To make coordinate, or 
equal in rank, to harmonize. — n. A person or thing 
of the same rank with another, pi. (Math.) Lines, 
or other elements of reference, by which the posi- 
tion of a point is defined with respect to fixed lines, 
or planes, called coordinate axes and coordinate 

Coot, koot, n. A short-tailed water-fowl, frequenting 
lakes and still waters; a stupid fellow; simpleton. 

Copal, ko'pal, n. A resinous substance from 2 East 
India and S. Amer. trees — used in manufacture of 

Copartner, ko-part'ner, n. A joint partner; associate; 
partaker. — Copart'nership, n. Joint interest or con- 
cern; an unincorporated business association. 

Cope, kop, n. A covering for the head; anything ex- 
tended over the head, as the vault of tne sky; a 
sacerdotal cloak. (.Founding.) The top part of a 

Cope, kop, V. i. [coped' (kopt), coping.] To strive, 
contend, esp. on equal terms or with success; to 
match, equal. — v. i. To match one's self against. 

Copernican, ko-per'nT[-kan, a. Pert, to Copernicus, 
a Prussian astronomer who taught the solar system, 
now received. 

Copier. See under Copy. 

Copious, ko'pT-us, a. Large in quantity or amount; 
abundant; rich; full; exuberant. 

Copper, kop'per, n. A metal of reddish color, ductile, 
malleable, and tenacious; a coin, also a vessel, esp. 
a boiler, made of copper. — v. t. [coppered (-perd), 
-PEKING.] To cover or sheathe with copper. — Cop'- 
peras, n. Sulphate of iron, or green vitriol; a green 
salt, of a styptic, astringent taste. 

Coppice, kop' pis. Copse, kops, n. A wood of small 
growth; underwood; brushwood. — Copse, 2-'. -^ To 
trim or cut, as brushwood. 

Copt, kopt, n. A descendant of the ancient Egyptians; 
an Egyptian Christian, esp. of the ancient Mono- 
physite church. — Cop'tic, a. Pert, to, etc. — «.-The 
language of, etc. 

Copula, kop'u-la, n. {Logic.) The word uniting the 
subject and predicate of a proposition. — Cop'ulate, 
-lat,i'. t. To unite in sexual embrace. — Copula'- 
tion, n. Act of coupling; coition.— Cop'ulative, -tiv, 
a. Serving to couple. (Gram.) Uniting the sense as 
well as the words. — n. (^Grarn.) A copulative con- 
junction. — Cop'ulatory, -to-rt, a. Pert to, etc.; 

Copy, kop'T, n. A writing like another writing; trans- 
script; book printed according to the original; one 
of a series of repetitions of an original work. {Print.) 
jNIanuscript, etc., for the compositor. Anything to 
be imitated ; a model ; pattern. — r. t. " [copied 
(kop'id), COPYING.] To write, print, engrave, etc., 
after an original: to imitate, transcribe, model after. 

— r. i. To do a thing in imitation of something else. 

— Cop'3rright. -rit, "»i. An author's exclusive right 
to print, publish, and vend his own works, for Ms 
own benefit, during a certain time. — v. t. To secure 
by copj'right, as a book. 

Coquette, ko-ket', n. A vain, trifling woman, who en- 
deavors to attract admiration, and gain matrimonial 
offers, intending to reject her suitor. — Coquet', v. 
t. To attempt to attract notice, admiration, or 
love, with a view to disanpoint. —v. i. To trifle in 
love. — Coquet'ry, -rt, n. Affectation of amorous 
ad^'ances; trifling in love. — Coquet 'tish, a. Prac- 
ticing coquetry ; befitting a coquette. 

Coral, kor'al, n. The solid secretion of zoophytes, 
produced within the tissues of the polyps, consist- 
ing abnost purefy of carbonate of lime; a piece of 
coral; spawn of the lobster, which has the color of 

Corban, kor'ban, n. An alms-basket. (Jewish Antiq.) 
An offering or sacrifice devoted to God; vow by 
which one bound himself not to give to, or receive 
from another, some particular object. 

Corbeil, Corbel, korljel, n. {Arch.) A bracket of stone, 
wood, or iron, often carved in 
the form of a basket, head, etc., 
projecting from a wall to support 
a cornice, parapet, end of an 

■ arch, or other structure or mass; 
the vase or tambor of the Corin- 
thian column. — Cor'bel, v. t. i-i k i 
To furnish with corbels. Corbel. 

Cord, k6rd, n. A string, or small rope; a solid meas- 
ure, equivalent to 128 cubic feet; a pile 8 ft. long, 4 
ft. high, and 4 ft. broad, — orig. measured with a 
cord. — r. t. To bind with a cord; to pile up, as 
wood, for sale by the cord. — Cordelidre^ -lyar', n. 

&m, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; end, eve, term j In, Ice j Sdd, tone, 6r i 





A black, knotted silk handkerchief. [F.] — Cordon, 
kSr'doN or kSr'don, n. A ribbon borne as a badge 

of honor. {Arch.) 
side of a building. 

The edge of a stone on the out- 
(.Fort.) The projecting coping 

of the scarp-wall. {Mil.) A series of militarj' posts. 
[F.J — Corduroy, kSr'du-roi, n. A thick cotton stuff, 
corded or ribbed on the surface. 

Cordate, kSr-'dat, -dated, «. {Bot.) Having the form 
of a heart. — Cordial, kSr'dl-al or kor'jal, a. Pro- 
ceeding from the heart; hearty; sincere; affection- 
ate ; tending to revive, cheer, or invigorate. — n. 
Anything that comforts and exliilarates. (Med.) 
That which invigorates, esp. medicine which does 
so. {Com.) Aromatized spirit, employed as a bever- 
age. — Cordial'ity, h. Sincere attcctlon and kind- 
ness; warmth of regard; heartiness. 

Cordovan, kor'do-van, n. Spanish leather, or goat- 
skin tanned and dressed; cordwain. — Cordwainer, 
kSrd'wan-er, n. A worker iu cordovan leather; 

Core, kor, 7i. The heart or inner part of a thing, esp. 
of fruit. {Founding.) The internal mold which 
forms a hollow in casting. — r. t. [coked (kord), 
COKING.] To take out the core or inward parts of. 

Coriander, ko-rt-an'der, n. A plant whose seeds are 
considered in medicine as stomachic and carmina- 

Corinthian, ko-rin'tht-an, a. Pert, to Corinth. (Arch.) 
Pert, to the Corinthian order of architecture, pro- 
fusely ornamented. See Capital. 

Cork, kork, n. The outer bark of the cork tree, of 
which stoppers are made ; a stopper for a bottle, jug, 
etc. — V. t. [CORKED (kSrkt), cokking.] To stop or 
furnish with cork. 

Cormorant, kor'mo-rant, 
n. A voracious web- 
footed sea-bird, of the 
pelican family ; a glut- 
ton, or gluttonous ser- 

Com, k6rn, n. A single 
seed of certain plants, _ 
as wheat, rye, barlej', g 
and maize ; a grain ; the ~" 
various cereal or fari- 
naceous grains growing 
in ears, and used for 
food ; in Scot., oats; in Cormorant, 

the U. S., maize, or In- 
dian corn ; plants which produce corn ; a small, 
hard particle; a grain. — v. t. [cokxed (k6rnd), 
COKNING.J To preserve with salt in grains, cure by 
salting ; to form into small grains, granulate ; to 
feed with grain ; to render intoxicated. 

Corn, korn, n. A hard, horn-like induration of the 
skin, esp. on the toes. 

Cornea, kSr'ne-a, n. (Anat.) The strong, horny, 
transparent membrane forming the front part of 
the eye ball. See Eye. 

Cornelian, kSr-nefyan, 71. A kind of chalcedony. 
[Often spelled carnelian.] 

Corner, k6r''ner, n. The point where converging lines 
meet ; angle ; space between converging lines or 
walls which meet; an inclosed or retirea place ; a 
part ; an embarrassed position. (Stock Exchange.) 
The condition of a stock or commodity when a 
future delivery, in excess of the amount in the 
market, has been undertaken by parties who are 
therefore compelled to settle with the buyers at ficti- 
tious rates; a scarcity of a commodity, created for the 
purpose of increasing profits. — v. t. [cornered 
(-nerd), -nering.] To drive into a corner, or into a 
position of difficulty or necessary surrender ; to 
get control of, — saici of stocks. 

Comet, kQr'net, n. (Mus.) A wind instrument blown 
with the mouth ; a species of trumpet ; a certain 
organ stop or register. A cap of twisted paper, used 
by grocers. (Mil.) The standard-bearer in a cavalry 

Cornice, kfir'nis, n. (Arch.) A molded projection 
finishing the part to which it is affixed. 

Cornucopia, kor-nu-ko'pT-a, n. ; ]jI. -pi.v.. -pT-e. The 
horn of plenty, overflowing with fruits and flowers, 
— an emolem of abundance. 

Gorol, kor'ol, Corolla, ko-roKla, »?. (Bot.) The inner 


part of a flower, surrounding the organs of 
fructification and composed of leaves, 
called petals. — Cor'ollary, -la-rt, n. That ( 
which follows over and above a proposi-? 
tion demonstrated; an inference; deduc- ' 
tion; consequence. 

Corona, ko-ro'na, u. ; iil. -N.i;, -ne. (Arch.) 
A large, flat member of a cornice. (Anat.) 
The upper surface, as of a tooth. (Astron.) 
A luminous appearance surrounding the 
moon during a total eclipse of the sun. ,, ^ 
(Bot.) A crown-like margin of the top of p , ,, 
a flower ; an appendage at the top of '-^o™''''- 
some petals or seeds. (Meteorol.) A circle, 
around a luminous body. — Corona'tion, '^^ Y^]^}a' 
71. Act or solemnity of crowning a sov- P^ • ^. ' 
ereign. —Cor ''oner, a. An officer of the "' i.^\"^ 
law appointed to inquire into a violent P^i^^^'i' 
death. — Cor'onet, «. An inierior crown worn by 
noblemen; an ornamental headdress. 
(Far.) Tlie upper part of a horse's 
hoof. — CorCnis, n^(Gr. Gram.) A 
sign of contraction ['j placed over a 

Corporal, kSr'po-ral, «. (Mil.) The low- 
est officer of an infantry company. 
(iVuut.) An officer under the master 
at arms. 

Corporal, kOr^po-ral, a. Pert, to the body ; having a 
body or substance; not spiritual; material; bodilv. 
— 11. (Feci.) A linen cloth, to cover the elemen"^ts 
in the eucharist. — Cor'porally, adv. — Cor'porate, 
a. United in an association, and endowed Dv law 
with rights and liabihties of an individual"; in- 
corporated ; pert, to a corporation. — Cor^porately, 
adv. In a corporate capacity. — Corpora'tion, n. 
A body politic or corporate, authorized to act as a 
single person, and with the capacity of a perpetual 
succession. — Cor'porator, n. A member of a cor- 
poration. — Corpo'real, a. Having a body; consist- 
ing of a material body; material. — Corps, kor, pi. 
korz, n. sing. & pi. A body of men, esp. of troops ; 
an organized division of an army. — Corps-d'arm^e, 
korMar^ma', 7i. A portion of a grand army possessed 
of all constituents of an independent army. [F., 
body of the army.] — Corpse, kSrps, Corse, k6rs, 71. 
The dead body of a human being. — Corse'let, n. A 
light breastplate. (Entom.) The part of a win^d 
insect answering to the breast of other animals. fF.] 
— Cor'set, 77. An article of women's dress, inclos- 
ing the waist ; stays. — v. t. To inclose in, etc. — 
Cor'^pulent, a. Having an excessive quantity of 
flesh; fat; pursy; obese. — Corpuscle, kdr^pus-l, 71. 
A minute particle, or physical atom. (Anat.) An 
animal cell. 

Corral, kor''ral, n. A yard or inclosure, esp. for cat- 
tle, etc. — Corral', v. t. To surround and inclose ; 
to pen, as cattle. 

Correct, kor-rekt'', a. Conformable to truth, recti- 
tude, propriety, etc.; free from error ; accurate ; ex- 
act ; regular. — %>. t. To make or set right ; to bring 
to the standard of truth, justice, etc. ; to reprove or 
punish for faults; to obviate or remove, counteract 
or change, rectify, punish, chasten. — Correci'ness, 
n. — Correc'tion, 71. Act of correcting ; emenda- 
tion of errors; cliange for the better; amendment; 
punishment; discipline; what is substituted in the 
place of MHiat is wrong; counteraction of what is in- 
convenient. — Corrigendum, -rt-jen'dum, n. ; pi. 
-GENDA, -da. A word or thing to be corrected. — 
Cor^rigible, -rY-jT-bl, a. Capnble of being, etc.; de- 
serving chastiseiiient. — Cor'rigibleness, n. 

Correlate, kor-re-lat', v. i. To have reciprocal or mu- 
tual relations; to be mutually related.'— y. t. To 
bring into mutual relation ; to make, or regard as, 
coincident. — CorreKative, -tiv, a. Having or in- 
dicating, etc.; reciprocal. —,M. One who, or that 
which, stands in a reciprocal relation to some other. 
( Gram.) The antecedent of a pronoun. 

Correspond, kor-re-spond', v. i. To be adapted, be 
congruous ; to have intercourse or communication, 
esp. by letters ; to agree, fit, write. — Correspond'- 
ent, «. Having correspondence ; suitable ; con- 
formable. — 7i. One who corresponds ; one with, 
whom intercourse is carried on by letters. — Corre* 

etln, cube, full ; moon, f66t ; cow, oil ; ligger or ink, ttien. boNboN, ohair, get. 




Bpond'ently, -ingly, adv. In a corresponding- man- 
ner; suitable. — Correspond'ence, -ency, n. >Iutual 
adaptation of one thing to another ; congruity ; lit- 
ness ; friendly intercourse ; esp. by letters ; letters 
between correlspi indents. 

Corridor, kur'rl-dor, n. (ArcJi.) A passage-way to 
apartments independent of each other. 

Corrigendum, Corrigible, etc. See under Correct. 

Corroborate, kor-rob'o-rat, v. t. To make more cer- 
tain, confirm. — Corrob'ora''tion, n. Act of, or state 
of being, etc. ; conrirmation. — Corrob'orative, -tiv, 
a. Corroborating ; confirmatory. — n. A corrobo- 
rant. — Corrob'' oratory, -to-rT, a. Corroborative. 

Corrode, kor-rod', v. t. To eat away or consume by de- 
grees; to canker, gnaw, rust, wear awaj^. — Corro''- 
sive, -siv, a. Eating away ; having the power of 
gradually wearing, consuming, or impairing ; acri- 
monious ; fretting or vexing. — n. That which, etc. 

Corrugate, kor''rob-gat, v. t. To form or shape into 
wrinkles orfolds. — a. Shaped into wrinkles; fur- 
rowed ; contracted. — Corruga'tion, n. A contrac- 
tion into wrinkles. — Cor'rugant, a. Able to, etc. 

Corrupt, kor-rupt', v. t. To change from soundness 
to putrescence; to putrefy; to change from good to 
bad, vitiate, debase, entice, bribe. — v. i. To be- 
come putrid or tainted, rot; to become vitiated, lose 
purity. — a. Changed, etc.; spoiled; tainted; de- 
praved ; perverted. — Corrupfible. a. Capable of 
bein^, etc. — n. That which may decay and perish; 
the human body. — Corrupt'ibleness, -ibil'ity, n. 
Susceptibility of corruption. — Corrupfibly, adv. — 
Corrup''tion, n. Act of, or state of being, etc.; prod- 
uct of corruption; putrid matter; putrescence; de- 
filement; contamination. {Law.) Taint or impurity 
of blood, by which one is disabled from inheriting 
or transmitting any estate. 

Corse, Corselet, etc. See under Corporal. 

Corsair, kSr'sar, n. A pirate; piratical vessel. 

Cortege, kSr'tazh'', n. A train of attendants. 

Corundum, ko-run'dum, ?i. {Min.) The earth alumina, 
as found in a crystalline state. 

Coruscate, kor''us-kat or ko-rus'kat, v. i. To throw 
off vivid flashes of light; to glitter, gleam, sparkle. 

Corvet, kSr'vet, Corvette, kor-vet'', n. (IVowf.) A sloop 
of war, ranking below a frigate, and carrj'ing not 
more than 20 guns. 

Corsrpheus, kor'T-fe''us, n. The chief or leader of a 
Greek dramatic chorus; any chief or leader. 

Co-secant, ko-se''kant, n. ( Geom.) 
The secant of the complement 
of an arc or angle. In the fig- 
ure, AD is the secant of the 
arc CE, and the co-secant of 
the complement of that arc, or 
BE. — Co'sine, -sin, n. The 
sine of the complement of an 
arc or angle. In the figure, BF 
is the sine of the arc CF, and 
the co-sine of EF, the comple- 
ment of that arc. — Co-tan''gent, n. The tangent of 
the complement of an arc or angle. In the figure, 
CD is the tangent of the arc CE, 
and the co-tangent of EB, the 
complement of tnat arc. 

Cosmetic, koz-mefik, -ical, a. Im- 
proving beauty, esp. of the com- 
plexion. — Cosmefic, n. An ex- 
ternal application, to improve the 

Cosmos, koz'mos, n. The universe; the system of law, 
harmony, and truth combined within "the universe. 
— Cosmopol'itan, -mop'^oUte, -lit, n. One who has 
no fixed residence, but is at home in every place; a 
citizen of the world; one who regards the interests 
of mankind rather than of his own class or coun- 
try; a liberal. 

Cost, kost, n. Amount paid for anything; charge; ex- 
pense; whatever, as labor, self-denial, suffering, etc., 
is requisite to secure benefit; loss of any kind; det- 
riment; suffering, pi. (Laio.) Expenses in litiga- 
tion. — v.t. [COST, COSTING.] To require to be given, 
expended, or laid out for ; to require to be borne, 
cause to be suffered. — Cosfly, -IT, a. Of great cost; 
expensive ; sumptuous. — Cost''liness, Ji. 

Costal, kos''tal,«. Pert, to the side of the body or ribs. 

Co-secant, Co-tan- 


Costive, kos'tiv, a. Retaining fecal matter in the bow- 
els; constipated. 

Costume, kos-tum' or kos'tum, »?. An established 
manner or style, esp. of dress; adaptation of acces- 
sories, as in a picture, poem, etc., to the circum- 
stances described. 

Cot, kot. Cote, kot, 11. A small house; cottage; hut; 
also, a shed or inclosure for beasts; a cover for a 
sore finger, — Cot, Cott, kot, n. A sleeping place of 
small size; a little bed; cradle; folding bedstead. 

— Coftage, -tej, n. A small dwelling ,• cot; hut. — 
Cot'tager, Cot^ter, n. One who lives in a cottage. 

Co-tangent. See under Co-sec.\nt. 

Cotemporaneous, etc. See Contemporaxeous. 

Coterie, ko-te-re'', ?i. A set of persons who meet famil- 
iarly ; a club. 

Cotillon, Cotillion, ko-tiKyun, n. A dance of 8 per- 
sons; quadrille; tune regulating the dance. 

Cotton, koftn, n. The fibrous down enveloping the 
seeds of the cotton-plant: thread or cloth made of 
cotton. — a. Made of, etc. — v. i To rise with a 
regular nap. — Coiton flannel. A twilled cotton fab- 
ric, with a long plush nap ; Canton flannel. — Got- 
ton-'y, -T, a. Downj^ ; soft, like cotton ; contain- 
ing, or like, cotton; cheap looking. — Cot'ton-gin, 
-jin, n. A machine to separate the seeds from cot- 
ton. plant, «. A plant of several 

species, growing in warm climates, and 
bearing the cotton of commerce. — 
-seed, n. The seed of, etc., — j-ielding.; 
oil and oil-cake. — waste, n. The ref- 
use of cotton factories. wood, 7i. 

iBot.) An American tree of the pop- 
lar kind. — wool, n. Cotton in its raw 

Cotyledon, kot-T-lCdon, n. (Bot.) A 
seed-lobe of a plant, which involves 
and nourishes the embryo plant, and pAi„„ r,i„T,f 
then perishes. t..otton-plant. 

Couch, kowch, V t [couched (kowcht), couchixg.] 
To lajf down or deposit; to compose to rest; to put 
in language, phrase, state. — v.i. To lie down, as 
on a bed, repose; to lie down for concealment, hide; 
to bend the body, as in reverence, pain, labor, etc. 

— n. A place for rest or sleep; a layer of barley pre- 
pared for malting. (Painting, Gilding, etc.) A pre- 
liminary layer, as of color, size, etc. 

Cougar, k'oo''gar,n. (ZoUl.) A species of panther found 
in southern N. Amer. ; the puma or S. Amer. lion. 

Cough, kawf, n. A violent effort of the lungs to throw 
off irritating matter. — v- *• [coughed (kawft), 
coughing.] To expel air from the throat or lungs 
with force or noise. — v. t. To expel from the lungs 
by a cough, eject by a cough, expectorate. 

Could, k6&d, imj:). of can. See Can. 

Coulter. Same as Colter. 

Council, kown'sil, n. An assembly for consultation 
or advice; congress; diet; convention; convocation. 
^ Coim''cil-man, n.; pi. -men. A member of a coun- 
cil, esp. of the common council of a city. — Coun'- 
cilor, -er, n. A member of a council. 

Counsel, kown'sel, n. Mutual advisement, instruc- 
tion, or interchange of opinions; exercise of delib- 
erate judgment; result of consultation; deliberate 
purpose; one who gives advice, esp. in legal matters; 
QOllectively, the legal advocates united in the man- , 
agement of a case. — v. t. [counseled (-sold), -sel- 
ING.] To advise, admonish, or instruct. — Coun'- 
selor, -er, n. One who, etc.; an adviser; one who is 
consulted and gives advice on questions of law; a 
barrister. — Coun'^selorship, n. 

Count, kownt, v. t. To number, enumerate, reckon, 
compute; to consider as belonging to one, esteem, 
ascribe. — w. I. To number or be counted; hence, 
to swell the number, add strength or influence; to 
depend, rely. (Laio.) To plead orallj-. — n. Act of 
numbering,' or amount ascertained by numbering; 
reckoning. (Law.) A statement of a plaintiff's case 
in court. (Crim. Laio.) One of several charges in 
ah indictment. — Counter, kown'ter, n. One who 
couixts, or kee¥)s an account ; that which indicates a 
number ; a piece of coin-shaped metal, wood, etc., 
used in reckoning ; a table on which money is 
counted, and goods laid for examination by pur- 
chasers. — Count'er-jump'er, n. A salesman in a 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; end, eve, term ; In, ice ; Qdd, tone, 5r 




shop. — Counf able, a. — Count'less, a. Innumer- 
able. — Count'ing-house, -room. 71. Place for keep- 
ing accounts, etc., and transacting business. 

Count, kownt, «. A nobleman In Europe, equal in 
rank to an English earl. — Count'ess, »(. The con- 
sort of an earl or count. — Coun'ty, -tl, >i. Orig. an 
earldom: a territorial division of a state, for purposes 
of administration, justice, etc. ; a shire. 

Countenance, kown'te-nans, «. Appearance or ex- 
pression of the face; aspect; mien; the face; fea- 
tures ; encouraging aspect ; favor ; aid. — v. t. 
r-XAXCED (-nanst), --VAXCIXG.] To encourage by a 
favoring aspect ; to sanction, approve, support. 

Counter. See under Cou.nt, v. t. 

Counter, kown'ter, a. Contrary; opposite. — adr. 
Contrary; in opposition; in an" opposite direction. 
[This word is prefixed to many otliers, chiefly verbs 
and nouns, expressing opposition.'] — n. (yuut.) An 
arched space in the stern of a vessel. (Mus.) Coun- 
ter-tenor. {Far.) That part of a horse between the 
shoulders and under the neck. The back-leather or 
heel part of a boot ; heel stiffening of a shoe. 

Counteract, kown-ter-akf, v. t. To act in opposition 
to, hinder, defeat, frustrate.— Counterac'tion, n. 
Action in opposition; resistance. — Counteractive, 
-iv, a. Tending to, etc. 

Cotinterbalance, kown-ter-baKans, v. t. [-balaxced 
(-anst), -AXCIXG.] To oppose with an equal weight, 
act against with equal power or effect, countervail. 
— n. Equal opposing weight: equivalent. 

Counter-brace, kown'ter-bras, n. (N'aut.) The brace 
of the foretopsail on the leeward side of a vessel. 

Counter-extension, kown'ter-ex-ten'shun, n. (Snrg.) 
Fixation of the upper portion of a limb while ex- 
tension is practiced on the lower portion, as in cases 
of fracture or luxation. 

Counterfeit, kown'ter-fit, v. t. To put on a sem- 
blance of, esp. for a bad purpose; to imitate without 
right, and to deceive or defraud; to forge. — v. i. 
To dissemble, feign. — a. Having resemblance to; 
fabricated to defraud by passing tl\e false copy for 
genuine; false, spurious, hypocritical. — n. "That 
which, etc.; a likeness; counterpart; one who per- 
sonates another ; an impostor ; cheat. 

Counter-indication, kown''ter-in'dl-ka'shun,w. {Med.) 
Any symptom which forbids the use of a particular 
remedy in disease. 

Counter-irritate, kown'ter-ir'^ri-tat, v. t. (,Med.') To 
produce counter-irritation in. — Coun'ter-ir'ritant, 
n. That which, etc. — Cotin'ter-irrita''tion, ;;. Ir- i 
ritation excited in one part of the body to relieve ir- 
ritation in another part. 

Counter-jumper. See under Count, v. t. 

Countermand, kown-ter-mand'', v. t. To revoke, as a 
former command. — Coua'termand, n. Revocation 
of a former command. 

Counter-mark, kown'ter-mark, ??. An additional mark 
on goods, to afford security or proof. (Far.) An 
artificial cavity made in the teeth of horses when 
the crown is worn smooth, to disguise their age. — 
Countermark'', v. t. To apply, etc. 

Counter-mine, kown'ter-min, n. (Mil.) A gallery 
underground, from which to destroy the mines of 
the enemy; means of counteraction. — Counter- 
mine', V. t. (3Iil.) To oppose by a counter-mine. 
To frustrate by secret and opposing measures. —v. 
i. To make a counter-mine or counter-plot. 

Counterpane, kown''ter-pan, -point, n. A coverlet for 
a bed. 

Counterpart, kown'ter-part, n. A part corresponding 
to another part; copj'; duplicate;. a thing that may 
be applied to another so as to fit perfectly, as a seal 
to its impression: hence a person or thing having 
qualities lacking in another; an opposite. (Jfus!) 
The part arranged in connection with another. 

Counterpoint, kown-'ter-point, n. A cover for a bed. 
[See CouxTERPAXE.] — (^Mus.) The art of composing 
music in parts, the setting of a harmony of one or 
more parts to a melody. 

Counterpoise, kown-ter-poiz', v. t. To act against with 
equal weight, counterbalance. — Coun'terpoise, n. 
A weight sufficient to balance another; equal power 
acting in opposition; relation of two such forces; 
equilibrium; equiponderance. 

CoOHter-revolution, kown'ter-rev-o-lu'shun, n. A 

revolution opposed to a former one, and restoring a 
former state of things. 

Countersign, kown'tgr-sin, v. t. To sign in addition 
and o|)pusite to the signature of a principal, — to at- 
test the authenticity of a writing. — n. The sijrna- 
ture of a secretary, etc., to attest authenticity. (Mil.) 
A private signal or phrase, which must be given to 
pass a sentry. — Coun'ter-sig'nal, n. A correspond- 
ing signal. 

Countersink, kown'ter-sink, v. t. To form, as a de- 
pression, to receive the head of a screw or bolt be- 
low the surface; to cause to sink, as a screw or bolt, 
even with or below the surface. — n. A depression 
for receiving the head of a screw; a tool for forming 
such depression. 

Countervail, kown-tSr-vSK, v. t. [-vailed (-vald'), 
-VAILING.] To act against with equal force, power, 
or effect; to balance, compensate. — Coun'tervail, 
n. Equal weight, strength, or value; compensation; 

Countervallation. kown'ter-val-la''shun, n. (Fort.) A 
chain of redoubts around a fortress, to prevent sor- 
ties by the garrison; construction of such works. 

Countess. See under CbuxT, n. 

Counting-house, Countless, etc. See under Count, v. t. 

Country, kun'trT, v. A region; region of one's birth, 
residence, or citizenship ; rural regions, as opp. to 
town; inhabitants of a region. (Lmv.) A jury, as 
representing the citizens of a country; one's con- 
stituents, or the public. — a. Pert, to the territory 
away from a city; rural; rustic; destitute of refine- 
ment ; rude. — Coun^'trifled, -trT-f id, a. Having the 
appearance and manners of, etc. ; uncouth. 

County. _See under Couxt, ?i. 

Coupe, koo-pa', n. A compartment in a French dili- 
gence, or in a railroad carriage ; a four-wheeled 
close carriage for two persons. 

Couple, kup'i, n. Two things of the same kind con- 
nected or taken together; a betrothe-l or married 
pair; brace. —?;.?. [coupled (kup''ld), couplixg.J 
To link or connect together, join; to unite as male 
and female, marr3'. — r. i. To come together as 
male and female, form a sexual union, embrace. — 
Coup'ler, n. — Coup'let, n. Two lines of verse that 
rhyme with each other. — Coup'ling, n. Act of 
bringing or coming together ; connection ; sexual 
union. ' (BInch.) That which couples one thing 
with another, as a hook, chain, etc. 

Coupon, kob'^pon or -pox, n. ( Com.) An interest cer- 
tificate attached to a transferable bond, to be cut 
off for payment when interest is due. 

Courage, kiir-'ej, n. The quality enabling one to en- 
counter danger without fear ; bravery ; daring ; 
resolution. — Coura'^geous, -a'jus, a. Possessing, or 
characterized by, etc.; bold; hardy; enterprising. — 
Coura'geously, adv. 

Courant.Tcoo-riint'', -ran''to, n. A piece of music in 
triple time ; a lively dance ; a newspaper. — Cou'- 
rier, -rT-er, n. A messenger sent in haste, usually 
on public business ; an express ; an attendant on 
travelers, who makes arrangements for them on 
the wa3^ [F.] — Course, kors, n. Act of moving 
from one point to another; path traversed; motion 
considered with reference to its direction; line of 
progress ; progress from point to point without 
change of direction; also, one of a succession of 
motions in different directions con.sidered as one 
act; orderly progress; methodical action: conduct; 
behavior; a succession of practices connectedly fol- 
lowed: part of a meal served atone time. (Arch.) 
A continued level range of brick or stones through- 
out the face of a building. ]^l. The menstrual flux. 
(Nant.) The principal sails of a ship. See Sails. 
— V. I. [coursed (korst), COURSING.] To run, hunt, 
or chase after, pursue; to run through or over; to 
cause to run. — v. i. To run, as if in a race or in 
hunting. — Cours''er, n. One who, etc.; esp. a swift 
horse. _ 

Court, kort, n. An inclosed space; yard or area; resi- 
dence of a sovereign, nobleman, etc.; palace; per- 
sons composing the retinue of a sovereign, etc.; as- 
sembling of the retinue of a sovereign; attention to 
one in power; conduct designed to gain favor; po- 
liteness; civility. (Laiv.) A legal tribunal, includ- 
ing judges, jury, lawj'ers, sheriffs, etc.; the judge in 

sfin, cube, full ; moon, fO&t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, then, boNboN, chair, get. 




a case, as disting. fr. the counsel. The session of a 
judicial assembly; any jurisdiction, civil, military, 
or ecclesiastical. — v. t. To seek the favor of, strive 
to please, pay court to: to seek in marriage, woo; to 
solicit. — Courteous, kgrfyus, a. Of court-like or 
elegant manners; pert, to, or expressive of, courtesy; 
■well-bred; polite; complaisant. — Court'eously, adv. 

— Court'eousness, n. — Courtesy, kerfe-sT, w. Ele- 
gance of manners; act of civility or respect; urban- 
ity; affability; good-breeding; favor or indulgence, 
as disting. f r. right. — Courtesy, kert''sT, n. A ges- 
ture of respect or civility by women. — v. i. [couete- 
SiED (-sid), -SYING.] To bow the body slightly, with 
bending of the knees, as an expression of civility or 
respect. — Coxirtier, korfyer, n. One who frequents 
courts ; one wlio courts favor. — Court'ly, a. Pert, 
to a court; court-like; high-bred; dignified and ele- 
gant; disposed to favor the great; fawning; obsequi- 
ous; sycophantic. — Courfliness, n. High-breeding; 
elegance of manners.— Court'ship, n. Act of solic- 
iting favor by complaisance or flattery; act of woo- 
ing m love. — Courtesan, kerfe-zan, n. Orig. a fol- 
lower of the court ; a prostitute ; harlot ; strumpet. 

Cousin, kuz'^n, n. One collaterally related more re- 
motely than brother or sister; a title given by a king 
to a nobleman, esp. to on^ of the council. — Cous'in- 
ger'man, -jer'man, n. ;%>l. Cousins-german. A first 
cousin; cousin in the first generation. — Cous'inly, 
a. Like or becoming a cousin. 

Cove, kov, n. A small inlet, creek, or bay; recess in 
the sea-shore; a strip of prairie extending into wood- 
land; recess in a mountain side ; a boy or man. — v. 
t. {Arch.) To arch over. 

Covenant, kuv'e-nant, n. A mutual agreement in 
writing and under seal ; contract; stipulation; a 
writing containing terms of agreement. (TheoL) 
The promises of God as revealed in the Scriptures, 
conditioned on certain terms on the part of man, as 
obedience, repentance, faith, etc. (Laiv.) A form 
of action for violation of a contract. — v. i. To enter 
into a formal agreement, bind one's self by con- 
tract, agree, bargain, stipulate. — v. t. To grant or 
promise bv covenant. 

Cover, kuv^er, v. t. [covered (-erd), -ering.] To 
overspread or envelop; to brood or sit on; to hide 
from sight, conceal; to place under shelter, protect, 
defend; to extend over, be sufficient for, compre- 
hend or include, account for or solve, counterbal- 
ance; to copulate with, — said of the male; to keep 
under aim, or aim at point-blank. — ?i. Anj'thing 
laid, set,.or spread over another; an envelope; lid; 
thing which veils or conceals; screen; disguise; con- 
dition of concealment, shelter, or defense. (Hunt- 
ing.) Woods, underbrush, etc., which shelter game. 
A table-cloth and furniture; esp. table furniture for 
one person at a meal. — Cov'erer, n. — Cov'erlet, 
n. The uppermost cover of a bed. — Cov'ert, a. 
Covered over: hid; sheltered. (Law.) Undercover, 
authority, or protection, as a married woman. — n 
Aplace which covers and protects; shelter; defense; 
feathers covering the bases of birds' quills. [OF.] 

— Cov'erture, -er-chur, n. Covering; shelter; de- 
fense. (Law.) Condition pf a woman during mar- 
riage, — I. e., under the cover or protection of her 

Covet, kuv'et, r. t. To wish for eagerly, inordinately, 
or unlawfully; to long for, hanker after, lust after. 

— Cov'etable, a. — Cov'eter, n. — Cov'etiveness, -iv- 
nes, n. (Phrcn.) Excessive desire of accumulating 
property ; 'acquisitiveness. See Phrenology. — 
Cov'etous, -us, a. Very desirous; excessively eager; 
avaricious; penurious; miserly. — Cov'etously, adv. 

— CoVetousness, n. 

Covey, kuv't, n. An old bird with her brood of 
young; a small flock of birds; a company; set. 

Cow, kow, n. ; pi. Cows ; old pi. Kine. I'he female 
of bovine animals. 

Cow, kow, V. t. [cowed (kowd), cowiTfG.] To depress 
with fear, sink the spirits or courage. 

Coward, kow'ard, n. One who lacks courage; a timid 
or pusillanimous man; craven; poltroon; dastard. — 
a. Destitute of courage; timid; base; pert, to a cow- 
ard; proceeding from, or expressive of, cowardice. 

— Cow'ardice, -is, n. Want of courage. — Cow'- 
ardly, -IT, a. Wanting courage ; befitting a coward; 



timorous; pusillanimous; mean; base. — adv. 
the manner of, etc. — Cow''ardlineBS, n. 

Cower, kow'er. v. L [-ered (-erd), -bring.] To sink 
by bending the knees; to crouch, esp. through fear. 

Cowl, kowl, n. A monk's hood or habit; a cap for 
chimney-tops. A vessel for water, carried on a pole, 
or cowl-staff, between two persons. 

Cowry, koWrT, n. A small shell, used for money in 
Africa and the East Indies. 

Coxcomb, koks-'kom, n. A strip of red cloth notched 
like the comb of a cock, on the cap of a licensed 
fool; the cap itself: a vain superficial pretender to 
accomplishments; a fop. (Bot.) A plant producing 
red flowers like a cock's comb.— Cox'combry, -kom- 
rl, n. The manners of, etc. 

Coxswain. See Cockswain, under Cockboat. 

Coy, koi, a. Shrinking from approach or familiarity; 
shy; modest; bashful. 

Coyote, koi-ot', n. The prairie wolf. 

Coz, kuz, n. A contr. of cousin. 

Cozen, kuz'n, v. t. [cozened Ckuz''nd), -ening.] To 
cheat, beguile, deceive. 

Cozy, Cosey, ko'zY, a. [cozier, coziest.] Snug; com- 
fortable; easy. — n. A woolen covering to retain 
heat in a tea-pot. — Co'zily, adv. 

Crab, krab, n. (Zool.) A crustaceous animal, having 
the body covered by a crust- - 
like shell orcarapax; it has 
ten legs, the front pair of 
which terminate in claws. 
(Bot.) A wild apple ; the tree 
producing'it, — named from 
its astringent taste. (Mech.) 
A crane for moving heavy- 
weights, esp. ships. — Crab''- 

apple, n. A small, sour kind of apple. ^tree, n. 

The tree bearing, etc. —-louse, n. A kind of louse 
infesting the human body. — Crab^bed, «. Harsh; 
rough ; peevish ; morose ; difficult ; perplexing ; 
cramped or scrawled, — said of handwriting. 

Crack, krak, v. t. [cracked (krakt), cracking.] To 
break without entire separation of the parts; to fis- 
sure ; to rend with grief or pain, distress, disorder, 
derange; to cause to sound abruptly and sharply; to 
snap; to utter smartlj^ and sententiously; to cry up, 
extol. — V. i. To be fractured without quite sepa- 
rating; to go to pieces, be ruined or impaired; to 
utter a loud or sharp, sudden sound. — n. A partial 
separation of parts, etc.; a chink; crevice; a sound 
as of anything suddenly rent; craziness of intellect. 

— a. Of superior excellence. — Crack'-brained, 
-brand, a. Impaired in intellect. — Crack''er, n. One 
who, or that which, cracks; a small firework, ex- 
ploding with a sharp noise; a kind of hard biscuit. — 
Crackle, krak''!, v. i. To make slight cracks, or 
small, abrupt, snapping noises, frequently repeated. 

— Crack'le, Crack'lin, n. A kind of china, having 
the glaze or enamel apparentlv cracked in all direc- 
tions. — Crack ''ling, n. Small, abrupt cracks or re- 
ports; rind of roasted pork. 

Cradle, kra'^dl, ?i. A rocking bed for infants ; place 
in which anything is nurtured or protected during^ 
immaturity; infancy. (Agnc.) A light framework 
added to a scj'the, to receive grain as cut, and lay it 
in swaths. (Engraving.) An instrument for pre- 
paring plates for mezzotints. (Ship-bmlding.) A 
framework of timbers to support a vessel when out 
of water. (Surg.) A case for a broken bone. —v. t. 
{cradled (kra'dld), cradling.] To lay, or rock in 
a cradle ; to nurse in infancy ; to cut and lay with a 
cradle, as grain. — v. i. To'lie or lodge, as in a cra- 
dle. (Mining.) A machine rocked by the hand for 
washing out auriferous eartli. 

Craft, kraft, n. Dexterity in manual employment; 
the employment itself ; a trade ; cunning, art, or 

Cfafts''man, n. ; pi. -men. One skilled in a manual 

occupation ; an artificer ; mechanic. 
Crag, krag, n. A steep, rugged, broken rock. (Geol.'y 

A partially compacted bed of gravel mixed witt 

shells, of the tertiary age. 
Crake, krak, n. (Ornith.') A species of rail frequenting 

corn, etc., whose cry is a grating croak. 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; end, eve, term ; In, ice -, 5dd, tone, 6r { 




Cram, kram, v. t. fcKAMiiED (kranid), crammixg.J 
To stuff, crowd, fill to superfluity; to fill with food 
beyond satiety ; to qualify for examination by 
hasty preparation. — r. i. To eat greedily, stuff ; to 
make a hasty review of studies. 

Cramp, krainp, n. A restriction or restraint ; an iron 
instrument to hold together timbers, stones, etc. ; a 
piece of wood on which the upper leather of a 
boot is stretched. {Med.) A spasmodic contraction 
of a muscle. — r. t. [cramped (krampt), ckamp- 
IXG.] To hold tightly pressed together, restrain 
from free action ; to form on a cramp, as boot legs ; 
to afflict with cramp. 

Cran, kran, n. A measure by which fresh herrings are 
sold, holding about S7i gallons. 

Cranberry, kran'ber-rT,'**. A red, sour berry, used 
for making sauce, etc. 

Crancb. See Ckalxch. 

Crane, kran, n. (Ornith.) A wading bird, having 
long bill, legs, and neck. A 
machine for moving heavy 
■weights ; an arm turriing on a 
■vertical axis, for supporting 
kettles, etc., over a fire ; a si- 
phon, or bent pipe, for drawing 
liquors out of a cask. (Xaut.) a 
A piece of wood or iron with \, ^ 
two arms, used, in pairs, to stoMf pi^i^ .y\| & 
spare spars in. — v. t. [crajted ^^'ij^Jiji'i 
(krand), craning.] To cause "=^^^'^ 
to rise ; to raise, as it by a crane, ^^g 

— V. i. To stretch the neck in -^^ 
order to observe something ; to rmrp 
balk at a dangerous leap, etc., <-^rane. 
show timidity. — Crane's''bill, n. (Bot.) The gera- 
nium, which has an appendage of the seed-vessel re- 
sembling the beak of a crane. 
(Sm-g.) Long-beaked pincers. 

— Cran'' age, n. Right of using 
a crane in loading ; price paid 
for the use. 

Cranium, kra^'nt-um, n.; pi. 
-NIA, -a. (Anat.) The skull of 
an animal; brain-pan. — Cra'- 
nial, a. Pert, to, etc. — Crani- 
oKogy, -jT, n. Science of the 
structure of the skull, and its relation to the facul- 
ties of the mind; phrenology. [Gr. logos, discourse.] 

— CranioKogist, -jist, n. One versed in, etc.; a 

Crank, krank, n. (3fach.) A bent axis, serving as a 
handle to communicate circular motion, or to 
change circular into reciprocating motion, or the 
reverse. A bend, turn, or winding ; a conceit con- 
sisting in a change of the form or meaning of a 
word ; a fit of temper ; a whim, absurd notion ; one 
full of cranks, or deranged. — a. (Naut.) Liable to 
careen or be overset, as a ship. Full of spirit; brisk. 

Cranny, kran'nT, n. A small, narrow opening ; fis- 
sure ; crevice ; chink ; a secret, retired place : -hole. 

— V. i. To make crannies ; to haunt or enter by 
crannies. — Cran'nied, -nid, a. Full of, etc. 

Crape, krap, n. A thin, transparent stuff, made of 
raw silk gummed and twisted, used for mourning 
garments. — Crap'y, -t, a. Resembling crape. 

Crash, krash, v. f. [crashed (krasht), crashixg.] 
To break to pieces violently. — v. i. To make a loud, 
clattering sound, as of many things breaking at 
once. — n. Mingled sound of things breaking. 
Coarse linen cloth. 

Crass, kras, a. Gross; dense; coarse. — CraBS''itude, 
-t-tud, w. Crossness; thickness. — Crass^ament, n. 
Thick part of a fluid, esp. of blood; a clot. 

Cratch, krach, ji. A manger or open frame for hay; 
a crib. — Cratch-cradle. Form of the cratch, made 
upon the fingers with string; cat's-cradle. 

Crate, krat, n. A hamper of wicker-work, for crock- 

Cra^ber, kra'ter, n. The aperture or mouth of a vol- 
cano. — Crater'^iform, a. Cup-shaped. 

Craunch, Cranch, kranch, v. t. [CRAiJXCHED(krancht), 
CRAUXCHING.] To Crush with the teeth, chew nois- 
ily, crunch. 

Cravat, kra-vat'', n. A neck-cloth. 

Crave, krav, v. t. [craved (kravd), ceavixg.] To 


ask with earnestness and humility; to long for, beg, 
beseech, implore. 

Craven, kra'vn, h. One vanquished in battle ; a 
weak-hearted fellow; coward; dastard. — a. Cow- 
ardly with meanness; spiritless. 

Craw. kraw. n. The crop or stomach of fowls. 

Craw-fish, Cray-fish, kraw'-, kra'flsh, n. (Zool.) A 
crustaceous fresh-water animal, resembling the lob- 
ster, but smaller. 

Crawl, krawl, v. i. [crawled (krawld), crawlixg.] 
To move slowl^^, as a worm ; or on the hands and 
knees, as a human being ; to creep ; to advance 
slowly and feebly ; to have a sensation as if insects 
were creeping about the body. — «. Act or motion 
of crawling. 

Crayon, kra'un, n. A piece of chalk, or other soft sub- 
stance, for drawing; drawing made witli pencil or 
crayon. — v. t. [crayoxed (-uud), -oxixG.] To 
sketch, ^s with, etc. 

Craze, kraz, v. i. [crazed (krazd), crazixg.] Orig. to 
break into pieces, crush ; to contuse, impair ; to de- 
range the intellect of, render insane. — )i. State of 
craziness; insanity ; a strong habitual desire or pas- 
sion. {Pottery.) A defect in the glaze of earthen- 
ware, causing'it to crack. — Cra'zy, -zT, a. Broken; 
decrepit; disordered in intellect; deranged. — Cra''- 
zy bone. The end of the elbow, a blow upon which 
benumbs the arm. 

Creak, krek, v. i. [creaked (krekt), creaking.] To 
make a sharp, harsh, grating sound, as by friction 
of hard substances. — v. t. To produce a"^ creaking 
sound wjth. — n. The sound produced. 

Cream, krem, n. The unctuous substance forming a 
scum on the surface ofjnilk ; the best part of a thing. 
— v.t. [creamed (kremd), creaming.] To skim 
or take oft' by skimming, as cream ; to take oft' the 
best part of. — v. i. To become covered with cream, 
or thick like cream ; to assume the appearance of 

Crease, kres, n._ A mark made by folding. — v. t. 
[creased (krest), creasixg.] To make acrease in. 

Creasote. See Creosote. 

Create, kre-at'', v. t. To bring into being, cause to 
exist, originate ; to be the occasion of, produce ; to 
make. — Crea'tion, n. Act of, etc. ; esp., of bringing 
the world into existence ; constitution ; formation ; 
thing created, as the universe.— Crea'tionism, -izm, 
n. Doctrine that the soul is immediately created by 
God, — opp. to traducianism. — Crea'tor, -ter, n. 
One who, etc. ; esp. the Supreme Being. — Crea''- 
■tive, -tiv, a. Having power to create, or creating. — 
Crea''tiveness, n. — Creature, kre'chur, n. Thing 

. created; esp. a being created with life; animal; man; 
one who owes his fortune to another ; a servile de- 

Creche, kresh, n. An asylum for very young children 
during their mothers' working hours. 

Creed, kred, n. A summary of what is believed ; esp. 
of Christian belief. — Cre^dence, -dens, n. Reliance 
of the mind ; trust; belief; credit or confidence. — 
Cre'dent, a. Believing ; giving credit. — Creden'- 
tial, -shal, a. Giving a title to credit. — n. That 
which, etc. ; pi. testimonials or certificates showing 
that one is entitled to credit, or has authority or 
official powers. — Cred^ible, a. Capable of being 
believed ; worthy of belief. — Cred'^ibleness, -ibil''- 
ity, n. — Cred'ibiy, ad}}. — Cred'it, n. Reliance on 
the truth of something said or done; belief ; faith ; 
reputation derived from the confidence of others; es- 
teem ; reputation ; authority derived from character 
or reputation ; influence derived from the confi- 
dence or favor of others ; interest. {Com.) Trust 
given or received ; expectation of future payment ; 
mercantile reputation. {Book-keeping.) Tne side 
of an account on which are entered values received; 
items entered on such side of an account. — v. t. To 
confide in the trutli of; put, trust in, believe; to 
enter upon the credit side of an account, set to the 
credit of. — Cred''itable, a. Deserving or possess- 
ing, etc. ; reputable; estimable. — Cred''itableness, 
n. — Cred'itaDly, adv. — Cred^itor, -er, n. One who 
gives credit in business matters ; one to whom 
money is due. — Cred''ulou8, -u-lus, a. Apt to be- 
lieve on slight evidence ; easily convinci::d or im- 
posed upon ; unsuspecting. — Cred'iilously, adv. — 

siin, etibe, full ; moon, f(56t ; cow, oil ; linger or igk, ttien, boxboN, chair, get. 




Cred'ulousnesB, Credu'lity, -IT-tl, n. Readiness to 
believe without sufKcient evidence. 

Creek, krek, h. A small inlet, bay, or cove ; a small 
river or brook ; any turn or winding. 

Creel, krel, n. A wicker basket, for carrying' fish. 

Creep, krep, v. i. [crept, creeping.] To move 
along, as a reptile does ; to move on hands and 
knees, crawl; to move slowly, feebly, timorouslj', or 
stealthily ; to steal in, insinuate one's self; to fawn; 
to grow, as a vine, clinging to other support; to have 
a sensation of insects crawling upon the body. — 
Creep''er, n. One who, or that which, etc.; a vine; a 
fixture with iron points worn on the shoe to prevent 
slipping. iOrnith.) A small bird, allied to the wren. 
pi. An instrument with hooks or claws to drag the 
"bottom of wells, etc. — Creep''ingly, adv. By creep- 
ing ; slowly; sneaking!}' ; ignobl}'. 

Cremate, kre-mat'', v. t. "To burn, esp. a corpse. 

Creole, kre^'ol, n. One born in America, or the West 
Indies, of European ancestors; one born in tropical 
America, or adjacent islands, of any color. 

Creosote, kre''o-sot, n. (Chem.) An oily, colorless 
liquid, having the smell of smoke, and strong anti- 
septic properties, obtained from distillation of wood. 

Crepitate, krep't-tat, v. i. To burst with a sharp 
sound, crackle, snap. 

Crept. See Creep. 

Crescent, kres''ent, a. Increasing ; growing ; shaped 
like the new moon. — n. The increasing moon; 
moon in her first or last quarter; figure of the new 
moon, borne in the Turkish flag; the flag itself; the 
Turkish power. 

Cress, kres, n. (Bot.) A salad plant of various species. 

Cresset, kres'set, n. An open lamp, on a beacon, 
lighthouse, etc., or carried on a pole. 

Crest, krest, n. A tuft, or other natural ornament, on 
an animal's head, as the comb of a cock; the plume 
or other decoration on a hel- 
met ; the helmet itself ; the 
head, as typical of high spirit ; 
pride ; courage. (Her.) An 
appendage placed over the 
shield. The rising part of a 
horse's neck : see Horse. 
The foamy, feather-like top 
of a wave. (Fort.) The top 
line of a slope. — 1\ t. To 
furnish or adorn with a crest; 
to serve as a crest for. 

Cretaceous, kre-ta^'shus, a. Crest. (Her.) 
Having the qualities of, or abounding with, chalk. 

Cretin, krc'tin, n. (Med.) An idiot of a kind fre- 
quent in the valleys of the Alps, generally afflicted 
also with goiter. 

Cretonne, kre-ton'', n. A fabric having a warp of 
hemp and woof of flax. 

Crevasse, kre-vas'', n. A crevice or split, as in a gla- 
cier; a breach in the levee or embankment of a 
river. — Crev'ice, -is, n. A narrow opening from a 
split; a_cleft; fissure; rent. 

Crew, kroo, n. A company of people associated to- 
gether; throng; assemblage; a ship's company; the 
seamen belonging to a vessel. 

Crew. See_CROw. 

Crewel, kroo'el, n. "Worsted yarn slackly twisted. 

Crib, krib, n. The manger or rack of a stall; stall for 
cattle; inclosed bedstead for a child; bin for stor- 
ing grain, salt, etc.; a literal translation of a classic 
author. — v. t. [cribbed (kribd), cribbixg.] To 
shut in a narrow habitation ; to pilfer or purloin. 
— V. i. To crowd together, be confined. — Crib'- 
bage, -bej, n. A game at cards, in which the dealer 
makes up a third hand for himself, partly from his 
opponent's. — Crib-'bage-board, ??. A board with 
holes, to score the game at cribbage with pegs. — 
Crib'bing, n. (Miniug.) A plank lining of a shaft, 
etc. (Far.) A horse's trick of gnawing the crib. 

Cribble, krib'bl, n. A coarse sieve or screen. — 1\ t. 
[CRiBBLED (-bid), -BLIXG.] To cause to pass through 
a sieve or riddle; to sift. 

Crick, krik, n. A spasmodic affection, esp. of the 
neck or bnck. 

Cricket, kiik'et, n. An orthopterous insect, having a 
chirping note; a game with bat, ball, and wicket; a 
lew .stool. — V. i. To play at cricket. 

Cried, Crier. See under Cry. 

Crime, krim, n. A violation of law, divine or humanv 
esp. a gross offense; sin; vice. — Crim^inal, krlm'- 
IT-nal, a. Guilty of, involving, or pert, to crime. — 
n. One guilty of, etc. — Crini. con., abbr. of Crim- 
inal conversation. (Law.) Adulter/. — Crim'inally, 
adv. — Criminal'lty, -t-tT, n. Guiltiness. — Crim''- 
inate, v. t. To charge with, or convict of, crime. 

Crimp, krimp, a. Easily crumbled. — v.t. [crimped. 
(krimpt), crijipixg.] To form into ridges, waves, 
or plaits ; to pinch and hold, seize, decoy. (Cook- 
ery.) To cause to contract, or to render crisp, as 
the flesh of a fish, by gashing it, when living, with 
a knife. — n. One who decoys. — Crimple. krimp''!, 
V. t. [CRIMPLED (-Id), -LING.] To Cause to shrinK 
or draw together, contract, curl, corrugate. 

Crimson, krim-'zn, n. A deep-red color tinged with 
blue. — a. Of a deep red color. — r. t. [crimsoned 
(-znd), -soxiNG.] To dye witli crimson. — v. i. To 
become crimson; to blush. 

Cringe, krini, v. t. [crixged (krinjd), crixgixg.] To 
cause to siirink, contract, draw together. — v. i. To 
draw one's self together as in fear or servility; to 
bow obsequiously, fawn. — n. Servile civility; a 
mean bow. 

Crinite, kri'^mt, a. Resembling a tuft of hair. — 
Crin'oUne, -!in, n. A lady's stiff petticoat, — orig. of 
liair-cloth, afterwards expanded by hoops. — Cri- 
nose', -nos', a. Hairy. 

Crinkle, krink-'l, v. t. [crinkled (-kid), -ling.] To 
form with short turns or wrinkles. — v. i. To run 
in and out in sliort bends. 

Cripple, krip'l, n. One who creeps, lialts, or limps. 
—V. t. [crippled (-pld), -PLiNG.] To deprive of the 
use of the limbs, esp. of the len;s and feet ; to lame, 
deprive of strengtli or use, disable. 

Crisis, kri'sis, n. ; pi. -ses, -sez. The decisive mo- 
ment; turning-point. (Med.) The cliange of a dis- 
ease which indicates recovery or deatli. 

Crisp, krisp, a. Formed into stiff curls or ringlets; 
liaving windings or indentations ; brittle ; friable; 
effervescing ; sparkling. — said of liquors. — v. t. 
[crisped (krispt), crispixg.] To curl, as tlie hair; 
to wreathe, as branches of trees; to wrinkle or curl 
on tlie surface or edges. — v. i. To form little curls. 

Criss-cross, kris-'-kros, n. A niarlc formed by two 
lines crossing, usually at ri^ht angles ; a child's 
game played on paper or a slate. — adv. In oppo- 
site directions; with opposition or hindrance. 

Critic, krit'ik, n. One skilled in judging of the 
merits of literary or art works ; a connoisseur : a 
harsh judge ; carper. — Crit'ical, a. Having skill 
to judge of literary or artistic matters; exact: nicely 
judicious ; captious ; pert, to criticism ; character- 
ized by thoroughness and a reference to principles; 
pertaining to, or indicating, a crisis or turning- 
point; decisive ; of doubtful issue ; attended witn 
risk. — Crifically, adv. — Crificalness, n.— Criti- 
cise, -siz, V. t. [-CISED (-sizd^, -cising.] To examine 
and judge as a critic; to animadvert on. — v. i. _ Tp 
act as a critic, pass judgment, animadvert.— Crifi- 
ciser, 52. — Crificism, -sizm, n. Art of judging of 
beauties and faults; judgment passed or expressed; 
detailed examination and review. — Critique'', krT- 
telt'', n. Art of criticism ; critical examination or 
estimate of a work of literature or art; thorough 
analvsis of any subject. [F.]— Crite'rion, -rT-un, 
n. ; pi. -RiA, -r^-a, or -rioxs. A standard of judging; 
approved or established rule, principle, or test, by 
comparison with which a judgment is formed. 

Croak, krok, r. i. [croaked (krokt), croakixg.] To 
make a low, hoarse noise in the throat, as a frog or 
crow; to forebode evil, grumble. — v. t. To utter 
in a low, hoarse voice. — n. Tlie sound of a frog, 
raven, etc. — Croak''er, n. One who croaks, com- 
plains, or liabitually forebodes evil; a small Amer. 
fish, which croaks when caught. 

Crochet, kro-sha', ?i. A kind of netting made with a 
small hook. — r. t. To do netting with, etc. 

Crock, krok. w. An earthen vessel; pot; pitcher: cup; 
smut collected on pots, kettles, etc. ; soot ; lamp- 
black— w. t. To blacken with soot, or with the 
coloring matter of cloth, — r'. i. To give off crock, 
smudge, blacken. — Crock'ery, -er-T, n. Earthen- 
ware ; vessels of clay, glazed and baked; pottery. 

Sm, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; end, eve, term ; In, ice ; 6dd tone, 6r ; 




Crocodile, krok^o-dil, n. A large aaiphibious reptile 
of Africa and Asia. 

Crocus, kro^kus, 71. A genus 
of earlv flowering plants ; a 
mineral powder of a deep 
yellow or red Color. 

Crone, kron, n. An old wom- 
an, — usually in contempt ; 
more rarely 'an aged man. 
— Grozny, -nT, n. Intimate 
companion; associate; famil- 
iar friend. 

Crook, krciok, n. A bend, turn, Crocooile. 

or curve; device used as a subterfuge; trick; artifice; 
an instrument bent at the end, esp. a shepherd's or 
bishop's staff . — r. t. [ckooked (kr(5&kt), ckook- 
IXG.] To turn from a straight line, make crooked, 
bend, turn from rectitude, "pervert. — ?•. i. To be 
bent or curved. — Crook'ed, p. a. Characterized by 
a crook or curve; !)eiit ; not straightforward; per- 
verse. — _Crook'edly, tn/r. — Crook'^edness, ». 

Croon, kroon, w. A low, continued moan; murmur; 
a simple piece of music; plain, artless melody. — v. 
t. [CKOOSED (kroond), cuoo.vixG.] To sing in a 
low tone, hum; to soothe bj" singing softl}'. — v.i. 
To make a continuous noise in a low, hollow tone, 
as cattle do when in pain; to moan; to hum, sing, or 
murmur softly. 

Crop, krop, n. ' The protuberant stomach of a bird, 
situated in the breast ; the craw ; the top of any 
thing, esp. of a plant ; that which is cropped or 
gathered from a single field, or of a single kind of 
grain, fruit, etc., or in a single season; fruit; har- 
vest. — I', t. [CROPPED (kropt), CROPFIXG.] To cut 

off the ends of, bite or pull off, pluck.— i'. i. (Gcol.) 
To appear above the surface, as a seam or bed of 
coal ; to come to light, be manifest, — with out. — 
Crop'^per, n. A kind of pigeon having a large crop; 
a hurt by a fall from a horse. (3Iech.) A machine 
for facing cloth by means of spiral knives. — Crops, 
n. pi. The region above the shoulder in the ox. — 
-Crop''eared, -erd, a. Having the ends of the ears 
cut off. 

Croquet, kro-ka', n. A game in which wooden balls 
are driven by mallets through hoops arranged on a 

Croquette, kro-kef, n, (Cookery.) 
meat, seasoned, and fried. 

Crosier, kro'zher, n. The official 
staff of an archbishop, or 

Cross, kros, n, A gibbet, consist- 
ing of two timbers placed trans- 
versely; the theological and re- 
ligious import of tlie death of 
Christ; the Christian doctrine; 
the gospel; the symbol of 
Christ's death, and hence, of 
Christianity; affliction regarded 
as a test of virtue; trial; vexii- 
tion; disappointment. (Arch.) 
A cross-shaped ornament. The 
cross-like mark signed by those unable to write; a 
mixing of breeds or stock, esp. in cattle-breeding; 
product of such intermixture. {Surv.) An instru- 
ment for laying off offsets perpendicular to the main 
course. — a. Lying athwart; transverse; intersect- 
ing; adverse; contrary; perverse; unfortunate; peev- 
ish or fretful; ill-humored; mutually inverse; inter- 
changed.— v. ^ [CROSSED (krost),'cROSSiX(j.] To 
put across or athwart; to draw something, as a line, 
across; to pass from one side to the other of; to run 
counter to, thwart, clash or interfere with; to debar; 
to make the sign of the cross upon; to cancel, erase; 
to mix the breed of. — i'. i. To lie or be athwart; to 
pass from one side toward the other, or from place 
to place; to interbreed. — Cross'ly, -IT, adr. In a 
cross waj'; peevishly.— Cross'ness, n. — Cross''wi8e, 
adv. In the form of a cross; across. — Cross'^ing, n. 
Act by which anything is crossed; act of interbreed- 
ing; intersection of roads; paved walk across a street. 
— Cros8''-exam'ine, v. t. [examixed (-ind), -inixg.] 
{Law.) To examine for the purpose of eliciting facts 
not brought out in direct examination or controvert- 
ing the direct testimony. — exam'ina'tion, n. Ex- 

A ball of minced 

a. h. 


a. Bishop's. 

h. Archbishop's. 


amination of a witness, called by one party, bv the 
opposite party. — Cross ''let, >«. A small cross. ('Her.) 
A cross whose arms are terminated with small cross- 
es, or again crossed near the end. — Crucial, kroo'- 
shal, a. Formed like, or pert, to, a cross: severe ; 
searching, as if by suffering on the cross. — Cru'cify, 
-sY-fT, V. t. [-CIFIED (-fid), -FYixo.] To fasten to a 
cross, destroy the power of, subdue completely. — 
Crucifixion, -tik''shun, n. Act of, etc.; death on the 
cross, intense suffering. — Cru'cifix, n. Figure of a 
cross, with Christ upon it. — Cru'ciform, a. Cross- 
shapetl. (Bol.) Having 4 equal petals, disposed 
crosswise. — Crucigerous, -sij'er-us, a. Bearing, or 
marked with, etc. — Crusade, -sad', n. A mediaeval 
military expedition to recover the Holy Land from 
the Mohammedans; any expedition for a religious 
purpose ; a hot-headed or fanatical enterprise. 
Crotch, kroch, n. Place of division, as of a trunk into 
branches; fork; a forked piece of wood, metal, etc. 

— Crotch'et, n. A 
forked piece of wood; 
crotch. (Mus.) Tlia. 
3 d principal note, 
equal in duration to 
J a m i n i m , marked 
with a hook, the stem 
of which may turn up or down according to its situ- 
ation. (Print.) A bracket. See BR.iCKET. Acrooked 
or perverse fancy ; whim ; conceit. — Crotcll'ety, -T, 
a. Given to crotchets; whimsical. 

Croton-bug, kro'tun-bug,?!. (Entom.) A kind of cock- 
roach. — -oil, n. (Med.) A vegetable oil of hot, 
biting taste, — a powerful drastic cathartic. 

Crouch, krowch, v. i. [crouched (krowcht), ceouch- 
1x0.] To bend down, stoop or lie low, bend, obse- 
quiously, stoop meanly, fawn, cringe. 

Croup, kroop, n. The buttocks of quadrupeds, esp. of 
a horse ; place beliind the saddle. — Crupper, Croup- 
er, krup^er in Amer. ; krup''er in Eng., n. The rump 
of a horse ; a strap under a horse's tail holding the 
saddle back. — v. t. To fit with, etc. — Croupier, 
kroo^pT-er or kroo-per', n. One at the lower end of 
the table as an assistant-chairman at a dinner; one 
who watches the cards and collects the money at a 
gaming-table. [F.] 

Croup, kroop, n. (Med.) An inflammatory affection 
of the lai-ynx or trachea, accompanied by a hoarse 
ringing cough and difficult respiration. 

Crow, kro, n. A large bii-d, usually black, uttering a 
harsh, croaking note ; an iron lever with a claw 
shaped like a crow's beak; the voice of the cock. — 
v.i. [imp. CWYAV or CROWED; ?j. 73. CROWED (krod) 
or (obs.) CROwx (kron); CROwixo.] To make the 
shrill sound of a cock; to shout in exultation or de- 
fiance; to brag; to utter a sound of jov, as an infant. 

— Crow'-bar, V!. A bar of iron, used as a lever.— 
-foot, n. (Bot.) A genus of plants; crow-toe. (Naut.) 
Cordage suspending an awning. — Crow's''-feet, n. 
pi. Wrinkles at the outer corners of the ej'cs. — 
-nest, n. (Xaut.) A look-out place on a mast. 

Crowd, krowd, v. t. To press or drive together; to fill 
by pressing, encumber by excess of numbers or 
quantity ; to press by solicitation, dun, treat dis- 
courteously. — r. i. To press together in numbers, 
swarm; to urge or press forward. — n. A number of 
persons or things closely pressed together; the lower 
orders of people ; throng ; multitude ; vulgar ; rab- 

Crown, krown, n. A wreath encircling the head, esp. 
as a badge of merit, dignity, or power; a jeweled cap 
or fillet worn on the head as an emblem of sover- 
eignty; any object sought for as a prize; anything 
imparting boaiity, dignity, or distinction; one enti- 
tled to a regal or imperial crown; the sovereign; re- 
gal or imperial power; sovereignty; royalty; a coin 
bearing the image of a crown; topmost part of any- 
thing; the part of a hat above .the brim and the flat 
circular part at the top. (Arch.) The highest meni' 
ber of a cornice; summit of any part of a building. 
(Bot.) An appendage at the top of the claw of some 
petals; the head of a root: see Root. (N^aitt.) That 
part of an anchor where the arms join the shank; 
also, bights formed by turns of a cable. — v. t. 
[CROWXED (krownd), crowxixg.] To invest with a 
crown, or with royal dignity; to adorn, dignify; lO 

siin, cube, full ; moon, f(56t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, tiien, boxbON, chair, get. 





form the topmost part of, complete, perfect. (J/t7.) 
To effect a lodgment upon. — Crown'er, n. 

Crucial, Crucify, Crucifix, etc. See under Ceoss. 

Crucible, kroo's'C-bl, n. A chemical 
vessel or meltin";-pot, capable of 
enduring great neat without in- 
jury. _ 

Crude, krood, a. I n i t s natural 
state; not cooked or prepared for 
use; raw; unripe; immature; not 
reduced to order or form ; undi- 

fested; hasty and ill-considered; 
isplaying superficial and undi- 
gested knowledge. (Paint.) Coarselj' done : not ac- 
curately colored. — Crude'^ly, adv. — Crude-'uess, 
Cru'dity, -dl-tl, n. Condition of being, or that which 
is, etc. _ 

Cruel, kroo''el, a. Disposed to give pain ; causing, 
or fitted to cause, pain, grief, or misery; savage; in- 
human ; pitiless. — Cru'elly, -el-lT, adv. — Cru'elty, 
-ti, n. Character of being, etc.; a cruel deed. 

Cruet, kroo''et, n. A small glass bottle for vinegar, 
oil. etc.; a caster. 

Cruise. See Ckuse. _ 

Cruise, krooz, v. i. [ckuised (kroozd), ceuisixg.] To 
go back and forth on the ocean ; to wander hither 
and thither on land. — 7i. A voyage without settled 

Cruller, krul'ler, 7i. A kind of crisp sweet-cake boiled 
in fat. 

Crumb, krum, n. A small fragment or piece, esp. of 
bread ; the soft part of bread. — r. t. To break into 
crumbs or small pieces. — Crum''ble, -bl, n. A very 
small fragment ; small crumb. — r. t. [crumbled 
(-bid), -BLIXG.] To break into small pieces. — v. i. 
To fall or break into, etc., decay, perish. — Crum''- 
bly, -bit, a. Easily crumbled ; bVittle. — Crxun'^my, 
-mT, a. Full of crumbs ; soft ; not crusty. 

Crumpet, krum''pet, n. A kind of soft bread-cake, 
not sweetened. 

Crumple, krum'pl, v. t. [-pled (-pld), -plixg.] To 
press into wrinkles or folds, rumple. — v. i. To 
shrink irregularly, wrinkle. 

Cruncli, krunch, v. i. ["crunched (krrtncht), crunch- 
ing.] To chew with violence and noise, craunch ; 
to grind or press noisily. 

Cruor, kroo''or, n. Gore ; coagulated blood. 

Crupper. _See under Croup. 

Crural, kroo'ral, a. Pert, to the leg; shaped like a leg 
or root. 

Crusade. _See under Cross. 

Cruse, kroos, n. A small cup or bottle. — Cru'set, n. 
A goldsmith's crucible or melting pot. 

Crush, krush, v. t. [crushed (krusht), crushing.] 
To press and bruise between hard bodies ; to over- 
whelm by pressure ; to overco'me completely, sub- 
due, ruin. — V. i. To be pressed into a smaller com- 
pass by external force ; to be condensed. — n. A 
violent compression. — Crush'er, n. 

Crust, krust, n. The hard, external covering of any- 
thing; any concretion. — v. t. To cover with a hard 
case, or crust; to incrust, envelop, —v. i. To gather 
into a hard crust ; to concrete or freeze at the sur- 
face. — Crusfy, -T, a. Of the nature of crust ; hard ; 
of a harsh exterior or rough manner; surh^; morose. 
— Crusta'^cea, -she-a, n. pi. One of the 'classes of 
articulated animals, including lobsters, shrimps, 
and crabs, which have a crust-like shell covering the 
body and legs. 

Crutch, kruch, n. A staif with a cross-piece, to be 
placed under the arm tor support in walking. 

Cry, kri. v. i. [cried (krid), crying.] To speak, call, 
or exclaim loudly ; to vociferate, proclaim; to weep 
and sob ; to bawl, as a child; to utter inarticulate 
sounds, as animals. — r. t. To utter loudly or vehe- 
mently ; to advertise by outcry. — n. A loud utter- 
ance; outcry; clamor; expression of triumph, won- 
der, pain, distress, etc. ; public advertisement bv 
outcry; a pack of hounds. — Cri''er, n. One who, 
etc. ; esp. an officer who proclaims the orders of a 
court or givespublic notice by proclamation. 

Cryolite, kri'o-ht. 71. (.Win.) A mineral found only 
in the gneiss of Greenland, which melts easily; com- 
mercial ore of aluminium. 

Crypt, kript, n. A subterranean cell or cave ; esp. a 


vault under a church, for burial purposes. (Arch.) 
The space under a building ; subterranean cnapel ; 
hiding-place. — Cryp'tic, -tical, a. Hidden; secret; 
occult. — Cryp'togam, /;. (Bot.) A flowerless plant, 
or one which does not fructify by means usual to 
others. — Cr3T)tog'amy, -niT, n. Concealed fruc- 
tification. — Cryptog'raphy, -fY, n. Art of writing 
in secret characters ; secret characters or cipher. — 
CryptoKogy, -jT, n. Secret or enigmatical language. 

— Cryp'tonym, -nim, a. A concealed name, known 
onlj' to the initiated. 

Crystal, kris'tal, n. (Cheni. and 3Iin.) The regu- 
lar form which a substance assumes in solidify- 
ing ; a fine kind of glass ; glass of a watch case. — 
a. Of, or like, crystal; clear; transparent. — Crys'- 
tallLne, -lin-, a. Of erj^stal ; having a texture pro- 
duced hy crj'stallization ; resembling crvstal : pure; 
clear; pellucid. — Cn/stalline Jiumor, or lens. A white, 
transparent, firm substance, formed like a convex 
lens, in the vitreous humor of the eve : see Eye. — 
Crys'tallize, -liz, v. t. [-lized (-lizd). -lizing.] To 
cause to form crystals, or assume crj-.stalline form. — 
v. i. To be converted into, etc. — Crys'talliza''tion. n. 
Act of, or thing formed by, etc. — Crystallog'^raphy, 
-ti, n. Doctrine or science of, or treatise on, crj'S- 

Ctenoid, ten'oid, n. A fish having unenameled scales, 
jagged at the edges. 

Cub, kub, n. A young animal, esp. the young of the 
bear. — v. t. or i. [cubbed (kubd), -bing.] To bring 
forth (animals). 

Cube, kilb, 71. (Geom.) A regular solid body, with 
six equal square sides. (Arith.) 
The product of a number multi- 
plied twice into itself; as, 4x4 
=16x4=f54, the cube of A.— v. t. 
[cubed (kubd), cubing.] To 
raise to the third power, by multi- 
plving a number into itself twice. 

— Cuhe7'oot. (Arith.) The 
number or quantity whicn, mul- 
tiplied into itself, and then into the product, pro- 
duces a certain cube: thus, 3 is the cube root of 27. 

— Cu'bic, Cu'bical, a. Having the form or prop- 
erties of a cube ; contained, or capable of being 
contained, in a cube. — Cubic equation. An equation 
in which the highest power of the unknown quan- 
tity is a cube. — C.foot. A solid foot, equivalent to 
a cubical solid, which measures a foot in each of its 
dimensions. — C. niMiJia-. A number produced by 
multiplying a number into itself, and that product 
bv the "same number. — Cu'bicaUy, adr. — Cu'bic- 
ainess, n.~ Cu'bature, -chur, n. Process of determin- 
ing the cubic contents of a body. — Cu'biform, a. 
Cube-shaped.— Cu'boid, -boid'al.'o. Having nearly 
the form of, or resembling, a cube. — Cu'bo-cube, n. 
(Malli.) The 6th power. — Cu'bo-cu'bo-cube, H. 9th 

Cubeb, ku'beb, n. A small, spicy, tropical berry^ 
stimulant and purgative. 

Cubit, ku'bit, ?i. (Anat.) The fore-arm. A measure 
of length, — the distance from the elbow to the end 
of the middle finger. 

Cuckoo, kd6k''oo, n. A bird, named from its note, which 
lays its eggs in 
other birds' 
nests. — Cuck''- 
oo-spit," spit' tie. 
»?. An exuda- 
tion o r spume 
on some plants, 
esp. about the 
joints of laven- 
der and rose- 
mary. — 
Cuck^old, n. 
A man whose 
wife is un- 
v. t. To make 
a cuckold of. 

Cucumber, , . „, 

ku''kun-ber American Cuckoo. 

n. A creeping plant and its fruit. 

Cud, kud, 71. Food brought up into the moat]i by 

f I 

am, fSme, f 3,r, pass or opera, fare ; gnd, eve, term ; In, lee ; Sdd, tone, 6r ; 




ruminating animals from their 1st stomach, and 
chewed a M time; a piece of chewing tobacco: quid. 

Coddle, kud'dl, v. i. [cuddled (-did), -ui.ixo.] To 
lie close or snug ; to squat, (jrouch, snujrgle. — Cud'- 
dy, -dt, n. (^aut.) A small cabin in a boat. A 
very small apartment. 

Cudgel, kuj'el, n. A short, thick stick ; club. — v. t. 
[cudgeled (-eld), -elikg.] To beat. i 

Cue, ku, ti. A tail ; esp. a tail-like twist of hair at the i 
back of the head ; last words of an actor's speech, 
regarded as a hint for the succeeding player to ' 
speak; hint or intimation; the part one is'to perform; 
a straight rod used in playing billiards. 

Cuff, kuf, n. A "blow with'the open hand ; a stroke ; 
box; buffet. — )•. «. [cuffed (kuft), CUFFING.] To 
strike with the flat of the hand, as a man ; or with 
talons or wings, as a fowl. — n. The fold at the end 
of a sleeve. 

CuirasB, kwe-ras', n. A piece of armor, covering the 
body from neck to girdle. — Cuirassier, -ser', n. A 
soldier armed with, etc. [F.J 

Cuish, kwis, 71. Defensive armor for the thighs. 

Cuisine, kwe-zen', «. The kitchen : style of cooking ; 
cookery. — Cu'Uiiary, -na-rl, a. Pert, to the kitchen 
or cookerv. 

Cul-de-sac, kfwld'sak', n. A street closed at one end; 
a trap. (.Vi7.) A position in which an army has no 
exit out to the front. (iVai. Hist.) A bag-shaped 
cavity, or organ, open only at one end. [F7\ 

Cull, kul, V. t. [culled (kuld), cullixg.J To sepa- 
rate, select, or pick out. 

Cullender. See Colander. 

(JiUminate, kul'mi-nat, v. i. To reach the highest 
point of altitude, or of rank, size, numbers, etc. — 
a. Growing upward, as disting. fr. lateral growth. 

— Culmina'tion, n. Attainment of, etc. ; passage 
across the meridian; transit. 

Culpable, kuKpa-bl, a. Deserving censure; worthy 
of blame; faulty; censurable.— Cul^pableness, -bil'- 
ity, -tt, n. — Cul'pably, adv. — CuKprit, n. One ac- 
cused or convicted of crime ; a criminal. 

Cultus, kuKtus, Cult, ?i. Hoiiiage; worship; a system 
of religious belief, worship, or rites. — Cul''tivate, 
V. t. To till, fertilize ; to direct special attention 
♦o, foster, cherish ; to improve by labor, care, or 
study ; to civilize, refine. — - Cul'tivable, a. — Cul- 
tiva'tion, n. Art or practice of, etc. ; tillage ; fos- 
tering care ; civilization ; state of being cultivated ; 
advancement in physical, intellectual, or moral con- 
dition: refinement ; culture. 

— Cul''tiva1x)r, -ter, n. One 
who, etc.; an implement 
used in the tillage of grow- 
ing crops, to loosen the sur- 
face of the earWi. — Culture, 
kuKchur, n. Act of, etc. ; 
cultivation ; refinement of 


mind or manners, —r. t. [cultured (-churd), -Tur- 
ing.] To cultivate. 

Culter, kuKtgr, n. A colter. See Colter. — Cul'- 
trate, -trated, a. (Bot. & Omith.) Sharp-edged and 
pointed, like a pruning knife. 

Culvert, kuKvert, n. An arched drain for water un- 
der a road, canal, etc. 

Cumber, kum'ber, v. t. [-bered (-herd), -Bering.] 
To hang or rest on as a troublesome weight; to be 
burdensome or oppressive to; to clog, obstruct, em- 
barrass, impede. — Cum''bersome, -sum, a. Burden- 
some or hindering ; not easily managed; oppressive; 
vexatious. — Ciun^bersomely, adv. — Cum^brance, 
-brans, n. Encumbrance. — Cum'torous, -brus, a. 
Rendering acti«n difficult; giving trouble. — Cum''- 
brously, adv. — Cuin''brousness, 7i. — Cu'mulate, 
-lat, V. t. To heap together; amass. — Cumula'tion, 
n. Act of, etc. ; a heap. — Cu''mulative, -tiv, a. Form- 
ing a mass; aggregated; augmenting; gaining or giv- 
ing force by successive additions. (Law.) Given by 
the same testator to the same legatee, — said of a 
legacy. — Cu''muluB, w. {Meteor.) One of the four 
primary forms of clouds, — being massed, and often 
bringing rain. [L.] — Cu'mulo-stra''tus, n. A form 
of cloud between cumulus and stratus, which is in 

Cumin, kum'in, n. An umbelliferous plant, resem- 
bling fennel, and having atromatic seeds. 


Cnnctative, kunk'ta-tiv, a. Causing or prone to de- 
lay: tardy. 

Cuneal. ku^ne-al, -neate, -neated, -neafic, -niform, 
-ne'iform, a. Having the form of a wedge ; pert, to 
the wedge-shaped characters in ancient Persian and 
Assyrian inscriptions. 

Cunning, kun'ning, a. Well-instructed ; skillful ; 
experienced ; given to underhand maneuvering ; 
artfully deceitful; sly; crafty ; exhibiting skill or 
craft; ingenious; curious. — n. Faculty' or act of 
using stratagem ; deceit ; art. 

Cup, kup, 11. A small drinking vessel; contents of a 
cup; cupful; a drink composed of wine iced and 
flavored; that which must be endured; portion; 
lot. (Surg.) A cupping-glass. ]}l. Repeated pota- 
tions ; revelry ; drunkenness. — v. t. [cupped- 
(kupt), cupping.] To supply with cups. (Surg.) 
To Dleed by scarification and a cupping-glass. — 
Cup'ping, n. (Surg.) Operation of drawing blood 
with a cuppino:-glass. — Cup^ping-glass, n. A glass- 
cup to be applied to the skin, to draw blood by ex 
hausting the air. — Cup'^bear- 
er, n. One who fills"*ana hands 
the cups at an entertainment. 
— Cup'board, kub^erd, n. A 
closet with shelves, for cups, 
plates, etc. — Cu'pel, n. A 
small vessel used in refining 
precious metals; a shallow 
crucible. — CupeK, v. t. To 
separate by means of a cupel; 
refine. — Cu''pola, -la, n. ; pi. 
-las, -laz. (Arch.) A spher- 
ical vault on the top of an 
edifice. The round top of a 
furnace; the furnace itself. 

Cupidity, ku-pid'I-tT, n. Eager 
desire for possession, esp. of 
wealth; covetousness; lust. 

Cupreous, ku'pre-us, a. Of or resembling copper ; 
coppery. — Cupriferous, -er-us, a. Containing or 
affording copper. 

Cur, ker, n. A worthless or degenerate dog; a worth- 
less, snarling fellow. — Cur-'rish, a. Like a cur ; 
quarrelsome ; churlish. — Cur'rishly. adv. 

Curable, Curate, Curator, etc. See under Cure. 

Curacoa, koo-ra-so', n. A cordial, flavored with 
orange-peel, cinnamon, and mace, first made in 
the island of Curagoa. 

Curare, -ri, ku-ra^'re, n. A South American vegetable 
poison used by Indians upon arrows, etc., — de- 
stroying control by the nerves of the voluntary 
muscles. [Written itrari, ivoorali, luouran, etc.] 

Curb, kSrb, n. A check or hindrance; esp. a chain or 
strap upon a horse's bit, which may be drawn tight- 
ly against the lower jaw; a wall to hold back a mass 
of earth in its place; a wall set within or round the 
mouth of a well; a curb-stone. -r. t. [curbed 
(kerbd), curbing.] To bend to one's will, restrain, 
confine; to furnish with a curb, as a well; to re- 
strain by a curb, as a bank of earth. — Curb'roof, w. 
A roof having a double slope; gambrel roof; mansard 
roof. — stone, n. A stone placed edgewise against 
earth or stonework to prevent its giving way. 

Curd, kerd, n. The coagulated or thickened part of 
milk, eaten as food, also of any liquid. — v. t. To 
curdle; congeal. — v. i. To become coagulated or 
thickened; to separate into curds and whey. — Cur''- 
dle, -dl, V. I. and t. [curdled (-did), -dling.] To 
change into curd, coagulate or concrete; to thicken, 

Cure, kiir, n. Spiritual charge; care of souls; office 
of a curate; curacy; medical care; remedial treat- 
ment of disease ; successful remedial treatment ; 
restoration to health ; remedy ; restorative. — v. t. 
[cured (kurd), curing.] To heal, restore to health, 
soundness, or sanity; to remedy, remove; to pre- 
pare for preservation by drying, salting, etc. — v. i. 
To effect a cure, be healed. — Cur''able, a. That may 
be, etc. — Cur'ablenesB, -abil'ity, n. — Cure''less, a. 
Incurable. — Cur''ative, -tiv, a. Pert, to the cure of 
diseases ; tending to cure. — Cura ''tor, -ter, n. A 
superintendent, as of a museum, etc. ; trustee; 
guardian. [L.j — Cu'rate, -rat, n. One who has 
the cure of souls; orig., anv clergyman: now, an 

Bun, cube, full ; moon, fd&t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, tiien, boNboN, chair, get. 





assistant to a rector or vicar. — Cu'racy, -sY, n. 
Office or employment of, etc. — Cu'rious, -rT-us, a. 
Solicitous to be correct; careful; scrupulous; ex- 
hibiting care; artfully constructed; eager to learn; 
habitually inquisitive; inviting and rewarding in- 
quisitiveness ; singular. — Cu'riousl^, adv. — Cu'- 
riousnesB, n. — Curios''ity, -Tf-tT, n. btate of being, 
etc.; scrupulousness; disposition to inquire, investi- 
gate, or seek after knowledge ; inquisitiveness; 
that which is curious, or fitted to excite or reward 
attention. — Cure, ku-ra', n. A curate; parson. [F.] 

Curfew, ker'fu, n. The ringing of a bell at nightfall, 
orig. a signal to cover fires, extinguish lights, and 
retire to rest. 

Curl, kerl. V. t. [curled (kerld), curling.] To twist 
or form into ringlets or coils; to deck as with curls; 
to raise in waves or undulations; to ripple. — v. i. 
To bend into ringlets, as hair; to move in curves, 
spirals, or undulations. — n. A ringlet, esp. of hair; 
an undulating or curving line; flexure; sinuosity; 
a disease in potatoes, in which the leaves seem 
curled and shrunk up. — CurKy, -T, a. Saving 
curls ; tending to curl. — CurKiness, n. 

Curlew, ker'lu, ?i. A wading 
bird, of the snipe kind 

Curmudgeon, ker-muj''un, n. 
An avaricious fellow; miser; 
niggard ; churl. 

Currant, kur''rant, n. A small 
dried grape, used in cook- 
ery ; a garden shrub, and 
its berry. 

Current, kur'rent, a. Run- 
ning or moving rapidly; 
now passing or present, in 
its progress; circulating 
through the community; generally received; com- 
mon. — n. A stream, esp. of a fluid; ordinary pro- 
cedure ; progressive and connected movement. — 
Cur'rently, adv. — Cur-'rentness, n. — Cur'^rency, 
-sT, n. State or quality of being current; general ac- 
ceptance ; circulation ; current value ; general esti- 
mation; money.— Cur''ricle, -rT-kl, n. A chaise drawn 
by two horses abreast. — Curric'ulum, ?!. A race 
course; a specified course of study. 

Curry, kur'rT, v. t. [curried (kur'rid), currying.] 
To dress by scraping, cleansing, beating, smoothing, 
and coloring, — said of leather ; to comb, rub, or 
cleanse the skin of, — said of a horse. — Cur'rier, 
-rt-er, n. A dresser of leather. — Cur''ry-comb, -kom, 
n. An instrument for cleaning horses. 

Curry, kur''rT, n. A kind of sauce used in India, con- 
taining pepper and other spices; a stew of fowl, fish, 
etc., with ciirrj- sauce. — v. t. To cook with curry. 

Curse, kers, v. t. [cursed (kerst) or curst, cursing.] 
To wish evil against, execrate ; to bring evil upon, 
vex, harass or torment, injure. — v. i. To use pro- 
fane language, swear. — n. Imprecation of evil; 
malediction; imprecation; that which brings evil or 
affliction ; torment. — Curs'^ed, a. Blasted by, or 
deserving, etc. ; execrable ; hateful. — Curs^edly, 

Cursive, ker'siv, a. Running; rapid; flowing. — Cur'- 
sory, -so-rT, a. Characterized by haste ; hastily per- 
formed ; superficial ; careless. 

Curt, kert, a. Characterized by brevity ; short ; con- 
cise; abrupt; crusty. — Curt'^ness, n. — Curtail, -taK, 
V. t. [-TAILED (-tald'), -TAILING.] To cut short, 
abridge, diminish. 

Curtain, ker'tin, n. A movable cloth screen or cover- 
ing intended to darken or conceal. (Fort.) Part of 
the rampart and parapet between the flanks of two 
bastions.— I', t. [curtained (-tind''), -taining.] To 
inclose, or furnish, with curtains. 

Curule, ku''rool, a. (Rom. Antiq.) Belonging to a 
chariot, — said of the chair of certain magistrates, 
borne in a chariot when they went to council. 
Curve, kerv, a. Bent without angles; crooked; curved. 
— n. A bending without an- 

fles ; thing bent ; a flexure. 
Geom.) A line of which no 
three consecutive points are ~ 

in the same straight line.— Curve. 

V. t. [CURVED (kervd), curving.] To bend, crook, 
inflect. — V. i. To bend. — Curv'ature, -chur, n. 

Continual flexure of a line or surface from a recti- 
linear direction. — Curvilin''eal, -ear, -e-ar, a. Con- 
sisting of, or boun'ded by, curve lines. — Cur'vet, 
n. A leap of a horse ; a prank ; frolic. — v. i. To 
make a curvet; to frisk. — v. t. To cause to, etc. 

Cushion, kush'un, n. A stuffed bag, to sit or recline 
upon; any stuffed or padded surface, —t.-. t. [cush- 
ioned (-und), -lONiNG.] To seat on, or furnish with, 

Cusp, kusp, n. (Arch.) A projecting point in the or- 
namentation of arches, panels, etc.; a pendant of a 
pointed arch. (Astral.) First entrance of any house 
in the calculations of nativities, etc. (Astron.) The 
point or horn of the crescent. (Math.) The point 
at which two curves or branches of the same curve 
meet. — Cusp-'id, n. (Anat.) One of the canine or 
eye teeth: see Tooth. — Cusp-'idal, a. Ending in a 
point. — Cusp'idate, -dated, a. (Bot.) Having a 
sharp end, like a spear-point. 

Cuspidor, kusp^i-dor, n. A spittoon; an earthenware 

Custard, kus'tard, n. A dish composed of milk and 
eggs, sweetened, and baked or boiled. 

Custody, kus'to-dt, n. A keeping or guarding ; esp. 
judicial or penal safekeeping ; restraint of liberty; 
confinement ; imprisonment. — Custo''dial, -dt-al, a. 
Pert, to, etc. — Custo''dian, n. One who has, etc. ; a 
keeper; superintendent. 

Custom, kus'tum, n. Way of acting ; habitual prac- 
tice ; habitual buying of goods ; business support; 
patronage. (Law.) Long established practice, or 
usage, considered as unwritten law, and resting for 
authority on long consent. The customary toll, tax, 
or tribute, pi. Duties imposed on commodities im- 
ported or exported. — Cus'tomable, o. Common; sub- 
ject to the payment of duties.— Cus''tomably, -arily, 
-rt-lT, adv. In a customary manner ; habitually. — 
Cus''tomary, a. According to custom ; established 
by common usage; conventional. (Law.) Holding 
or held by custom. — Cus''tomer, n. One who fre- 
quents a place to buy; a purchaser; buyer. — Cus'- 
tomhouse, n. The building where duties are paid, 
and vessels entered or cleared. 

Cut, kut, V. t. [CUT, cutting.] To separate the parts 
of v^atli a sharp instrument ; to make an incision in, 
divide, sever; to hew, as wood; or mow and reap, as 
grain or corn ; to remove by cutting; to dock ; to 
shape by cutting, carve, hew out ; to wound the 
sensibilities of ; to intersect, cross ; to castrate or 
geld. — v. i. To serve in dividing or gashing; to ad- 
mit of incision or severance ; to divide, sever, inter- 
sect, etc. ; to run rapidly ; to divide a pack of cards, 
to decide the deal or trump. — n. An opening made 
with a sharp instrument ; a cleft ; gash ; wound ; a 
stroke with an edged instrument; that which wounds 
the feelings; a notch, passage, or channel made by 
cutting ; surface left by a cut ; portion severed or 
cut oft ; an engraved block ; impression from such 
an engraving; act of dividing a pack of cards; right 
to divide ; manner in which a thing is formed ; 
shape ; fashion. — A short cut. A crosspath which 
shortens the way. — Cut and dried. Prepared be- 
forehand ; not spontaneous. — C. glass. Glass hav- 
ing the surface shaped by grinding and polishing. 

— To c. a dash, or a figure. To make a display.^ 
To c. capers. To play pranks, frolic. — To c. dovjn. 
To fell ; to abash, shame ; to lessen, diminish. — 
To c. out. To remove from the midst ; to shape by 
cutting, fashion ; to take the place of, supersede. — 
To c. short. To arrest or check abruptly, abridge. 

— To c. under. To undersell. — To c. up. To cut to 
pieces, damage, destroy. — To 
c. the acquaintance of, or to c. 
a person. To drop inter- 
course with, avoid recogniz- 
ing. — To c. the cards. To 
divide a pack into portions. 

— To c. the teeth. To put 
forth teeth. — To c. across. 
To pass through in the most 
direct way. — To c. in. To 
divide, or turn a card, for de- 
termining. — Cut'ter, n. One 
who, or an instrument 

which, etc. ; a front tooth. 


am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; end, eve, term ; In, Ice ; Qdd, tone, dr ; 




that cuts; an incisor. (Xaut.} A small boat used bv 
ships of war ; a gloop^rigged vessel with a bowsprft 
which may be run in upon deck. A ono-liorse 
sleigh. — dnt'ting, n. Act or operation of, etc. ; 
something cut, cut off, or cut out, as a twig cut from 
a stock lor gratting ; an excavation cut through a 
hill. — Cufoff, n. That which cuts off or shortens. 
(J/acAO An attachment to a steam-engine wliich 
cuts oft the passage of steam from the steam-chest 
to the cylinder. 

Cate. kut, a. Clever; keen; sharp. 

Cutis, ku''tis, n. (Aiiat.) The true skin ; a dense 
resisting membrane, next below the cuticle. — Cu- 
ta'neous, -ne-us, a. Pert, to, upon, or affecting, the 
skin.— Cu'ticle, -tT-kl, a. The outer skin ; scarf-skinr 
epidermis. {Hot.) The thin external covering of the 
bark of a plant. 

Cutlass, kut'las, n. A broad, curving sword, with 
but one cutting edge. — Cufler, n. One who makes 
or deals in cutlery. — Cut'lery, -ler-T, n. Business 
of a cutler ; cutting instruments in general, or in 
the mass. 

Cutlet, kuflet, n. A piece of meat, esp. of veal or 
mutton, cut for broiling; generally part of the rib 
witli the meat belonging to it. 

Cattle, kut'tl, Cuftle-fish, n. A molluscous animal, 
having ten arms furnished with cu- 
pules or sucking cups, by which it 
attaches itself to other bodies. 

Cycle, si'kl. n. An imaginary circle or 
orbit in the heavens ; an interval of 
time in which a certain succession of 
events is completed, and then returns 
arain and again in the same order. 
(jLtot.) One entire round in a spire or 
circle. — CyClic, sik'lik, -lical, a. Pert, 
to, or moving in cycles. — Cy'cloid, 7i. _, , „ , 
(Geom.) A curve generated by a point '^uttie-nsn. 
in the plane of a circle when the circle is rolled 
along a straight line, keeping always in the same 
plane. — Cycloid'al, a. Pert, to, etc. — Cy'done, 
-klon, n. A rotatory storm or whirlwind of ex- 
tended circuit. — Cyclope'dia, -pae'dia, -pe'dT-a, ?i. 
The circle or compass of the arts and sciences, or of 
human knowledge ; a dictionary of arts and sci- 
ence* ; encyclopedia. — Cycloped'ic, a. Pert, to the 
circle of th"e sciences, or to a cyclopedia ; enc3'clo- 

Cyclopean, si-klo-pe'an, a. Pert, to the Cj'clops, a 
mythical race of one-eyed giants in Sicily; "gigantic; 
vast and rough ; massive. (Arch.) Pert, to the 
earliest buildings found in Greece, consisting of 
roughly-hewn, uncemented rocks. 

Cygnet, sig/net, w. A young swan. 

Cylinder, sil'in-der, n. ( Geom.) A solid body which 


may be generated by the rotation of a 
panillelograni round one of its sides ; 
a l)ody of roller-like form, of which the 
longitudinal section is oblong, and the 
cross-section circular. — Cylin^dric, 
-drical, a. Formed like, or Jiaving i)rop- 
ertit's of, etc. — Cylin' drif orm , a. 
Formed like, etc. — CyKindroid, n. A 
solid body resembling a right cylinder, 
but liaving the bases elliptical. 

Csrmbal, sim^bal, n. A dish-^haped mu- 
sical instrument of brass, held in the 
hand, and producing, when two are struck together, 
a ringing sound. 

Cyme, Sim, 7i. (Bot.) A flat-topped or convex flower- 
cluster, like a corymb, except that the inflorescence 
commences with' the terminal buds. — Cy'inose, 
-moR, -rnons, -mus, a. Containing or in the form of 
a cyme. — Cyni'ling, w. A squash. 

Cymric, kini'iik, a. Pert, to the Cymry, or people of 
Wales, or to their language; Welsh. 

Cynic, sin'ik, -ical, ((^--Having the qualities of a surly 
dog; snarling; surly; austere; pert, to the dog-star» 
pert, to tlie philosophers called cynics, or to their 
doctrines.— Cyn'ic, n. One of a sect of ancient phi- 
losophers, named from their morose tenets; one who 
holds views resembling those of the cynics: asnarler; 
misanthrope. — Cyn'icalness, n. — Cyn'icism, -sizm, 
n. Practice or principles of a cynic. 

Cynosure, sin'o-shoor or si'no-shGor, n. The constel- 
lation of the Lesser Bear, to which, as containing- 
the polar star, the eyes of mariners are often di- 
rected; anything to which attention is turned; cen- 
ter of attraction. 

Cypress, si'pres, n. A coniferous tree, generally ever- 
green, and having wood remarkable for durability, 
— anciently used at funerals, and so an emblem of 

Cyprian, sip-'rl'-an, n. A native of Cyprus; a lewd 
woman; harlot. — a. Pert, to the island of Cyprus,, 
renowned for the worship of Venus; pert, to lewd- 
ness, or those who practice it. 

Cyst, sist, n. (P/n/siol.) A pouch or sac, withotit 
opening, containing morbid matter. — Cysfic, a. 
Having the form of, or living in, etc.; contair.ii\g, 
pert, to, or contained in, etc. — Cys''tocele, -sel, n. 
Hernia of the urinary bladder. 

Czar, Tzar, ziir, n. A "king; chief; a title of the em- 
peror of Russia. — Czarina, za-re''na, n. Title of the 
empress of Russia. — Czarowitz, zSr'o-wits, n. 
Title of the eldest son of the czar of Russia. — 
Czarev'na, -na, ?;. Wife of the czarowitz. 

Czech, tchek, n. One of a branch of the Slavonic race, 
including the Bohemians, Hannacks (or Moravians), 
and Slovacks. 


D, de. The 4th letter in the English alphabet. (31us.) 

• The 2d note of the scale, corresponding to 7?e. 

Dab, dab, r. «. [DAiiBEn (dabd), i>.\ijbi.\g.1 To strike 
gently, as with the hand or a soft or moist substance. 
— n. A gentle blow; sudden hit; a lump of anything 
soft, with which somotliing is dabbed: a smiill, flat 
fish. — Dab'ber, n. That with which one dabs; an 
implement used in printing, stereotyping, etc. — 
Dab'ble, v. t. [dabbled (-bid), -blino.] To wet by 
little dips or strokes, moisten. — v. i. To play in 
water, as with the hands; to work in a superficial 
manner, touch here and there, tamper, meddle. 

Dab, Dabster, dab'ster, n. One skilled at his business. 

Dabchick. dab'chik, n. A water-fowl allied to the 
grebe; dipchick; didapper; dobchick; a babyish per- 

Da capo, da-ka'po. (Mus.) A direction to return to, 
and end with, the first strain, — indicated by D. C. 

Dace, das, n. A river fish, of silvery color. 

Dactyl, dak'til, n. (Pros.) A poetical foot of 3 sylla- 

bles, 1 long, followed by 2 short, or 1 accented fol- 
lowed by 2 unaccented. 

Dad, Daddy, dad'dT, »i. Father, — a word used by 
children. — Dad'dy-long-legs, n. A spider having a 
small round bodj', and very long, slender legs; the 

Dado, da'do, ??. (Arch.) The die or square part in the 
middle of the pedestal of a column; that part of an 
apartment between plintli and impost molding; an 
arrangement of moldings, or a border of wood or 
paper, around the lower part of the walls of a room. 

Daffodil, daf'fo-dil, w. (Bot.), A plant of the genus 
A'«/x'7.<.s?/s, having a bulbous root, and beautiful flow- 
ers, usually yellow. 

Daft, daft, a. Delirious; insane; foolish. 

Dag, dag, ?i. A dagger; poniard; a kind of pistol for- 
merly used. — Dag^ger, ti. A short sword; poniard. 
(Print.) A mark of reference in the form of a dag- 
ger [t], — called also obelisk. — v. t. To pierce with, 
etc.; to stab. 

sfin, cube, full ; moon, idbt ; cow, oil ; ligger or inlc, then, boNboN, chair, get. 




Dag, dag, n. A loose end, as of locks of wool; a leath- 
er latchet. — Dag'-lock, «. A dirty lock of wool on 
a sheep. 

Daguerreotype, da-ger'o-tlp, n. A method of taking 
pictures by photography, on plates of silvered cop- 
per, etc.; p'icture so produced. — v. t. [daguereeo- 
TTPED (-tipt), -TYPING.] To represent by the photo- 
graphic art, as a picture; to impress with great dis- 

Dahlia, dal'j^a, n. A genus of flowering plants native 
to Mexico. 

Daily. Sec under Day. 

Daimio, di'mT-o, n. One of the feudal nobles of Japan. 

Dainty, dan'tT, a. Delicious to the taste; toothsome; 
elegant in form, manner, or breeding; requiring 
dainties ; over-nice ; fastidious ; ceremonious. — n. 
That which is delicious, delicate, or nice; delicacy. 

Dairy, da'rl, n. Place where milk is kept, and made 
into butter or cheese; business of making butter 
and cheese. 

Dais, da-'is, n. A raised floor at the upper end of the 
dining-hall; upper table of a dining-hall; seat with 
a canopy for those at the high table. 

Daisy, da'^zt, n. A common spring flower. 

Dale, dal, ?i. A low place between hills; vale; valley. 

Dally, dal'lt, v. i. [dallied (-lid), -lying.] To waste 
time in effeminate or voluptuous pleasures, or in 
idleness and trifles; to linger, delay; to interchange 
caresses; to use fondling or wantonness. — Dal'- 
liance, -iT-ans, n. Act of, etc. 

Dam, dam, n. A female parent, — used of beasts, or 
of a woman, in contempt. 

Dam, dam, n. A mole, bank of earth, wall, etc., to ob- 
struct the flow of water. — v.t. [dammed (damd), 
BAMMING.] To obstruct or restrain the flow of, by a 
dam; to .shut up, confine. 

Damage, dam'ej, n. Any permanent injury to person, 
property, or reputation; hurt; loss; mischief; detri- 
ment. 'j)l. (Lcno.) A compensation or indemnitj' to 
one party, for a wrong or injury done by another. — 
V. t. [DAMAGED (-ejd), -AGixG.] To inflict injury 
upon, hurt, impair. — Dam'^ageable, a. — Damn, 
dam, V. t. [DAMNED (damd), damning (damping or 
•dam^ning).] To condemn; to adjudge to punish- 
ment or death; to censure. (T/ieol.) To condemn to 
punishment in the future world. To condemn as 
Dad, by hissing, etc. — Damned, damd, in serioug dis- 
course dam'ned, p. a. Sentenced to punishment in 
a future state; hateful; abominable. — Damna''tion, 
-na'shun, n. {Theol.) Condemnation to eternal pun- 
ishment. — Dam'nable, a. Worthy of, etc.; odious. 

Damascene, dam'as-sen, Dam'son, -zn, n. A kind of 
plum. — Dam'^ask, a. Pert, to, originating at, or 
like, the manufactures of Damascus; having the 
color of the daniask rose. — n. A stuff with raised 
figures, woven in the loom, — orig. made at Da- 
mascus, of rich silk, now made of silk intermin- 
gled with flax, cotton, or wool; linen woven in imi- 
tation of the figures in damask silk. — v. t. [dam- 
asked (-askt), -ASKING.] To decorate with orna- 
mental figures, as silk with raised flowers, etc., or 
steel with etchings, or inlaid devices; to embellish, 

Dame, dam, n. A lady in rank or culture; the mis- 
tress of a family in common life; mistress of a com- 
mon school; a ihatron. — Dam''s8l, -zel, n. A young 
unmarried woman; girl. 

Damn, Damnable, etc. See under Damage. 

Damp, damp, a. Moderately wet; moist; humid. — n. 
Moisture; humidity; fog; dejection; depression; dis- 
couragement. }iL {Mining.) Gaseous products, elim- 
inated in coal-mines, wells, etc. — v. t. [damped 
(dampt), DAMPING.] To moisten, make humid, ren- 
der chilly, depress or deject, discourage. — Dampen, 
dampen, v. t. or i. [-ened (-nd), -ening.] To make 
or become moist. — Damp'er, n. That which damps 
or checks ; as a valve in a flue, to regulate the draught 
of air, or a contrivance in mechanism, to check some 
action at a particular time. — Damp'^ness, n. Mod- 
erate humidity; moisture. 

Damsel. See under Dame. 

Damson. See under Damascene. 

Dance, dans, v. i. [danced (danst), dais'cing.] To 
move with measured steps, or to a musical accom- 
paniment; to move nimbly op merrily, caper, frisk. 

— r. t. To cause to dance, dandle. — n. A brisk 
amusement, in which the movements of persons are 
regulated by art, in figures and by the sound of in- 
struments. (J/hs.) a tune by which dancing is reg- 
ulated. — Dan'cer, n. — Dansense, dawx-sez', n. A 
female dancer, esp. at a theater, etc. 

Dandelion, dan''de-li'un, n. A plant, with large yellow 
compound flowers. 

Dander, dan'der, n. Corrupt, of Dandruff, q. v. — 
Anger or vexation. [Low.] 

Dandle, dan'dl, v. t. [dandled (-did), -dling.] To 
move up and down in att'ectionate play, as an in- 
fant ; to caress, fondle ; to treat as a' child, toy 
with, pet. — Dan'dy, -dT, n. One who affects finery 
in dress and manner; a fop ; coxcomb. — Dan'dy- 
ism, -izm, n. Manners and character of, etc. 

Dandmff, dan'druf, -driff, -der, n. Scurf which 
forms on the head, and comes off in scales. 

Danger, dan'jer, n. Exposure to injury, loss, pain, 
etc.; peril; hazard ; risk; jeopardy. —Dan'gerotiF, 
-us, o. Attended with, or causing danger. — Dan'- 
gerously, «di'. — Dan'gerousness, n. 

Dangle, dan''gl, v. i. [-gled (-gld), -gling.] To hang 
loosely, or with a waving, swinging, or jerking mo- 
tion. — V. t. To cause to dangle; to swing. 

Dank, dank, a. Damp; moist; humid; wet. 

Dapper, dap-'per, a. Little and active; nimble; neat 
in dress; smart. 

Dapple, dap'pl, a. Marked with spots of different 
shades of color; variegated. — n. One of the spots 
on a dapple animal. — v. t. [dappled (-pld), -pling.] 
To variegate, spot. 

Dare, dar, v. i. [duest (derst), daring.] To have 
sufficient courage; to be bold enough; to venture. 

— v.t. [dared (dard), d.\eing.] To have courage 
for, venture to do; to profess courage to meet; to 
challenge, provoke, defy, brave. — Darling, a. — 
Dar'ingly, ac/i7. — Dare'nlevil, 7i. A rash, venture- 
some fellow. 

Dark, dark, n. Destitute of light; not reflecting or 
radiating light; obscure; not easily seen through; 
mysterious ; hidden ; destitute of knowledge and 
culture; unrefined; evincing foul traits of charac- 
ter; vile; wicked ; foreboding evil; gloomj^; suspi- 
cious. — n. Absence of light; obscurity; condition 
of ignorance ; secrecy. -- Darken, dark-'n, v. t. 
[-ENED (-nd), -ENING.J To make dark or black, 
obscure, render dim, deprive of vision; to render 
ignorant or stupid; to render less clear 6r intelli- 
gible; to cast a gloom upon; to make foul, sully. — 
V. i. To grow dark or darker. — Dark'ener,"*;!. — 
Dark'ish, a. Somewhat dark ; dusky ; dim. — 
Dark'ly, ac/v. — Dark''ness, h. State of being, etc.; 
obscurity ; gloom ; secrecy ; state of ignorance or 
error; wickedness; impurity; want of clearness or 
perspicuity; calamity; perplexity. — Dark'TJng, a. 
In the dark. — Dark'^^some, -sum, a. Dark; gloomy; 
obscure. — Dark'y, -T, n. A negro. 

Darling. See under Dear. 

Darn, darn, v. t. [darned (damd), darning.] To 
mend, as a hole, by imitating the texture of the 
stuff with thread and a needle. — n. A place 
mended bj' darning. 

Darn, darn,\'. t. A substitute for the profane damn. 

Darnel, dar'nel, n. A weed, — rye-grass. 

Dart, dart, n. A weapon thrown by the hand; a 
javelin; any missile weapon; anything that pierces 
and wounds. — v. t. To throw with a sudden 
thrust, hurl, launch; to throw suddenly or rapid- 
ly ; to send, emit, shoot. — 1\ i. To be let fir or 
launched; to start and run with velocity; to snoot 
rapidly along. — n. A fish, the dace. 

Darwinian, dar-win'T-an, a. Pert, to the theory of 
natural selection, struggle for existence, and sur- 
vival of the fittest* taught by Charles Darwin in his 
"Origin of Species" and other works. — n. One 
who believes, etc. ; an evolutionist. — Dar'^winism, 
-win'^ianism, -izm, n. The doctrine of evolution. 

Dash, dash, v. t. [dashed (dasl\t), dashing.] To 
throw with violence; to break, as by throwing or 
collision; to put to .shame, confound; to throw in 
or on in a rapid, careless manner, overspread par- 
tially, touch here and there ; to form or sketch 
rapidly or carelessly ; to erase by a stroke, strike 
out, obliterate. — v. i. To rush or strike violently. 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare j end, eve, term ; In, ice ; Odd- tone, ^r ; 




— n. Violent striking of two bodies; crash; sudden 
check: frustration; ruin; an admixture, infusion, 
or adulteration ; a partial overspreading ; a rapid 
movement, quick blow, sudden onset; capacity for 
quick, bold movements against an enemy; avain 
sliow or blustering parade; aflourish. {Pu»ctu<ition.) 
A mark or line, thus[— ], denoting a break, stop, or 
transition in a sentence, or a change in its construc- 
tion, a significant pause, or an unexpected turn of 
sentiment. {Mux.) A mark [f] denoting that tlie 
note is to be performed in a short, distinct manner; 
the line drawn through a figure in the thorougli- 
bass, as a direction to raise that figure half a tone 
higher. {RuciiKj.) A single trial of speed, — disting. 
fr. a /(««/.— Dash^er, n. That which, etc.; a dash- 
board. — Dash'y, -T, a. Ostentatiously fashionable; 
showy.— Dash'' ingly, adc. Conspieuou.sly . — Dash'- 
board, -liord, n. A hoard on the front of a vehicle 
to intercept mud, etc. 

Dastard, das'tard, n. One who meanly shrinks from 
danger; coward; poltroon. — o. Meanlj' shrinking; 

Data, da'ta, «. jih Facts given or admitted; ground 
of inference or deduction. — Da'tum, n. Something 
given, esp. as a standard; a dutum-line, a horizontal 
line or level, from which surface points are reck- 
oned in surveying. — Date, dat, n. Specification of 
the time when a writing, coin, etc., was executed; 
precise period or time of; epoch; end; conclusion; 
duration; continuance. — v. t. To note the time 
of writing or executing; to fix the time of; to refer 
to as a starting point. — v. i. To have beginning, 
haveadate. — Da'tive, -tiv, )i. (Law.) That which 
maj- be given or disposed of at pleasure. (Gram.) 
The case of a noun which expresses the remoter 
object, generally indicated in English by to or for 
with the objective. — a. (Law.) Capable of being 
disposed of at will and pleasure; removable, as di-s"- 
ting. fr. perpetual, — said of an officer; given by a 
magistrate, as disting. fr. being cast upon a party 
by the law. Pert, to the dative. 

Date, dat, n. The fiuit of the date-palm. — Date'- 
-palm, -pam, -tree, n. The genus of 
palms bearing dates. 

Daub, dawb, v. t. [daubed (dawbd), 
DAUCi.NG.] To smear with soft, ad- 
hesive matter; to plaster ; to paint in 
a coarse or unskillful manner ; to dis- 
guise, conceal. — n. A viscous, sticky 
application. (Pmnt.) A picture coarse- 
ly executed. 

Daughter. daw'tPr, n. A female child or -^ 
descendant. — Daugh'terly, -IT, «. Be- 
coming a daughter: filial.- Daugh'ter- Date tree, 
in-law, «. Tlie wife of one's son. 

Daant. diint, v. t. To repress or subdue the courage 
of, dismay, appall, intimidate. — Daunfless, a. In- 
capaljle of being, etc.; bold; intrepid. 

Dauphin, daw'fin, n. The eldest son of the king of 
France, and heir of tlie crown. — Dau'phiness, n. 
Wife (if the dauphin. 

Davenport, dav'en-port, n. A writing-table. 

Davit, diiv'it or da'vit, n. (Na}it.) A spar used on 
ships, as a crane to hoistthe anchor 
to tlie top of the bow. pi. Arms 
projecting over a ship's side or 
stern, liaving tackle to raise a boat 

Davy-lamp, da'vT-lamp, n. A lan- 
tern whose light is inclosed within 
wire gauze, as a protection against 
explosions of gases in mines, — 
invented by Sir Humphrey Z>a(v/. 

Daw, daw, n. A bird of the crow 
family; jackdaw. 

Dawdle, daw'dl, v. i. [-dled (-did), 
waste time in trifling employment, trifle. — v.t 
waste by trifling. 

Dawn, dawn, v. i. [dawned (dawnd), dawning.] To 
begin to grow light in the morning, or to open and 
give promise, as the understanding or character. — 
n. The break of day; first appearance of light; first 
opening or expansion; beginning. 

Day, da, n. The period from sunrise to sunset; period 
of the earth's revolution on its axis, — divided into 




24 hours; a specified time or period: dav of battle; 
successful contest; victory. —Daily, da-'lT, a. Hap. 
pening or pert, to each successive day; diurnal; quai. 
tidian. — adv. Every day; day by day. — n. A pul» 
lication appearing every day. 

Daze, daz, r. t. [dazed (dazd), dazi.xg.] To over' 
power with light, dazzle, confuse, bewilder. — Daz- 
zle, daz'zl, r. t. [DAZZLED (-zld), -Zl.ING.J To 
overpower with light : to surprise with brilliancy 
or display of any kind. — ?-, i. To be intensely; 
bright; to be rendered blind or dim by excess of 
brightness. — Daz'zUngly, -II, adv. 

Deacon, de'kn, M. (Ecci.) In some communions, one 
admitted to a ^rade in the ministry lower than priest 
or elder; in otliers, a church olficer wjio assists the 
pastor at the Lord's Supper, etc. — Dea'coness. n. 
A woman specially devoted to the ."service of the 
church — caring for the sick, etc. — Dea'conry. -rT, 
-ship, Diaconate, di-ak'o-nat, n. Ofhce or ministry 
of a deacon or deaconess.— Diac''onal,«. Pert, to, etc. 

Dead, ded, a. Destitute of life ; jnit to death ; inani- 
mate ; resemblin°; death in appearance or quality ; 
without show of life; without motion; inactive; un- 
productive ; unprofitable ; dull; monotonous or un- 
varied; producing death; sure as death; wanting in 
religious spirit. (Laiv.) Cut off from the rights of 
a citizen, or property holder. {Ewjin.) Not impar- 
ting motion or power. — adv. To a degree resem- 
bling death; to the last degree; completely; wholly. 
— n. The most quiet or d^ath-like time ; period of 
profoundest repose or gloom, pi. Those who are 
dead; the departed. — Dead'ly, -IT, a. Capable of 
causing death; mortal; fatal; destructive; willing to 
destroy; implacable. — adv. So as to resemble, or to 
cause, death; mortally; implacably. — Dead'^liness, 
n. — Dead''ness, 7i. State of being or seeming dead; 
inertness; coldness; indifference. — Dead''en, ded'n,' 
V. t. [-ENED (-lid), -ENING.] To impair in vigor, 
force, or sensibility; to lessen the velocity or mo- 
mentum of, retard; to make spiritless; to deprive of 
gloss or brilliancy. 

Deaf, def or def, a. Wanting the sense of hearing: un- 
willing to hear ; not tobe persuaded. — Deafen, 
I', t. [-EX ED (-nd), -ENING.] To make deaf, stun. 
(Arch.) To render impervious to sound, as a floor, 
by fiUing the space beneath it with mortar, etc. — 
Deafjiess, ?;.— Deaf ''-mute, n. One deaf and dumb. 

Deal, del, ;-. /. [dealt (delt), dealing.] To divide, 
distribute : to throw out or bestow successively or 
indiscriminately. — v. i. To make distribution ; to 
traffic, trade, cxrry on business ; to act, have trans- 
actions with, matiage, treat. — n. A part or portion; 
an indefinite quantity, degree, or extent; division 
or distribution of carcls; portion distributed ; divis- 
ion of a timber by sawing ; a pine, or fir board or 
plank; wood of the pine or fir. — DeaKer, w. One 
who deals; a trader. — DeaKing, n. !>Ianner of treat- 
ing others; trade; distribution, as of cards. 

Dean, den, n. An ecclesiastical dignitary, subordinate 
to a bishop; an officer in universities; nead or secre- 
tary of a college faculty. — Dean'ery, -er-T, n. Office, 
revenue, residence, or jurisdiction, of a dean. — 
Dean'' ship, n. Office of , etc. — Dec'anal, «. Pert, 
to a deanery. 

Dear, der, n. Bearing a high price ; costly ; marked 
by scarcity, and exorbitance of price ; highly val- 
ued; much esteemed : greatly beloved : precious.- 
atv. Dearly: at a high rate.' — )i. A dear one; dan 
ling. — Dear''ly, ac^'.- Dear''ness, i/.— Darling, dar''.. 
ling, a. Dearly beloved; regarded with tender fond- 
ness: favorite. — n. One who is, etc. — Dearth, derth, 
n. Scarcity, rendering dear; want; famine; barren- 
ness; poverty. 

Dearborn, der''bern, n. A lisht 4-wheeled carriage. 

Death, deth, n. Cessation of bodily life ; decease ; de- 
mise; dissolution; exit; total privation or loss; man- 
ner of dying ; cause, agent, or instrument of loss of 
life; a skeleton, as the symbol of death ; danger of 
death. — Death'^less, a. Not subject to death or de- 
struction; immortal. — Death'ly, -IT, a. Resembling 
death or a dead body; deadly; fatal. 

Debar, de-bar'', v. t. [-barred f-bard), -barring.] To 
cut off from entrance, as if by a bar or barrier ; to 
shut out, exclude, deny, refuse. 

Debark, de-bark'', v. t. [-barked (-barkt), -barking.J 

sun, cube, full ; moon, f(56t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, then, boNboN- chair, get. 




. To land from a ship or boat, disembark. — v. i. To 
leave a vessel and pass to the land. 

Debase, de-bas', u. t. [-based (-bast'), -basing.] To 
reduce to a lower state of worth, dignitj', purity, 
etc. ; to abase, degrade, lower.— Debase'ment, ii. Act 
of or state of being debased ; degradation. 

Debate, de-baf, n. Contention in words or argu- 
ments ; dispute : controversy. — v. t. To fight or 
strive for, contend for in words or arguments, con- 
test, argue, dispute. — v. i. To engage in strife or 
combat, contend, struggle, deliberate. 

Debauch, de-bawch'', r. t. F-bauched (-bawcht), 
-B.\ucniNG.] To corrupt in cnaracter or principles ; 
to vitiate, pollute, seduce. — n. Excess in eating or 
drinking ; drunkenness ; gluttony ; lewdness ; an 
act of debauchery. — Debauchee, deb-o-she'', n. A 
sensual or dissipated person; rake; libertine. — De- 
baucher, -bawch-'er, n. — Debauch^ery, -er-T, n. Cor- 
ruption of fidelity ; indulgence of the appetites; in- 
temperance; lewdness. — I)ebauch.''ment, ?i. Act of 

Debenture, de-ben''chur, w. A writing acknowledg- 
ing a debt ; a custom-house certificate entitling an 
exporter of imported goods to a drawback. 

Debilitate, de-biKT-tat, v. t. To make feeble, faint, 
or languid ; to weaken, relax. — Debil'lty, -tt, n. 
State of being feeble, or weak ; languor ; infirmity; 

Debit, deb'it, n. A recorded item of debt; debtor side 
of an account ; debt. — v. t. To charge with debt ; 
enter on the debtor side. — Debt, det, n. That which 
is due from one to another; obligation; liability; a 
duty neglected or violated; fault; crime; trespass. — 
Debfor, -er, n. One who owes another money, goods, 
or services; one indebted. 

Debris, da-bre'', n. (Geol.) Fragments, taken collec- 
tively; esp., fragments from a mountain, piled up at 
the base. _RubDish; remains; ruins. 

Debut, da-boo', h. A beginning or first attempt; first 
appearance, as of an actor, public speaker, etc. — 
Debutant, -taN', ??. One who makes his first appear- 
ance before the public. — Debutante, -taNt', ?i. A 
woman who, etc. [F.] 

Decade, dek'ad, n. The sum or number of 10. — Dec'- 
agon, n. (Geom.) A plane figure of 10 sides and 10 
angles. — Dec'agram, ti. A decimal weight of 10 
grams, or 154.38 grains Tror. — Decahe'dron, n. ; pi. 
-DRA, -dra. (Geom.) A solid figure having 10 sides. 

— Decahe'dral, a. Having 10 sides. — Decaliter, de- 
kaKl-ter or dek'a-li-ter, n. A decimal measure of 
capacity, containing 10 liters, or G10.28 cu. inches = 
2 gallons and 64.44 cu. in. — Dec'alogue, -log, n. The 
10 commandments. — DecaKogist, -jist, n. One who 
explains the decalogue. — Decam'eron, ?i. A work 
■comprised in 10 books ; esp. a collection of tales of 
Boccaccio. — Decameter, de-kam'e-ter o/- dek'a-me- 
ter, M. A decimal measure of length = 10 meters = 
393.71 inches. — Decan'drous, -drus, a. (Bot.) Hav- 
ing 10 stamens. — Dec'apod, n. (Zool.) A crustacean 
with 10 feet or legs, as crabs, lobsters, etc. — Dec'- 
BiSter, n. A decimal solid measure = 10 steres = 10 
-cu. meters =353.166 cu. inches.— Dec'astich, -stik, n. 
A poem consisting of 10 lines. — Dec'astyle, -stil, n. 
{Arch.) A building having a portico with 10 col- 
umns in front. — Dec'asyllab'ic, -sil-lab'ik, a. Con- 
sisting of 10 syllables.— Decouple, -u-pl, a. Tenfold; 
multiplied by 10. — )i. A number 10 times repeated. 

— r. t. To make tenfold; to multiply by 10. — [See 
further under Decejibee.] 

Decadence, -dency. See under Decay. 

Decamp, de-kamp', i: i. [-camped (-kamf), -camp- 
ing.] To move away from a camping-ground, de- 
part suddenly. — Decamp'ment, n. Departure from, 
etc.; a marching off. 

Decanal. See under Dean. 

Decant, de-kant', v. t. To pour off gently, as liquor 
from its sediment; to pour from one vessel into an- 
other. — Decant'er, n. A vessel used to decant liq- 
uors or receive decanted liquors; one who decants. 

Decapitate, de-kap'T-tat, v. t. To cut off the head of, 
behead. — Decap'ita'tiqn, n. Act of, etc. 

Decarbonize, de-kar'bon-iz, ?-. t. T-ized (-izd),-iziNG.] 
To deprive of carbon. — Decar'burize, -bu-riz, v. t. 
Same as Decarbonize. 

Decay, de-ka', v. i. [decayed (-kad'), decaying.] 

To pass gradually from a sound, prosperous, or per- 
fect state, to one of imperfection, weakness, or dis- 
solution; to fail; to rot. — v. t. To impair, bring to a 
worse state. — n. Gradual failure of health, sound- 
ness, prosperity, etc. ; decline. — Deca'dence, -dency, 
-sT, ji. Decay; fall; deterioration. — Deciduous, -sid'- 
u-us, «. Of temporary existence; shed yearly, as 
leaves or antlers; not perennial or permanent. 

Decease, de-ses', w. Departure, esp. departure Jrom 
this life; death; demise. — v. i. [deceased (-sesf), 
deceasing.] To die. 

Deceive, de-sev', v. t. [-ceived (-sevd'), -ceiving.] 
To lead into error, impose upon, delude, insnare, 
disappoint. —Deceit, -set', n. Attempt or disposi- 
tion to deceive; deception; fraud; imposition. — De- 
ceit'ful, -lul, a. Trickish; fraudulent. —Decep'- 
tion, -sep'shun, n. Act of, or state of being, etc. ; that 
which, etc.; deceit. —Decep'tive, -tiv, -tory, -to-rT, 
a. Tending to, etc.; misleading. 

December, de-sem'ber, n. The 12th or last month in 
the j'ear. — Decem'vir, -ver, m. ; E. ;)Z. Decemvirs, 
-verz, L. pi. -viri, -vTT-ri. One of 10 magistrates, who 
had absolute authority in ancient Rome. — Decem'- 
viral, -vT-ral, a. ' Pert, to, etc. — Decem'virate, -rat, 

■ ti. Office or term of office of, etc.; a body of 10 men 
in authority. — Decen'nary, -sen'na-rT, n. A period 
of 10 }"ears. (Law.) A tithing consisting of 10 neigh- 
boring families. — Decen'nial, -nT-al, a. Consisting 
of, or liappening once in, etc. — Decillion, -siKj^un, 7i. 
A number consisting, by English notation, of a mil- 
lion involved to the lOtii power, or 1 with 60 ciphers 
annexed ; by French or common notation, a thous- 
and involved to the 11th power, or 1 with S.3 ciphers. 
See Numeration. —DecilKionth, -yunth, a. Pert, 
to, etc.; preceded by a decillion less one. — n. The 
quotient of 1 divided by, etc. ; one of a decillion 
equal parts. — DecigramI des'T-gram, n. A decimal 
measure of weight equal to 1-lU of a gram, or 1.5438 
grains Troy. — Deciliter, de-sil'T-ter or des'T-le-ter, 
H. A decimal measure of capacity = 1-10 liter = 6.1028 
cu. inches. — Dec'imal. des'l-mal, a. Pert, to deci- 
mals; numbered or proceeding by tens.— 7i. A num- 
ber expressed in the scale of tens; decimal number; 
esp. decimal fraction. — Decimalfractions. Fractions 
whose denominator is some power of lOj as ■^-^' t^^» 

and is not usually expressed, but is signified hy a 
point at the left of the numerator, as .2, .25. — Cir- 
culating or circulatory decimal. A decimal fraction 
in which the same figure, or set of figures, is con- 
stantly repeated; as, 0.354;-!54354; called also ?'ecu)vm£f 
decimal. — Dec'imate, v. t. To take the tenth part 
of, tithe; to select by lot and kill every tenth man 
of; to destroy a certain portion of . — Decimeter, de- 
sim'e-ter or des'T-me-ter, n. A decimal measure of 
length = 1-10 meter = 3.9371 inches. — Decime, da- 
sem', n. A French coin = 1-10 franc, about 2 cents. 

— Decister, des'is-ter, n. A solid measure, the 1-10 
of a stere, or cubic meter = 3.5317 cu. feet. — Decu'- 
rion, -rl-un, n. A Roman officer commanding 10 sol- 
diers. — [See also under Decade.] 

Decent, de'sent, a. Suitable in words, behavior, dress, 
and ceremony; free from obscenity; modest; mod- 
erate, but competent; respectable. — De'centness, n. 

— De'cency, -sY, n. State or quality of being decent; 
proper formality ; modesty ; what is becoming. 

Deception, Deceptive, etc. See under Deceive. 

Decide, de-sid', v. t. To determine the result of, settle, 
end, conclude. — v. i. To determine, form a defi- 
nite opinion, come to a conclusion, give decision.— 
Decid'ed, n. Free from ambiguity; unequivtjcal; free 
from doubt or wavering; determined; positive; un- 
deniable; clear. — Decid'edly, adv. — Decid'er, n.— 
Decid'able, a. Capable of being, etc. — Decis'ion, 
-sizh'un, n. Act of settling or terminating, as a con- 
troversy; determination; conclusion; account or re- 
port of a conclusion, esp. of a legal adjjudication; 
quality of bein^ decided; prompt and fixed deter- 
mination. — Deci'sive, -siv, a. Having the power or 
quality of deciding a question, etc. ; marked by 
promptness and decision; final; conclusive; positive. 

Deciduous. See under Decay. 

Decipher, de-si'fgr, v. t. [-phered (-ferd). -phering.] 
To translate from a cipner into intelligible terms; to 
find out the meaning of, reveal. 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; Snd, eve, term ; tn, ice ; Odd, tone, 6r i 




Deck, dek, v. t. [decked (dckt), decking.) To cover, 
overspread; to dress, clothe, esp. to clothe with ele- 
gance, array, adorn; to iurnish with a deck, as a 
vessel. — n. The floor-like covering of a .ship; a pack 
of cards. 

Declaim, de-klam'', v. i. [-cl.\imed (-klaind'), -ci..\im- 
i>G.] To speak rhetoricallv, make a fornial oration, 
harangue; to speak or talk pumpoii>lv and elabo- 
rately; to rant. — v. t. To utter in public, deliver in 
a rhe'torical or set manner. — Declama'tion, n. Act 
or art of, etc.; a set speech; rhetoric il display, with 
more sound than sense. — Declam''atory, -ti>-rl, o. 
Pert, to, etc.; characterized by rhetorical display; 
without solid sense or argument. 

Declare, de-klar', v. t. [-cl.^ked (-klard''), -clakikg.] 
To make known publicly, publish, proclaim; to as- 
sert, affirm. (Com.) To make full statement of, as 
of goods liable to taxes, duties, etc. — v. i. To make 
a declaration, proclaim one's self. {Law.) To state 
the plaintift's cause of action in legal form. — De- 
clat'edly, -ed-lT, ac/r. Avowedh'; explicitly. — Dec- 
lara'tion, n. Act of declaring; thing declared; doc- 
ument by which an assertion is veritied. (Law.) 
That part of the process or pleadings setting forth 
the plaintiff 's cause of complaint; the narration or 
counts. — Declar''ative, -kiar'a-tiv, -atory, -to-rl, a. 
Making declaration, etc.; explanatory; assertive; af- 

Decline, de-klTn', v. i. [-clixed (-klind'), -clixing.] 
To bend over or hang down, as from weakness, 
•weariness, despondency, etc.; to tend towards a 
close or extinction; to' fail, sink, decay ; to turn 
aside, deviate, stray ; to refuse. — v. t. To bend 
downward, dej)ress;' to turn away from, refuse to 
comply with, reject courteously, shun, avoid. 
(Gram.) To inflect in order in the changes of gram- 
matical form. — n. Afalling off; tendency to a worse 
state; deterioration. (Med.) That period of a dis- 
order when the symptoms abate in violence; a grad- 
ual wasting away of the physical faculties. Decay; 
consumption.— i)ecliii''er, M. — Declin''able, a. That 
may be declined; admitting of inflection. — Declen- 
sion, -klen'shun, «. Declination; descent; slope; a 
falling off from excellence; deterioration; decay; act 
of courteously refusing; declinature. (Gram.) In- 
flection of a wordj according to grammatical forms; 
the form of the inflection of a word declined by 
cases. — Dec'linate, -ll-nat, a. (Bot.) Bending down- 
ward, in a curve; curved downward; declined. — 
Declina'^tion, n. Act or state of bending downward, 
or of falling otf from excellence, or of deviating or 
turning aside; obliquit}'; withdrawal. (Gram.) Act 
of inflecting a word through its various termina- 
tions. — Declin''alK)ry, -klin^a-to-rt, a. Containing a 
refusal. — Declin'ature, -klTn'a-chur, n. Act of put- 
ting away or refusing. — Declivity, -kliv'I-tl, n. De- 
viation from a horizontal line; descent of surface; 
inclination downward; a descending surface; slope. 
— Declivous, -kli'vus, -cllvitous, -kliv'l-tus, a. Grad- 
ually descending; sloping. 

Decoct, de-kokf, v. t. To prepare by boiling, make 
an infusion of, prepare for assimilation by the heat 
of the stomach, digest. — Decoc'tion, n. Act of pre- 
paring by boiling^; an extract prepared by boiling. 

Decollate, de-koKlat, v. t. To sever the neck of, be- 
head, decapitate. — Dicollet^, da'kol-le-ta', a. Leav- 
ing the neck and shoulders bare; low-necked, as a 
dress. [F.] 

Decompose, de-kom-poz', v. t. [-po.sed (-pozd'), -pos- 
ing.] To separate the constituent parts of, set free 
from chemical combination, resolve into original 
elements. — v. i. To become resolved from existing 
combinations; to undergo dissolution. — Decomposi- 
tion, -zish'un, n. Act of, etc.; analysis; state of 
being separated; release from previous combinations. 

Decompound, de-kom-powud'', v. t. To compound or 
mix with that already compound; to reduce to con- 
stituent parts, decompose. — a. Compound of what 
is already compounded. (Bot.) Several times com- 
pounded or divided, as a leaf or stem. — Decom- 
poB'ite, -poz^it^ a. Compounded more than once. 

Decorate, dek'o-rat, v. t. To adorn, embellish, orna- 
ment, beautify. — Decora'tion, n. Act of aecora- 
ting; that which enriches or beautifies; ornament.— 
Dec'orative, -tiv, a. Suited to embellish; adorning. 


— Decorous, de-ko'rus or dek'o-rus, a. Suitable to 
the time, place, and occasion ; becoming: proper; 
seemly. — Decorously, dc-ko'- or dek-'o-, wlv. — De- 
corousness, de-ko'- or dek'o-, n. — Deco'rum, n. 
Proprietv of speech, manner, etc.; dignity. 

Decoy, de-coi', V. <. [-coved (-koid'),] To 
entice into a snare, lead into danger by artifice, en- 
trap, insnare.^«. Anything intended to lead into 
a snare; esp. a sportsman's lure to entice birds into 
a net or witliin shot; a place into which wild fowls 
are enticed. 

Decrease, de-kres', v. i. [-cre.4SED (-krest''), -cp.ea.s- 
ING.] To become less, be diminished gradually. — 
V. t. To cause to lessen, make less. — n. A becom- 
ing less; gradual diminution ; decav; wane, as of 
the moon. — Dec'rement, n. State of becoming grad- 
ually less; quantitj'lost by waste, etc. — Decres'cent, 
-kres'ent, a. Decreasing. — Dccres- 
cendo, da-kres-en'do, a. (Mus.) 
With decreasing volume of sound, 

— a direction to performers, written 
upon the staff, or indicated as in the margin. [It.] 

Decree, de-krc', n. An order or decision bj^ a court or 
other competent authority; law; statute; ordinance; 
edict. —V. t. [^deckeed (-kred"), -ckeeixg.] To de- 
termine judicially by authority, or bv decree; to 
appoint. — V. i. To decide authoritatively, determine 
decisively. — Decre'tal, a. Containing, or pert, to, a 
decree. — n. An authoritative order or decree; esp. 
a letter of the pope, determining some question in 
ecclesiastical law; a collection of the pope's decrees. 

— Decre'^tist, n. One versed in the decretals. 
Decrepit, de-krep^it, a. Wasted or worn by the in- 
firmities of old age. [Incorrectly written c/e«-epiV?.}; 

— Decrep''itate, -tat, v. t. To roast or calcine, so as 
to cause a continual explosion or crackling. — v.i^ 
To crackle, as salts when roasting. 

Decrescendo, Decrescent. See under Deckease. 

Decretal, etc. See under Deckee. 

Decry, de-kri'', v. t. [-cried (-krid'), -crying.] To- 
cry down; to censure as faulty, mean, or worthless; 
to'depreciate, detract, disparage. — Decri'al, n. Clam- 
orous censure; condemnation by censure. 

Decuple. See under Decade. 

Decurion. See under December. 

Decussate, de-kus'sat, v. t. To cross at an acute 
angle; to intersect or lie upon in the form of an X. 

— Decus'sate, -sated, a. Crossed; intersected. (Bot.y 
Growing in pairs, each at right angles to the pair 
above or below. (Rhet.) Consisting of 2 rising and 
2 falling clauses, in alternate opposition to each, 

Dedicate, ded''t-kat, v.t. To set apart and consecrate, 
as to a divinity, or for a sacred purpose; to devote,, 
or give wholly or earnestly up to; to inscribe or ad- 
dress, as to a patron. — a. Set apart; consecrated: 
dedicated. — Dedica'tion, n. Act of, etc. — Ded'ica- 
tory, -to-rl, -to'rial, -ri-al, a. Composing or serving- 
as a dedication. 

Deduce, de-dus', v. t. [-duced (-dusf), -ducixg.] Ta 
derive by logical process; to obtain as the result of 
reasoning, infer. — Dedu'cible. -sT-bl, a. — Deduct, 
-dukt'', r. t. To take away, in calculating; subtract,. 

— Deduc'tion, n. Act or method of deducing, in- 
ferring, or concluding; act of deducting or taking 
away; that deduced; inference; conclusion; that de- 
ducted; part taken away; abatement. — Deduct'ive. 
-iv, a. Of, or pert, to, deduction ; capable of being 
deduced from premises; deducible. — Deducfively, 
adv. — Dedu'cive, -siv, a. Performing the act of de- 

Deed, ded, n. That which is done, acted, or effected; 
an act ; illustrious act ; achievement ; exploit ; 
power of action ; agency ; etticiency. (Law.) A 
sealed instrument in writing, containing some 
transfer, bargain, or contract, esp. in regard to real 
estate. — v. t. To convey or transfer by deed. 

Deem, dem, v. t. [deemed (demd), deeming.] To- 
conclude on consideration; to think, judge, regard. 

— I'. i._ To be of opinion, think, estimate. 

Deep, dep, a. Extending far below the surface; of 
great perpendicular dimension; extending far back 
from the front; low in situation; hard to penetrate 
or comprehend; mysterious; profound; secret; of 
penetrating or far-reaching intellect ; thoroughly 

stin, cube, full ; moon, fd6t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, tiien, boNboN, chair, get. 




■versed ; profoundly moving or affecting; penetra- 
ting; thorough; profoundlj' quiet or dark; unmixed; 
sunk low ; depressed ; abject ; strongly colored ; 
dark; intense; of low tone; grave; heavy. — adv. 
To a great depth; far down; profoundly; deeply. — 
n. That which is deep, esp. deep water; the ocean; 
that which is profound ; most quiet or _profound 
part; the midst; the depth. — Deep''en, ^ep'o, v. «. 
[-ENED (-nd), -ENING.] To make deep or increase 
the depth of, make darker or more intense, more 
poignant or affecting, or more grave or low in tone. 
— v.i. To become more deep. — Depth, n. Deep- 
ness; measure of deepness; a deep, or the deepest, or 
the niiddle, part, — as, depth of winter. 

Deer, der, n. sing, and pi. A ruminant quadruped of 
several species, the males 
of which haveantlers. 

Deface, de-las', v. t. 

[defaced (-lasf), -FA- 
CING.] To destroy or mar 
the face or external ap- 
pearance of; to disfigure; 
to spoil by obliterating 
important features of. 

De facto, de-f ak'to. Actu- 
ally; in fact; existing. 

Defalcate, de-fal'kat, v. t. 
To cut off, take away or 
deduct part of, — used of 
money, accounts, etc. — 
Defalca'tion, n. A cut- 
ting off; diminution; de- r>ppr 
ficit; withdrawment; that liuki. 
cut off; an abstraction of money, etc., by an officer 
having it in charge; embezzlement. 

Defame, de-fam'', v. t. [-famed (-famd'), -faming.] 
To harm the good fame of by slanderous reports; 
to speak evil of, asperse,, calumniate. — De- 
fam''er, 7t.— Defamation, def-a-ma'shun, n. Mali- 
cious circulation of reports injurious to another; 
slander; detraction; aspersion. — Defam'^atory, -to- 
ri, a. Containing defamation. 

Default, de-fawlf, n. Omission of what ought to be 
done ; failure ; lack ; destitution. {Law.) A neg- 
lect of, or failure to take, some step necessary to se- 
cure the benefit of law. — v. i. To fail to appear in 
court; to let a case go by default. — v. t. To fail to 
perform. (Law.) To call (one who should be pres- 
ent in court), and make an entry of his default, if 
he fails to appear. — Defaulfer, n. One who makes 
default or fails to appear in court when called; one 
. who fails to account for money in his care; a delin- 
quent; peculator. 

Defeat, de-fet'', n. An overthrow, as of an attack, an 
army, etc. ; rout ; frustration. — v. t. To render 
null and void ; to overcome or vanquish, as an 
army; to resist with success, ruin, frustrate. — De- 
feasance, -fe-'zans, n. A rendering null or void. 
(Law.) A condition, relating to a deed, which be- 
ing performed, the deed is defeated or rendered 
void; or a collateral deed, made at the same time 
with a conveyance, containing conditions, on per- 
formance of which the estate then created may be 

Defecate, def'e-kaf, v. t. To clear from impurities, 
as lees, dregs, etc.; to clarify, purify; to free from 
extraneous or polluting matter. — v.i. (Med.) To 
void excrement. — a. Freed from anything that can 
pollute; refined; purified. — Defeca'^Mon, n. 

Defect, de-fekf, n. Want of something necessary for 
completeness; failing; blemish; fault. — Defecfive, 
-iv, a. Wanting in substance, quantity, or quality ; 
incomplete; imperfect; faulty. (Gram.) Lacking 
some of the usual forms of declension or conjuga- 
tion. — Defect 'ively, adv. —Defectiveness, n. — De- 
fecation, n. Act of abandoning a person or cause 
to which one is bound; apostasy; backsliding. — De- 
fi^cient, -fish-'ent, a. Wanting to make up complete- 
ness; not sufficient; inadequate; short. — Defi'dence, 
-ciency, -sheurst, 71. State of being, etc.; want; fail- 
ure. — Deficit, -t-sit, n. Deficiency in amount or 
quality; lack. 

Defend, de-fend', v. t. To repel danger or harm 
from, guard from injury. (Law.) To deny, as the 

claim of a plaintiff; to contest, as a suit. — Defend'- 
ant, 71. One who makes defense against evil ; defend- 
er. (Law.) The party opposing a complaint, demand, 
or charge, at law or in equity. — Defen'sative, 
-sa-tiv, 71. That which serves to guard or defend, 
as a plaster for a wound. — Defense', -fence', n. 
Act of, state of being, or that which, etc.; protec- 
tion ; guard ; fortification ; apology ; justification. 
(Law.) The defendant's answer or plea. — De- 
fense'less, -fence'less, a. Destitute of defense; un- 
protected. — Defen'sible, -sl-bl, a. Capable of be- 
ing defended. — Defen'sive, -siv, n. Serving to dec 
fend; proper for defense ; carried on by resisting 
attack; in a state or posture to defend. — n. That 
which defends; a safeguard. 

Defer, de-fer', v. i. [-fekked (-ferd'), -fereing.] To 
put off, postpone to a future time, delay, adjourn, 
protract. — v. i. To put oft', delay, wait. 

Defer, de-fer', v. t. To lay before, submit respect- 
fully, refer. — v. i. To yield from respect to the 
wishes of another. — Deference, n. A yielding of 
judgment or preference to the opinion of another; 
regard; respect. — Deferen'tial, -shal, a. Express- 
ing deference ; accustomed to defer. 

Defiance, Defier, etc. See under Defy. 

Deficient, Deficit, etc. See under Defect. 

Defile, defil', n. A narrow way, in which troops can 
march only in a file, or with narrow front ; a long, 
narrow pass, as between hills, etc. — v. i. To march. 
off file by file; to file off. 

Defile, de-ill', v. t. [-filed (-fild'), -filing.] To 
make unclean, render foul or dirty, pollute, cor- 
rupt; to make impure or turbid; to sully; to tarnish, 
as reputation, etc.; to vitiate ; to debauch, violate ; 
to make ceremonially unclean. — Defil'er, n. — De- 
file'ment, n. Act of, or state of being, etc.; foulness; 
uncleanness; pollution. 

Define, de-iin', v. t. [-fined (-find'), -fining.] To 
bring to a termination ; to end ; to determine the 
boundaries of, mark the limits of ; to determine 
with precision, fix the precise meaning of, explain, 
expound or interpret. — Defin'able, a, — Definite, 
def'I-nit, a. Having certain limits in extent, or in 
signification ; precise ; fixed ; exact ; serving to de- 
fine or restrict. — Definitely, adv. — Def initeness, 
n. — Defini'tion, -nish'un, n. Act of defining, dis- 
tinguishing, explaining, etc.; description of a thing 
by its properties ; explanation of the meaning of a 
word or term. (Log.) An enunciation of the con- 
stituents making up the logical essence. — Defln'i- 
tive, -tiv, a. Determinate ; final ; conclusive ; un- 
conditional. — n. ( G7-am.) A word used to define 
or limit the extent of the signification of a common 
noun. — Defin'itively, adv. — Defin'itiveness, w. 

Deflagrate, def 'la-grat, w. I. (CheTii.) To burn with a 
sudden and sparkling combu-tion. — v. t. To cause 
to burn, etc. — Deflagra'tion, ». A sparkling com- 
bustion, without explosion. — Def lagrator, n. 

Deflect, de-flekt', v. i. To turn aside, deviate from a 
right line, proper position or direction ; to swerve. — 
V. t. To cause to turn aside. — Deflec'tion, n. Act of, 
etc. ; deviation. (Naut.) Departure of a ship from 
its true course. (Opt.) Deviation of the rays of 
light toward the surface of an opaque body. — De- 
flexure, -flek'shur, n. A bending or turning aside. 

Deflour, -flower, d'e-flowr', v. t. [-flouked or flow- 
ered (-flowrd'), -flouring or -flowering.] To 
deprive of flowers ; to rob of the choicest ornament, 
esp. of virginity ; to ravish, seduce. — Deflour'er, 
-flower'er, n. — Def lora'tion, n. Act of, etc. 

Deforest, de-for'est, v. t. To clear of forests, destroy 
the trees of. 

Deform, de-f6rm', v. t. [-formed (-f6rmd'), -form- 
ing.] To mar or alter in form, disfigure, render dis- 
pleasing or ugly. — Deform'ity, -t-tl, n. State of be- 
ing deformed ; want of symmetry ; irregularity of 
shape or features ; anything destroying beauty, 
grace, or propriety; distortion ; defect ; absurdity. 

Defraud, de-frawd', v. t. To deprive of right by 
fraud, deception, or artifice; to withhold wrongfully, 
injure by embezzlement, cheat, deceive, frustrate.— 
Defraud'er, n. 

Defray, de-tra', v. t. [-frayed (-frad'), -fraying.] 
To meet the cost of, bear the expense of. 

Deft, deft, a. Apt; fit; neat. — Deft'ly, adv. 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fSre ; end, eve, term ; Yn, Ice ; 5dd, tone, &r j 




Defunct, de-funkt', a. Having finished the course of 
life: dead; deceased. — n. A dead person. 

Defy, de-fi', v. t. [defied (-fid''), -fvixg.] Orig., to 
renounce faith or obligation with, reject. To pro- 
voke to combat or strife ; to act in hostility to ; call 
out to combat, challenge, dare, brave. —Defi'ance, 
-ans, 7J. Act of, etc.; a challenge ; provocation; state 
of opposition. —Defi 'ant, a. Full of, etc.; bold; in- 

Degenerate, de-jen'er-at, v. i. To be or grow worse 
than one's kind: to be inferior or degraded; to de- 
teriorate. — a. Having deteriorated : mean : base ; 
low. — Degen'erateness, 71. — Degen^era'tion, De- 
gen'eracy, -si, n. Act of becoming, or state of hav- 
ing become degenerate; decay; meanness: poorness. 

— Degen'erative, -ti v, a. Tending to degenerate. 
Deglutinate, de-glu''tT-nat, v. t. To loosen by dissolv- 
ing tlie glue which unites; to unglue. 

Deglutition, deg-lu-tish^'un, n. Act or power of swal- 

Degrade, de-grad', v. t. To reduce to a lower rank or 
degree; to deprive of office or dignity; to reduce in 
character or reputation; abase. {Geol.) To wear 
down, as hills and mountains. — Degrad'ed, p. a. 
Reduced in rank, character, etc.; sunken; low; base. 
(Nut. Hist.) Presenting the typical characters in an 
imperfect condition. — Degrad'ingly, adv. — Deg- 
rada''tion, n. Act of, or state of being, etc. ; diminu- 
tion of strength, etficacj', or value. (Geol.) A grad- 
ual wearing down or wasting, as of rocks, banks, 
etc., by the action of water, frost, etc. 

Degree, de-gre', w. One step upward or downward, 
in quality, rank, acquirement, etc. ; grade ; grada- 
tion; point of progression to which one has arrived; 
station ; quality ; extent : grade to which scholars 
are admitted in recognition of their attainments by 
a college or university. (Genealogy.) A certain re- 
move in the line of d"e.scent, determining proximity 
of blood. (Geom.) A 360tli part of the circumfer- 
ence of a circle. (Algebra.) State as indicated by 
sum of exponents. A division, space, or interval, 
marked on a mathematical instrument, etc., as on a 
thermometer. (Miis.) Diiference in elevation be- 
tween 2 notes. 

Dehort, de-horf, v. t. To urge to abstain from, dis- 

Deicide. Deify, etc. See under Deity. 

Deign, dan, v. i. [deigned (dand), deigning.] To 
think worthj'', vouchsafe, condescend. — v. t. To 
condescend to give. 

Deity, de'T-tl, n. The collection of attributes which 
make up the nature of a god; divinity ; godhead ; a 
god or goddess. — The deity. God. the Supreme Being. 

— De'ist, n. One who believes in the existence of a 
God, but denies revealed religion; one who professes 
no form of religion, hut follows nature and reason; 
a freethinker. — Deisfic, -ical, a. Pert, to deism or 
to deists. — Deist'ically, adv. — De'ism, -izm, n. 
Doctrine or creed of, etc. — De'ify, -t-ll, ?'. t. [-fied 
(-fid), -FYi.N'G.] To make a god of, apotheosize : to 
treat with supreme regard, render god-like. — Deific, 
-ical, «. Making divine. — De'ifica''tion, Ji. Act of, 
etc. — De'iform.'a. Like a god; of godlike form. — 
De'icide, -sld, n. Act of killing a divine being, esp. 
of putting Christ to deatli; one concerned in, etc. 

Deject, de-jekt', v. t. To cast down the spirits of, dis- 
courage, dishearten, depress.— Deject'edly, adv. In 
a dejected manner; sadlj". — Dejecfedness, n. — De- 
jecfer, n. — Dejec'tion, n. Lowness of spirits from 
grief or misfortune; melancholy; weakness. (3Ied.) 
Act of voiding excrement ; matter voided. — Dejec'- 
tore, -jek'chur, n. Excrement. 

Dejeuner, da-zlie-na', Ds^jeune, da-zhen', n. A break- 
fast; lunch. 

Dejure, de-ju're. By right; of right; by law, often 
opp. to de facto. [L.] 

Dekagram, Dekaliter, etc. See Decagram, etc., un- 
der Decade. 

Delaine, de-lan', n. A fabric for ladies' dress-goods, 

— orig. all wool, now of cotton and wool, or worsted.' 
Delay, de-la', v. t. [-layed (-lad'), -laying.] To 

put off, defer ; to stop, detain, or hinder, for a time, 
retard the motion of, procrastinate, protract. — v. i. 
To move slowly, linger, tarry. — n. A deferring; 
procrastination ; a lingering; stay ; detention. 

Dele, de'le, r. t. (Print.) Erase, remove, —a direc- 
tion to cancel something which has been put in «. 
type: usually expressed as in the margin.— /> 
Delete, -let', v. t. To blot out. erase, destroy. — ' 
Dele'tion, n. Act of, etc. — Del'ete'rious, -rt-us, a. 
Destructive to life ; poisonous ; pernicious. 

Delectable, Delec^tion, etc. See under Delicate. 

Delegate, del'e-gat, v. t. To send as one's representa- 
tive ; to commission, depute ; to intrust to the care 
or management of another, assign, commit. — n. 
One deputed to represent another ; one elected to 
represent the people of a territory in Congress, with 
the right of debating, but not of voting ; a deputy ; 
representative; commissioner: attornej'. — a. Sent to 
act for another. — Delega'tion, n. Act of delega- 
ting ; appointment of a delegate ; one or more per- 
sons representing others, as in Congress, etc. (Law.) 
A substitution by which a debtor gives a third per- 
son, who becomes obliged in his stead to the creditor. 

Delenda, Delete, Deleterious, etc. See under Dele. 

Delf, delf , Delft, Delft'ware, n. Earthen ware, covered 
with white glazing,_— orig. made at Delft, Holland. 

Deliberate, de-lib'er-a*i v. t. To weigh in the mind, 
consider maturely, reflect iipon, ponder. — r. i. To 
take counsel with one's self, weigh the arguments 
for and against a proposed course of action, reflect, 
consider. — a. Weighing with a view to decision; 
carefully considering probable consequences ; cir- 
cumspect; formed with deliberation; well advised; 
not hasty ; slow. — Delib'erateness, w. — Delib'era'- 
tion, n. Act of, etc. — Delib'erative, -tiv, a. Pert, 
to, or proceeding or acting by deliberation. — Delib'- 
eratively, a'lv. In the way of deliberation. 

Delicate, del'T-kat, a. Full of pleasure; delightful; 
pleasing to the senses, or to a nice or cultivated taste; 
softly tinted, — said of color; fine or slender, — said 
of thread; slight or smooth, light and yielding,— said 
of texture; soft and fair, — said of the skin or a sur- 
face ; refined; scrupulous not ito olfend, — said of 
manners or feelings; tender, not able to endure hard- 
ship, —said of constitution, health, etc.; requiring 
nice handling ; dainty ; nicely discriminating. — 
Del'icacy, -ka-sl, n. State or condition of being del- 
icate; agreeableness to the senses; nicety of form, 
texture, or constitution; frailty or weakness, ex- 
treme propriety; susceptibility or tenderness; effem- 
inac}' ; luxury; self-indulgence ; critical niceness ; 
that which is pleasing, delicate, or refined; a luxury 
or pleasure; thing pleasant to the senses, esp. to the 
sense of taste ; a dainty. — Del'icately, adv. — Del'- 
icateness, n. — Deli'cious, -lish'us, a. Affording ex- 
quisite pleasure; most grateful to the senses, esp. to 
the taste. — Deli'ciouBly, adv. — Deli'ciousness, n. — 
Delight, de-lit', ;*. A high degree of gratification of 
mind; livelj' happiness; joy; that which affords de- 
light. — V. t. To give great pleasure to ; to please 
hi'ghlv.— r. i. To have or take delight.— Delight'ful, 
-lul, -some, -sum, a. Affording, etc. ; delicious ; 
charming. — Delight'fully, adv. — Delight'fulness, 
«.— Delec'table, a. Delightful. — Delec'tably, adv. 

— Delec'tablenesSj n. — Delecta'tion, n. 
Delineate, de-lin'e-at, v. t. To represent by sketch, 

design, or diagram; to portray to the mind, depict, 
sketch, picture, describe.— Delin'ea'tion.n. Act of, 
etc.; description ; portrait ; outline ; draught. 

Delinquent, de-link'went, «. Failing in duty; offend- 
ing oy neglect of duty. — ?i. One who fails to per- 
form his duty; an offender; one who commits a fault 
or crime. — Delin'quency, -wen-sl, n. Failure or 
omission of duty; fault; crime. 

Delirium, de-lir'I-um, n. (3Ied.) A state in which 
one's ideas are wild, irregular, and unconnected; 
mental aberration. Strong excitement; wild enthu- 
siasm; madness. — Delir'ious, -I-us, a. Suffering 
from, etc.; wandering in mind; insane. 

Deliver, de-liv'er, v. t. [-ered (-erd), -bring.] To 
free from restraint, set at libertj', save from evil; to 
give or transfer, part with ty, make over; to com- 
municate, pronounce, utter, impart; to give forth in 
action, discharge; to relieve of a child in child-birth. 

— DeUv'erer, n. — Deliv'erance, -ans, n. Act of, or 
state of being, etc. — Deliv'ery, -er-I, n. Act of, or 
state of being, etc.; rescue; release; surrender; ut- 
terance; parturition; freedom; preservation. 

Dell, del, n. A small retired dale or valley; ravine. 

Btln, cube, full ; moon, fo6t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, then, boNboN, chair, get. 





Delta, del'ta, «.; pi. -tas, -taz. The Greek letter A; 
a triangular tract of land ; esp. the 
space between 2 mouths of a river. 
(Geol.) Alluvial flats formed about 
diverging mouths of a river. — DeK- 
toid. a. Like the Greek A; triangular 

— Deltoid Uaf. (Bot.) One of triangu- 
lar form. — 2>. muscle. {Anat.) Ihe 
muscle in the shoulder which moves 
the arm directly upward. 

Delude, de-lud'', v. t. To lead from 
truth or into error, mislead the judg- 
ment of; to frustrate or disappoint; to r^o^fr^;/l i^of 
deceive, beguile, cheat. — Delu'sion, ^^itoia leai. 
-zhun, n. Act of, or state of being, etc.; false belief; 
error; illusion; fallacy. — Delu''sive, -siv, a. Fitted 
or tending to mislead. — Delu'sory, -so-rl, a. Apt to 

Deluge, deKuj, n. An overiiowing of the land by 
water; an inundation; esp. the flood in the days of 
Noah; anything which overwhelms, as a great ca- 
lamity. — v.t.. [DELUGED (-ujd), -UGIXG.] To over- 
flow, as with water, inundate, drown; to overwhelm 
under a general calamity. 

Delve, delv, v. t. [delved (delvd), delving.] To dig; 
to open with a spade; to fathom, penetrate, trace 
out. — V. i. To labor with the spade. 

Demagogue, dem'a-gog, n. One who controls the mul- 
titude r)j' specious or deceitful arts; an artful politi- 
cal orator. 

Demain. See Demesne. 

Demand, de-mand', v. t. To ask or call for, as one 
who has a claim, right, or power, to enforce the 
claim; to make requisition of ; to inquire earnestly 
or authoritativelj% question; to require as necessary; 
to be in urgent need of. {Lain.) To call into court, 
summon. — v. i. To make a demand, ask, inquire! 

— n. Act of, etc.; requi:^ition; exaction; earnest in- 
quiry; question; diligent search; manifested want; 
thing claimed; claim." 

Demarcation, -kation, de-mar-ka'shun, n. Act of 
marking, or of setting a limit; division; separation; 
a limit ascertained and fixed. 

Demean, de-men',?;, t. [-meaxed (-mend'), -meaning.] 
To manage, conduct, treat, deport. To debase, lower, 
degrade. [A blundering formation fr. E. mean, 
base.] — Demean'or, -er, n. Manner of behaving; 
conduct; deportment; mien. 

Dementia, de-men'slil-a, n. Loss of mental power as 
a result of brain-disease. 

Demerit, de-mer-'it, n. That which deserves blame or 
detracts f roni_merit ; fault : crime ; vice. 

Demesne, de-men', -main', -man, 71. (Law.) The chief 
manor-place, with that part of its lands not granted 
out in tenancy. 

Demlcadence, dem't-ka'dens, n. CiLus.) An imperfect 
cadence, or one that falls on any other than the key- 
note. — Dem'i-god, n. A fabulous hero, half divine, 
produced by the cohabitation of a deity with a mor- 
tal.— Dem'i-lune, -lun, n. (Fm-t.) A work beyond the 
main ditch of a fortress, and in front of the curtain 
between 2 bastions, to defend the curtain; a ravelin. 
See Ravelin.— Dem'i-monde', -moNd', n. The lower 
half of society: persons of doubtful reputation; esp. 
women kept as mis- 
tresses. — Dem'i- 
ver, n. (J/(ts.) A short 
note, equal in time 
to the half of a semi- 
quaver, or l-32d part 
of whole note. 

Demijohn, dem't-jon 




, „ . A glass bottle with large 

body and small neck, inclosed in wicker-work. 

Demise, de-miz', n. Transmission by formal act or 
conveyance to an heir or successor; transference; 
decease of a royal, princely, or distinguished per- 
son. {Law.) Conveyance or transfer of an estate. 
— V. t. [DEMISED (-mtzd'), -MisiNG.] To transfer or 
transmit by succession or inheritance; to bequeath; 
to lease. — Demi'sable, -za-bl, a. — Demis'sion. 
-mish'un, n. Act of, or state of being, etc. ; degra- 
dation; humiliation. 

Democracy, de-mok'ra-sT, n. A form of government 
in which supreme power is vested in the people, and 

the legislative and executive functions are exercised 
by the people or by persons representing them : prin- 
ciples held by one of the political parties of the U. 
S. — Dem'ocrat, n. An adherent or promoter of, etc. 
— Democrat'ic, -leal, a. Pert, to, or favoring, etc.; 
constructed upon the principle of popular govern- 
ment ; favoring popular rights. 

Dbmolisli, de-mol'ish, v. t. [-ished (-isht), -ishing.] 
To throw or pull down, pull to pieces, ruin, over- 
throw, destroy, raze. — Demol'isher, n. — Demoli'- 
tion, -lish'un, n. Act of, etc. ; destruction. 

Demon, de'mun, w. {Gr. Antiq.) A spirit holding a 
middle place between men and gods; a departed 
soul. An evil spirit ; devil. — Demoniac, de-mo'nl- 
ak, -niacal, dem-o-ni'ak-al, a. Pert, to, or like, etc. ; 
influenced by evil spirits: devilish. — Demo'niac, 7i. 
A human being possessed by, etc. 

Demonetize, de-mon'e-tiz, v. t. [-tized (-tizd), 
-TiziNG.] To deprive of value, or withdraw from 
use, as currency. — Demon'etiza'tion, n. Process 
of, or state of being, etc. 

Demonstrate, dem'on- or de-mon'strat, v. t. To point 
out. indicate, exhibit; to show, prove, or establish 
so as to exclude doubt or denial. {Anat.) To ex- 
hibit and describe the parts of a dead body, when 
dissected. — Demonstra'tion, n. Act of, etc. ; proof; 
manifestation of feelings by outward signs. {Anat.) 
Exhibition of parts of a subject prepared by the dis- 
sector. {Logic.) Act of proving by svllogistic pro- 
cess. {3Iath.) A course of reasoning showing that a 
certain result is a necessary con.sequence of assumed 
premises. {Mil.) A decisive exhibition of force, or 
a movement indicating an intention. — Demon'- 
strative, -tiv, a. Tending to demonstrate ; having 
the power of demonstration ; expressing feeling, 
thoughts, etc. ; frank ; open. — Demonstrative x)ronoun 
{Gram.) One distinctly de.signating that to which 
it refers. — Demon'stratively, adv. — Dem'onstra'- 
tor, n. One who, etc. — Demon'stratory, -rT, a. 
Tending to, etc. 

Demoralize, de-mor'al-Tz, v. t. [-ized (-izd), -izing.] 
To destroy or undermine the morals of; to render 
corrupt in morals, discipline, courage, etc. 

Demur, de-mer', v. i. [-mi'kked (-merd'), -muering.] 
To delay, pause, suspend proceedings in view of a 
doubt or difficulty. {Law.) To raise an objection, 
and abide upon 'it for decision by the court. — n. 
Stop; pause; hesitation as to proceeding ; suspense 
of decision or action. — DMnur'rer, n. One who 
demurs. {Lav:.) A stop in an action upon a point 
to be determined by the court before further pro- 
ceedings can be had. 

Demure, de-mur', a. Of sober or serious mien ; of 
modest appearance ; grave ; modest in outward 
seeming only; making a show of gravity. 

Den, den, re. A cave or hollow place in the earth, for 
concealment, shelter, or security ; a customary 
place of resort; haunt; retreat. — v.i. To dwell as 
in a den. 

Dengue, den'ga, n. A violent fever, with rheuma- 
tism, epidemic in tropical countries, — called also 
dandy-, bmuiiLet-, and hucket-fever. 

Deniable, Denial, etc. See under Deny. 

Denim, den'im, re. A coarse cotton drilling used for 
overalls, etc. 

Denizen, den'T-zn, n. An adopted or naturalized 
citizen; a stranger admitted to residence in a for- 
eign country; dweller; inhabitant. — v.t. [-zened 
(-znd), -ZENiNG.J To make a denizen, provide with 

Dennet, den'net, ?i. A 2-wheeled carriage, like a gig. 

Denominate, de-nom'T-nat, v. t. To give a name or 
epithet to, entitle, name, designate. — a. Having a 
specific name; specified in the concrete as opposed 
to abstract. — Denom'ina'tion, n. Act of, etc. ; that 
by which anj-thing is styled; a name, esp. a general 
name indicating a class of like individuals; a class, 
or collection of indi-v'iduals, called by the same 
name; a sect. — Denom'ina'tional, a. Pert, to, etc. 
— Denom'inative, -tiv, a. Conferring or possessing, 
etc.; derived from a substantive or adjective. — n. 
{Gram.) A verb formed from a noun either sub- 
stantive or adjective. — Denom'lna'tor, -ter, ?i. One 
who, or that which, gives a name. {Arith.) The 
number below the line in vulgar fractions, showing 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; gnd, eve, term } In. ice ; 8dd, tone, 6r ; 




into how many parts the integer is divided. (Alg.) 
That part of any expression below the horizontal 
line signifying division. 

Denote, de-nof, r. t. To indicate, point out, inark; 
to be the sign of, signify, mean, intend. — Denot'- 
able, a. — Den'ota/tion, 7i. 

Denouement, da-niX)''nioN", 7i. The catastrophe, esp. 
of a drama, romance, etc.; solution of a mystery; 
issue; event. 

Denotmce, de-nowns', v. t. [-xounced (-nownsf), 
-NOUXCIXG.] To give formal or official notice of, 
announce, declare ; to threaten by some outward 
expression ; to point out as deserving of punish- 
ment, inform against, stigmatize. — Denon'^ciate, 
-shT-at, t'. t. To denounce. — Denun'oia'tion, n. 
Act of, etc.; that by whicli anvthing is denounced; 
public accusation. — Denun'oia'tor, «. — Denun'oi- 
atory, -to-rl, a. Containing, etc.; accusing. 

'Dense, dens, a. Having the constituent parts closelv 
united; close; compact. — Den'sity, -sT-tT, n. Qual- 
ity of being, etc. (Phi/gics.) The proportion of solid 
matter to a given bulk or volume. 

Dent, dent, n. The mark made by a blow; indenta- 
tion, —v. t. To make a dent upon, indent. 

Dental, den'tal, a. Pert, to the teeth. {Gram.) 
Formed by aid of the teeth, etc. — n. An ar- 
ticulation formed bj' aid of the teeth or gum of 
the teeth. — Den'til, n. (Arch.) An ornamental pro- 
jection in cornices. — Den''tist, n. One who cleans, 
extracts, repairs, or fills natural teeth, and inserts 
artificial ones. — Den''tistry, -rT, n. Art or profes- 
sion of a dentist. — Denature, -ture, n. An artificial 
tooth or set of teeth. — DentFtion, -tish'^un, w. Pro- 
cess of cutting the teeth. iZool.) System of teeth 
peculiar to an animal. 

Denude, de-nud', v. t. To divest of all covering, 
make bare or naked, strip. 

Denunciate, Denunciatory, etc. See under Denounce. 

Deny, de-ni', v. t. [denied -(-nid), denying.] To 
contradict, gainsay, declare not to be true; to re- 
fuse, reject ; to refuse to grant, withhold ; to dis- 
claim connection with, responsibility for, etc.; to 
disown, abjure. — Deni^al, »i. Act of, etc.; assertion 
of the untruth of a statement ; contradiction ; refus- 
al ; disavowal. 

Deodorize, de-o'der-Tz, v. t. To deprive of odor, esp. 
of bad odor from impurities. — Deo''dorizer, n. 

Depart, de-part'', w. i. To go forth or away; to quit, 
leave, or separate from a place or person; to quit this 
world, die. —v. t. To leave, retire from. — Depart- 
ment, n. A part or portion; a distinct course of life, 
action, study, etc.; subdivision of business; esp. one 
of the principal divisions of executive government; 
territorial division; esp. one for governmental pur- 
poses; a military subdivision of a country; sphere; 
province; district. — Departmenfal, a. Pert, to, etc. 
— Departure, -par'chur, n. Act of departing; death; 
abandonment, as of a'rule of duty, action, plan, etc. 
(Navigation & Surv.) Distance east or west from 
the meridian from which a ship or course departs. 

Depend, de-pend', v. i. To hang; to be sustained by 
something above; to be in suspense, remain unde- 
termined; to rely for support, stand related to any- 
thing, as to a cause or condition; to trust, confide, 
rely ; to be in a condition of service. — Depend'ent, 
-ant, «. Hanging down; relying on, or subject to 
something else for support ; conditional ; subordi- 
nate. —h. One who, or that which, etc. ; one sus- 
tained by, or relying on, another; a retainer; acorol- 
lary ; consequence. — Depend'ence, -ens, ?t. Actor 
state of, etc.; mutual connection and support; con- 
catenation; inter-relation; subjection to the direction 
of another; inability to provide for one's self; reli- 
ance; trust; thing dependent. — Depend'ency, -sT, n. 
State of being, etc.; thing hanging; that attached to 
something else as its consequence, subordinate, sat- 
ellite, etc. ; a territory remote from the state to which 
it belongs, but subject to its dominion; a colony. — 
Depend'ently, adi?. — Depend'er, n. 

Depict, de-pikf, v. t. To form a painting or picture 
of, portray: to represent in words, describe. 

Deplete, de-plef, v. t. (Med.) To empty, as the ves- 
sels of the human system, by venesection; to ex- 
haust the strength, vital powers, or resources of. — 
Deple'tion, n. Act of, etc. (Med.) Venesection ; 

blood-letting. — Deple'tory, -to-rT, o. Calculated 
to deplete. 

Denlore, de-plor', v. t. [-ploued (-plord'), -ploring.] 
To feel or express deep grief for; to weep, convey as 
tokens of grief, mourn, lament, bemoan. — Deplor'- 
er, n. — Deplor'able, a. Pitiable ; sad ; calamitous ; 
wretched. — Deplor'ableness, n. — Deplor'ably, adv. 
Lamentably; miserably. 

Deplov, de-ploi', v. t. [-i-loyed (-ploid'), -ploying.] 
(Mil.) To open, extend, display. — v.i. To open, 
extend in line. 

Depone, de-poii', v. «. [-poned (-pond''),-PONiNG.] To 
assert under oath, make deposition of, depose. — v. 
i. To testify under oath, assert. — Depc'nent, a. 
(Gram.) ilaving a passive form with an active 
meaning, — said of certain verbs. — n. (Law.) One 
who gives a deposition under oath. (Gram.) A de- 
pdnent verb. 

Depopulate, de-pop'u-lat, v. t. To deprive of inhabi- 
tants, dispeople. — v. i. To become dispeopled. — 
Depop'ttla'tion, n. Act of, or state of being, etc. 

Deport, de-porf, r. t^ To transport, carry away, ex- 
ile ; to demean, conduct, behave. — Deporta^'tion, 
n. Act of, or state of being, etc.; banishment; trans- 
portation. — Deport'ment, n. Manner of deporting 
one's self, esp. with respect to the courtesies and du- 
ties of life;_demeanor; conduct. 

Depose, de-poz', v. t. [-poskd (-pozd'), -posing.] To 
reduce from a throne or high station, degrade, di- 
vest of office; to bear written testimony to, aver 
upon oath. — v. i. To bear witness, testify by depo- 
sition. — Depos''al, 7i. Act of divesting of office.— 
Depos'er, n. One who, etc.— Depos'it, -p6z-, v. «. To 
lay down, place, put; to lay away for safe keeping, 
store; to commit to the custody of another; esp. to 
place in a bank, as money, to he drawn at will. — n. 
That which is deposed, or laid down, esp. matter 
precipitated from solution in liquid; that intrusted 
to the care of another. — Depos'ltary, -1-ta-rT, n. 
One with whom anything is left in trust ; a tru.s- 
tee ; guardian. (Law.) One to whom goods are 
bailed, to be kept tor the bailor without recompense. 

— Deposition, -zish-'un, w. Act of deposing or de- 
positing: precipitation; act of setting aside a public 
officer; displacement; removal; thing deposited; sed- 
iment. (Law.) Testimony taken down in writing, 
under oath or affirmation; affidavit. —Depos''itor, 
-T-ter, n. One who makes a deposit. — Depos''itory, 
-T-to-rt, n. Place where anything is deposited for 
sale or keeping. — Depot, ae-po' or de'po, n. A 
place of deposit; warehouse; storehouse. (Mil.) A 
station where stores are kept, or recruits assembled 
and drilled; the headquarters of a regiment. A rail- 

. road station., de-prav', v. t. [-peaved (-pravd'), -pea- 
viNG.] To make bad or worse, corrupt, contaminate. 

— Deprav'ity, -prav'T-tt, n. The state of being cor- 
rupted; extreme wickedness. 

Deprecate, dep're-kat, v. t. To seek to avert by 
prayer, pray for deliverance from, regret deeply. 

— Depreca'tion, n. Act of deprecating; prayer that 
evil may be removed ; entreaty for pardon. — Dep'- 
recatory, -rT, a. Serving to deprecate ; tending to 
avert evil by prayer. 

Depreciate, de-prc'shT-at, w. (. To lessen in price; to 
represent as of little value, disparage, traduce, de- 
tract, underrate. — v. i. To fall in value, become of 
less worth, sink in estimation. — Depre'cia'tion, w. 
Act or state of, etc. ; reduction of worth. — Depre''- 
cia'tive, -tiv, a. Inclined to underrate ; tending to 
depreciate. — Depre'cia'tor, -ter, w. — Depre'cia- 
tory, -to-rT, a. Tending to depreciate. 

Depredate, dep're-dat, v. t. To subject to plunder 
and pillage; to despoil, lay waste; to destroy b^' eat- 
ing, devour. 

Depress, de-pres'', v. t. [-peessed (-prest'), -press- 
ing.] To press down, cause to sink, let fall; to bring 
down or humble; to cast a gloom upon: to embar- 
rass, as trade, commerce, etc.; to lessen the price of, 
cheapen. — Depression, -presh'un, n. Act of, or state 
of being, etc. ; a falling in of the surface ; a cavity 
or hollow ; humiliation ; dejection ; despondency ; 
embarrassment or hindrance, as of trade, etc. 

Deprive, de-priv', v. t. [-prived (-privd'), -priving.] 
To take away, remove; to dispossess, divest, divest 

siin, cube, iyil ; moon, ffi&t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, tiien, boNboN, chair, get. 




of office, depose, dispossess of dignitj', esp. ecclesi- 
astical ; to strip, bereave, rob, despoil. — Dep'ri- 
va''tion,n. Act of, or state of being, etc. (Ecd. Law.) 
The taking away from a clergyman his benefice or 

Depth. See under Deep. 

Depute, de-put', v. t. To appoint as substitute or 
agent; to delegate. — Dep'uta'tion, n. Act of, etc. ; 
person or persons deputed by another party to act 
on his behalf. —Dep'utize, -tiz, v. t. To depute. — 
Dep'uty, -tT, n. One appointed as the substitute of 
another, and empowered to act for him; lieutenant; 
delegate; envoy; agent; vicar. 

Derange, de-ranj'', v. t. [-ranged (-ranid';, -ran- 
ging.] To put out of place, order, or rank, throw 
into C(jnfusion or disorder, disturb in the action or 
function, render insane ; to displace, unsettle, dis- 
concert. —Derange'ment, ?i. Act of , or state of be- 
ing, etc. ; di.sorder ; esp. mental disorder ; insanity; 
lunacy; mania. 

Derelict, der'e-likt, n. Forsaken by the natural own- 
er or guardian ; abandoned ; abandoning responsi- 
Ifility ; unfaithful. — n. {Law.) A thing volunta- 
rily abandoned by its proper owner ; a tract of land 
loft dry by the sea. — Derelic'tion, n. Act of leav- 
ing with an intention not to reclaim ; state of being, 
etc.; unfaithfulness. {Law.) The'gaining of land 
from the sea. 

Deride, de-rid', r. t. To laugh at with contempt, turn 
to ridicule, niock, taunt.— Derid'er, n. — Derld''ingly, 
niJv. — Deris'ion, -rizh^un, n. Act of, or .state of be- 
ing, etc. ; an object of contempt : laughing-stock ; 
scorn ; mockery : insult. — Deri'sive, -siv, a. Ex- 
pressing, or characterized by, derision. — Deri'sive- 
ly, adv. — Deri'sory, -so-rT. a. JSIocking ; derisive. 

Derive, de-riv', v. t. [-hived (-rivd'), -kivixg.J To 
receive, as from a source, obtain by transmission ; 
to trace the origin, descent, or derivation of, recog- 
nize transmission of, deduce, infer, draw. — v. i. To 
flow, proceed, be deduced. — Deriv'able, a. Ca- 
pable of being, etc. ; transmissible ; inferable. — 
Deriva'tion, n. Act of procuring an effect from a 
ear"'^^, means, or condition, as profits from capital, 
truth from testimony, conclnsions or opinions froni 
evidence ; act of tracing origin, as in grammar or 
genealogy ; state or method of being derived; thing 
derived; derivative; deduction. {MoAh.) Operation 
of deducing one function from another according to 
some fixed law. {Me'/.) A drawing of humors from 
one part of the body to another.— Deriv'ative, -rtv'- 
a-tiv, a. Obtained by derivation; secondary.— x. Any- 
thing obtained, or deduced, from another. {Gram.) 
A word formed from another word. (J/«s.) A 
chord, not fundamental, but obtained from another 
by inversion. {Med.) That adapted to produce a 
derivation. {Math.) A function expressing the re- 
lation between two consecutive states of a varying 
function. — Deriv'atively, adv. 

Derm, derm, n. The natural covering of an animal; 

Derogate, der'o-gat, v. t. To annul in part, repeal 
parti j% restrict ; to detract from, disparage, depreci- 
ate. — c. i. To take away, detract. — a. Diminished 
in value ; damaged. — Deroga'tion, n. Act of, etc. 
{Stock Exchange.) An alteration or lessening of a 
contract to sell stocks. — Derog'atory, -to-rt, a. 
Tending to, etc.; injurious.— Derog''atorily, adv. 

Derrick, der'rik, n. A mast supported at the top 
by stays or guys, with tackle for raising heavy 
weights. — Derrick crane. A crane, 
the boom or derrick of which can 
be brought to different angles with 
the upright. 

Derringer, der^'rin-jgr, n. A short- 
barreled, lar^e-bored pistol. 

Dervis, -vise, der^'vis, Der'vish, n. 
A Turkish or Persian monk ; esp., 
one who professes poverty and 
leads an austere life. 

Descant, des'^kant, n. A variation 
of an air ; a discourse formed on 
its theme, like variations on a mu- 
sical air ; a comment. {Mies.) The 
highest part in a score ; soprano 

Derrick Crane. 

a composition in parts ; art of composing in parts. 

— Descant'', v. i. To sing a variation or accompani* 
ment ; to comment, discourse witb-particularity. 

Descend, de-send', v. i. To pass to a lower place ; to 
come or go down in any way, etc. ; to plunge, fall ; 
to make an attack, as if from a vantage-ground ; to 
lower one's self, condescend; to pass from the more 
general or important to the particularor more tri^-ial; 
to be derived, proceed by generation or by transmis- 
sion. {Astron.) To move to the southward. {Mus.) 
To fall in tone, pass from a higher to a lower tone. 

— V. t. To go down upon or along ; to pass from 
the top to the bottom of. — Descead'ant, n. One 
who descends, as offspring, however remotely. — 
Descend'ent, a. Descending ; proceeding frf)m an 
ancestor or source. — Descend'er, n. — Descend'lble, 
a. Admitting descent; capable of being transmitted 
by inheritance. — Descend'ibil'ity, «.— Descen'sion, 
-sen'shun, n. Act of going downward; descent; deg- 
radation. — Descen'sional, a. Pert, to, etc. — De- 
scen'sive, -siv, a. Descending; tending downward; 
having power to descend. — Descent', n. Act of, etc.; 
incursion ; sudden attack ; progress downward, as 
in .station, virtue, etc., from the more to the less im- 
portant, from the better to the worse, from a higher 
to a lower tone, etc. ; derivation as from an ances- 
tor ; lineage ; birtli ; extraction ; transmission by 
succession or inheritance; sloping surface ; decliv- 
ity; thing derived; descendants ; issue ; a step in the 
process of derivation ; a generation. 

Describe, de-skrib', v. t. [-scribed (-skribd'), -scri- 
bing.] To form or represent by lines, real or imagi- 
nary : to sketch in writing, give an account of, rep- 
resent, recount, explain, depict ; to have or use the 
power of describing. — Descrip'tion, -skrlp'shun, n. 
Act of describing ; sketch of anything in words ; 
class to which a representation applies ; qualities 
distinguishing such a class. — Descrip'tive, -tiv, a. 
Tending to, or having the quality of, etc. ; contain- 
ing description. — Descrip'tivefy, adv. — Descry, 
de-skri', v. t. [-sceied (-skrid'), -scrying.] To dis- 
cover bj' the eye, as distant objects, faintly seen, 
espy, detect, discern. — Descri'er, w. 

Desecrate, des'e-krat, v. t. To divest of a sacred 
character; to treat sacrilegiously. 

Desert, de-zert', n. A reward. See under Deserve. 

Desert, de-zert', v. t. To part from, end connection 
with. {Mil.) To leave without permission, forsake 
in violation of duty. — v. i. To quit a service with- 
out permission, run away. — Des'ert, a. Forsaken; 
without life or cultivation; waste; barren; desolate. 

— n. A deserted or forsaken tract of land; a wilder- 
ness ; solitude. — Desert'er, n. One who forsakes 
his dut}', post, party, or friend ; esp. a soldier or 
seaman who quits the service without leave. — De- 
ser'tion, n. Act of, or state of being, etc. 

Deserve, de-zerv', v. t. [-served (-zervd'), -serving.] 
To earn by service, merit, be entitled to. — v. i. To 
be worthy of recompense. — Deserv'er, n. — Desert', 
n. Thing deserved ; reward or punishment merited; 
worth; due. — Deserv'edly, adv. Justly. — Deserv'- 
ingly, adv. In a deserving manner. 

Deshabille, des-a-biK, n. An undjess ; careless toilet. 

Desiccate, des'ik-kat or de-sik'kat, v. t. To exhaust 
of miOisture- to dry. 

Desiderate, Desjoeratum, etc. See under Desire. 

Design, de-sin- or -zin', v. t. [-signed (-sind' or 
-zind'), -SIGNING.] To draw the preliminary out- 
line of, sketc.^ tor a model; to mark out and exhibit, 
appoint, desi!jnate ; to form a plan of, contrive ; to 
intend or par] ose. — v.i. To nave a purpose, in- 
tend.— w. A preliminary sketch; plan ; preliminary 
conception , scheme ; contrivance ; adaptation of 
means to a preconceived end ; object for which one 
plans; aim; intent; decorative figures, asof amedal, 
embroidery, etc.— Design'edly, -IT, adv. By design; 
intentionally. — Design'able, a. Capable of bein" 
marked out. — Des'ignate, des'ig-nat, v. t. To mark 
out and make known, indicate, call by a distinctive 
title, denominate, style; to point out hy distinguish- 
intr from others; to set apart for a purpose or duty. 

— Designa'tion, n. Act of, etc.; indication; selection 
and appointment for a purpose; that which de.'iig- 
nates; appellation; use or application; signification. 

— Des'ignative, -tiv, a. Serving to indicate. — Des'- 
ignator, -ter, n. 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; gnd, eve, term ; In, ice ; 6dd, tone, 6r ; 




Dssipient, de-sip'T-ent, a. Trifling ; foolish. 

Desire, de-zTr'', v. t. [-sired (-zlrd'), -siring.] To 
long for the enjoj'ment or possession of, wish for, 
express a wish for, entreat, request. — n. Natural 
eagerness to obtain any good ; expressed wish ; peti- 
tion ; object of longing ; inclination. — Desir'^aa, 
-us, a. Feeling desire; covetous; eager. — Desir''- 
onsly, adv. — Desir'susness, n. — Desir'^able, a. 
Worthy of, etc. ; fitted to excite a wish to possess. — 
Desir'ably, -blT, adv. — Desir'ableness. n. — Deaid'- 
erate, -sid'er-at, v. t. To be sensible oi the lack of; 
to want, miss, desire. — Desid''eratiTe, -tiv, a. Ex- 
pressing or denoting desire. — n. An object of de- 
sire ; desideratum. {Gram.) A verb formed from 
another bv change of termination, and expressing 
desire of doing what is indicated by the primitive 
verb. — Desid'era'tum, n. ; pi. -ta, -ta. That of 
which the lack is felt ; a want generally acknowl- 

Desist, de-sisf, v. i. To stand aside, cease to proceed 
or act, forbear. 

Desk, desk, n. A table with a sloping top; frame or 
case; pulpit; the clerical profession. 

Desman, des^man, n. ; pi. -jiaxs, -manz. An amphib- 
ious animal; the musk-rat. 

Desmine, des'min, n. (Min.) A mineral that crystal- 
lizes in little silken tufts ; stilbite. — DesmoP'ogy, 
-jt, n. (PfiysioL) Science of the ligaments. 

Desolate, des^o-lat, i'. t. To deprive of inhabitants, 
make desert; to lay waste, ruin, ravage. — a. Des- 
titute of inhabitants; laid waste, in a ruinous con- 
dition: left alone; without a companion; afflicted. 

— Desola'^tion, n. Act of, or state of being, etc.; a 
desolate place or country ; ruin ; havoc ; devasta- 
tion; ravage; destitution; gloom. 

Despair, de-spar', v. i. [-spaired (-spard''), -Spaie- 
ixG.] To be without nope; to give up all expecta- 
tion, despond. — n. Loss of hope ; that which is 
despaired of. — Des'pera''do, -per-a'do, n. A desper- 
ate fellow; one urged by furious passions; madman. 

— Des'perate, -at, a. Beyond hope ; despaired of; 
past cure; proceeding from despair; without regard 
to danger or safety ; rash ; headlong ; frantic. — 
Des''perately, adv. — Des'perateness, n. — Despera''- 
tion, n. Act Of despairing ; state of despair or hope- 

Despatch. See Dispatch. 

Despise, de-spiz', v. t. [-spised (-spTzdO, -spisixg.] 
To look upon with contempt, have a low opinion 
of, disdain, undervalue. — Des''picable, a. Fit to 
be despised ; mean ; pitiful ; paltry ; sordid ; base; 
degrading. — Des'picableness, n. — Des'picably, 
-bll, adv. — Despite', -spif, n. Extreme malice; 
angry hatred ; au act prompted by hatred. — jvep. 
In spite of ; notwithstanding. 

Despoil, de-spoil', v. t. [-spoiled (-spoild'), -spoil- 
ing.] To strip or divest, as of clothing ; to rob, be- 
reave, rifle. — Despo'lia'tion, n. Act of, or state of 
.being, etc. 

Despond, de-spond', v- i. To give up, abandon hope, 
become depressed. — Despond'ence, -ency, -en-sT, 
n. State of desponding ; discouragement ; dejec- 
tion. — Deapond'ent, a. Marked by, or given' to, 
etc. —Despond 'en tly, -ingly, arfr. — Despond'er, n. 

Despot, des'pot, n. One who possesses absolute power 
over another; esp. a sovereign invested with abso- 
lute power ; one who rules regardless of a constitu- 
tion or laws ; a tyrant. — Despot'ic, -ical, a. Hav- 
ing the character of, or pert, to, a despot ; absolute 
iu power ; tyrannical ; arbitrary. — Despot'ically, 
adv. — Des'potism, -izm, n. Tlie power, spirit, or 
principles of, etc. ; tyranny ; a government directed 
by, etc.: absolutism; autocracy. 

Dessert, dez-zert', n. A service of pastry, fruits, etc., 
after an entertainment. 

Destemper, des-tem'per, Distem'per, n. (Paint.) A 
peculiar sort of painting with opaque colors, ground 
and diluted with water, glue, etc. 

Destine, des'tin, v. t. [-tixed (-tind), -tinixg.] To 
determine the future condition or application of, 
set apart by design; to fix, as by an authoritative 
decree, design, devote, ordain, allot, bind. — Des- 
tina'tion, n. Act of destining or appointing ; that 
to which anything is, etc. ; predetermined end, ob- 
ject, 'or use ; point aimed at ; purpose ; lot ; fate ; 

end. — Des'tiny, -tY-nT, n. That to which one \% 
destined; fate; doom; the fixed order of things; the 

Sower conceived of as determining the future. — 
les'tinist, n. A_ believer in destiny; fatalist. 

Destitute, des'tT-tut, a. In want; devoid; deficient; 
lacking; needy; indigent. — Destitu'tion, ?j. State 
or condition ot being, etc.; deprivation; poverty. 

Destroy, de-stroi', v. t. [-stroyed (-stroid'), -strov- 
ING.J To pull down, break up the structure and 
organic existence of; to bring to naught, put an end 
to, esp. to the Ufe, prosperitv, or beauty of; to de- 
molish, ruin, annihilate, kill. — Destroy'er, n. — 
Destruc'tible, a. Liable to, or capable of being. 
etc. — Destmc'tibil'ity, -T-tl, «.— Destruc'tion, n. 
Act of, or state of being, etc.: destroying agency; 
cause of ruin. — Destruc'tionist, n. 'One wlio de- 
lights in destroying that which is valuable. (Theol.) 
One who believes in the final destruction of the 
wicked. — Destruc'tive,-tiv, a. Causing destruc- 
tion; tending to bring about ruin, death, or devas' 
tation ; mortal ; deadly ; ruinous ; mischievous. — 
n. One who destroys ; a radical reformer; destruc- 
tionist. — Destruc'tively, adr. — Destruc 'tiveness, 
11. Quality of destroying. (Pliren.) The faculty 
which impels to, etc. See Phrenology. 

Desuetude, des'we-tud, n. Cessation of use; discon- 
tinuance of prattice, custom, etc.: disuse. 

Desultory, des'ul-to-rT, a. Leaping from one subject 
to another, without rational connection; without 
logical sequence ; disconnected ; rambling ; loose. 

Detach, de-tach', v. t. [-tached (-tachf), -tach- 
iNG.] To part, separate, disunite; to separate for a 
special object, — used esp. in military language. — 
Detach'ment, n. Act of, or state of being, etc. ; 
thing detached, esp. a body of troops or part of a, 
fleet detailed for special service. 

Detail, de-tal', v. t. [-tailed (-tald'), -tailixg.] To 
relate in particulars, particularize. (Mil.) To ap- 
poiivt for a particular service. — Detail, de'tal or 
de-tal', n. A minute portion; a particular, — used 
chiefly in the plural; a narrative of minute points. 
(Mil.) The selection for a particular service of a 
person or company; person or company so selected. 

Detain, de-taft', I', i. [-TAiNED(-tand'), -f aixixg.] To 
keep back or from, restrain from proceeding, hold 
in custody, arrest, check, delay, hinder. — Detain'- 
er, «. One who detains. (Law.) Detention of what 
is another's, even when the original taking was law- 
ful. (Eng. Law.) A writ authorizina: a prison- 
keeper to keep a person in custody. — Detain'ment, 
n. Act of detaining. — Detain'der, n. (Law.) A 
writ. — Det'inue, -1-nu, n. A person or thin^ de- 
tained. — Detent', w. (Mech.) That which locks or 
unlocks a movement, as wheelwork in a clock. — 
Deten'tion, n. Act of, or state of being, etc. ; re- 
straint; delay. 

Detect, de-tekt', v. t. To uncover, find out, bring to 
light, discover, expose. — Detect'er, -or, -er, n. — De- 
tec'tion, n. Act of, etc. ; discovery. — Detect'ive, 
-iv, a. Fitted for, skilled, or employed in, etc. — n. 
A policeman whose business is to detect rogues. 

Deter, de-ter', v. t. [-teered (-terd'), -terrixg.J To 
prevent by fear; to hinder or prevent by opposing 
motives from doing that to which one is impelled. 
— Deter'ment, H. Act of, etc.; that which, etc. — 
Deter'rent, -ter'rent, o. Tending to, etc. 

Deteriorate, de-te'rt-o-rat, v. i. To make worse. — v. 
i. To grow worse, be impaired in quality, degen- 
erate. — Dete'riora'tion, n. 

Determine, de-ter'min, v. t. [-mined (-mind), -mix- 
ing.] To fix the boundaries of, mark off and sepa- 
rate, set bounds to, bring to an end, fix the form or 
character of; to bring about, as a cause, an effect; to 
fix the course of, impel, direct, ascertain definitely, 
settle by authoritative sentence, resolve on, bring to 
a conclusion or resolve. (Logic.) To define or limit 
by adding a differentia. (Physical Sc.) To ascer- 
tain the quantity of. — v. i. ,To come to a decision, 
limit, settle, shape, decide. — Deter'miner, n. — De- 
ter'minable, a. — Deter'minant, n. That which 
serves to determine. (Math.) The sum of a series 
of products of several numbers, fonned according to 
specified laws. — Deter 'minate, -nat, a. Having 
defined limits; fixed; established; conclusive: posi- 
tive. —Deter'minately, ac/y. — Deter'mina'tion, n. 

sQn, cube, full ; moon, fd6t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, tiien, boNboN, chair, get. 





Act of determining:, or state of bein^ determined; 
tendency to a certain end; a judicial decision, or 
ending of controversy ; thing determined upon ; 
resoluteness; decision of mind. {Cliem.) The as- 
certaining the amount of any ingredient in a sub- 
stance. {Logic.) Act of limiting a concept or no- 
tion by giving its essential constituents; addition 
of a difterentia to a concept or notion, dividing 
its extent. {Xat. Hist.) Tlie referring ot minerals, 
plants, etc., to their species. — Deter''minative, -tiv, 
a. Having power to determine; conclusive. 

Deterrent. See under Deter. 

Detest, de-tesf, r. t. To hate extremely, abominate, 
loathe. — Detesfable, a. Worthy of. etc.; abomin- 
able; execrable; abhorred. — Detest'' ably, adv. — 
Detestation, det'es- or de'tes-ta'shun, n. Act of, 
etc.; hatred; loathing. —Detest'er, n. 

Dethrone, de-thron', v. t. [-thkoxed (-thrond'), 
-THRONING.] To remove or drive from a throne, de- 
pose. — Dethrone''ment, w. Deposition. 

Detinue. See under Detaix. 

Detonate, defo-nat, r. z. (Chem.) To explode with 
a sudden report. — 1\ t. To cause to explode. — De- 
tona'tion, n. Explosion by inflammation of com- 
bustible bodies. — Det''onize, -niz, v. t. [-xized 
(-nizd), -xiziXG.] To cause to explode, burn with 
an explosion, calcine with detonation. — v. i. To 

Detoiir, da-toor'', n. A turning; circuitous route ; 
deviation from the straight or usual path. 

Detract, de-trakt', v. t. To take awaj^, take credit or 
reputation from, decry, depreciate, vilify, slander, 
traduce. —V. I. To remove a part, take away repu- 
tation, depreciate wortli. — Detrac'tion, n. Act of, 
etc.: calumny; aspersion; censure. — Detracfor, -er, 
11.— Detract''ress, n. A female detractor.— Detract'- 
ory, -o-rT, a. Defamatory; derogatory. 

Detriment, det''rT-mont, n. That which causes dam- 
age ; diminution; injurj^; mi.scliief ; harm. — Detri- 
ment'^al, a. Causing detriment; pernicious. — De- 
trition, -trish''un, 7i. A wearing off or away. — De- 
tri'tus, w. {Geol.) A mass of matter worn from 
solid bodies by attrition. 

Deuce, dus, n. (Gaming.) Two; a card or die with 2 
spots. An evil spirit; demon; the devil. — Deu'ced, 
-sed, a. Devilish; extravagant; enormous. 

Deuterogamy, du-ter-og'a-mt, n. A 2d marriage, after 
the death of the first liusband orwife. — Deuteron'- 
omy, -o-mT, n. (Bibl.) The 5th book of the Penta- 
teuch, containing the 2d giving of the law by Moses. 

— Deuterop'athy, -tht, n. (Med.) A sympatlietic 
affection, as headache from an overloaded stomach. 

— Deuteros'copy, -pT, n. Second sight; meaning be- 
yond the literal sense; second intention. — Deutox'- 
ide, -id, n. (Ckera.) A compound of 2 equivalents of 
oxygen with 1 of a base. 

Devastate, dev'as- or de-vas'tat, v. t. To lay waste, 
desolate, demolish, pillage. — Devasta'tion, n. Act 
of, or state of being, etc. (Law.) "Waste of the goods 
of the deceased by an administrator. 

Develop, de-veKup, v. t. [-oped (-apt), -opittg.] To 
free from a cover or envelope, disclose or make 
known, unfold gradually, exhibit, detect. (Math.) 
To change the form of (an algebraic expression) by 
executing indicated operations without changing 
the value. (Phoiog.) To render (a picture) visible by 
subjecting it to chemical action. — v. i. To go 
through a natural evolution, by successive changes 
to a more perfect state; to become visible gradually. 

— DeveKopment, n. Act of, etc. (Math.) Act of ex- 
panding an expression into another of equivalent 
meaning; the equivalent expression into which an- 
other has been developed. — Development theory. 
(^Nat. Hist.) Doctrine that all existing forms of 
matter and spirit were developed by uniform laws 
from simpler forms, without creative act. 

Devest, de-vest'', v. t. To divest. (Law.) To alienate, 
as title or right, deprive of. — v. i. To be lost or 
alienated, as a title or an estate. [Except in the 
legal sense, spelled direct, q. v.] 

Deviate, de''vT-at, v. i. To go out of one's way, turn 
aside from a course, digress, err. — Devia''tion, n. 
Act of, etc. ; state of having deviated ; error. — De''- 
vious, -vT-us, a. Out of a straight line ; indirect; 
going out of the right course of conduct. 

Device. See under Devise. 

Devil, dev'l, n. The evil one, Satan, represented in 
Scripture as the traducer, father of lies, tempter, 
etc.; an evil spirit; false god; an expletive express- 
ing emphasis. (Manuf.) A revolving cylinder armed 
with spikes, for tearing, cutting, or opening raw 
materials, as cotton, wool, rags, etc. A very wicked 
person; a dish, broiled with much pepper. — v. t. To 
make like a devil; to cut up cloth or rags in, etc.; to 
grill with pepper. — Devilish, dev'lish, a. Like, or 
pert, to, the devil; wicked in the extreme; infernal; 
hellish ; satanic ; detestable. — Dev'iltry, -1-trT, n. 
Diabolism ; malicious mischief. — Dev'ilkin, n. A 
little devil. — Dev''il's-darn''ing-nee''dle, n. A dragon- 
fly, having a long, cj'lindrical body, resembling a 
needle. — Dev'il-flsh, n. A name of several sea-crea- 
tures, esp. of a genus of ray found in the Atlantic, 
and of the cuttle-fish. — Di^aboKic, -ical, a. Like, 
or pert, to, the devil; impious; demoniac. — Diablerie, 
dya'bl-re'', Diab''lery, df-ab''ler-t, n. Deviltry; sor- 
cery; mischief. 

Devious. See under Deviate. 

Devise, de-viz'', v. t. [-vised (-vlzd''), -visixo.] To 
form in the mind by new combinations of ideas, ap- 
plications of principles, or arrangement of parts; to 
strike out by thought; to plan for, purpose to ob- 
tain. (Lavj.) To give by will, — used of real estate; 
to bequeath. — ?;. i. To form a scheme, lay a plan, 
contrive. — n. Act of disposing of real estate by will; 
a will or testament, properly' of real estate; property 
given by will. — Devis''er, n. One who devises; an 
inventor. — Devis''or, -or, n. (Law.) One who gives 
real estate by will: a testator. — Device, de-vis'', n. 
Thing devised, or formed bj' design; contrivance; 
invention ; a stratagem ; a heraldic motto, usually 
connected with an emblematic picture; power of de- 
vising; invention; genius. 

Devoidt de-void', a. Destitute; not in possession. 

Devolve, de-volV, v. t. [-volved (-volvd''), -volving.] 
To roll onward or downward, overthrow; to trans- 
fer from one to another, deliver over, hand down. 

— V. i. To pass by transmission or succession ; to 
be handed over or down. — Devolu''tion, n. Act of, 

Devote, de-vot'', v. t. To appropriate by vow, set 
apart by a solemn act ; to consign over, execrate, 
doom to evil; to give up wholly, direct the attention 
of wholly or chiefly ; to attach, addict, dedicate, 
resign, doom, consign. — Devot''edness, n. State 
of being, etc.: addictedness. — Devotee'', n. One 
wholly devoted, esp. to religion; one superstitiously 
given' to religious ceremonies; a bigot. — Devot^'er, 
n. — Devo^'tion, n. Act of, or state of being, etc.; af- 
fection; esp. feelings toward God appropriate to the 
act of worship: religiousness; piety; act of devoted- 
ness or devoutness: thing consecrated; an object of 
affection. — Devo^'tional, a. Pert, to, used in, or 
suited to, devotion. — Devout, -vowf, a. Absorbed 
in religious feelings ; pious ; reverent ; expressing 
piety; warmly devoted; earnest; prayerful; sincere. 

— Devout''ly, adii. — Devoufness, n. 

Devour, de-vo\\T'', v. t. [-voured (-vowrd''), -vouE- 
IXG.] To eat up greedilj'^, consume ravenously; to 
seize on and destroy or appropriate greediljs self- 
ishly, or wantonly; to enjoy with avidity, consume, 
waste, annihilate. 

Dew, du, 71. Moisture from the atmosphere condensed 
by cool bodies upon their surfaces, esp. at night. — 
V. t. [dewed (dud), DEWiXG.] To wet with dew. 

-lap, n. The fold of skin, etc., haiigin" from the 
throats of oxen, which laps or licks the dew in 
grazing; a fold of skin, etc., on the human throat 
or chin, esp. wiieu flaccid with age. — point, n. 
(Meteor.) The temperature at which dew begins 
to form. — ret'ting, n. Process of softening and re- 
moving mucilage from the fibrous and cellular por- 
tions of flax and hemp, by exposing the stalks to 
dew, rain, sun, and air. 
Dexter, deks-'ter, a. Pert, to, or on, the right hand; 
right, as opp. to left.— Dexterity, -tSr''t-tT, n. Readi- 
ness and physical grace ; activity of the m ind ^quick- 
ness and skill in managing affairs; adroitness; tact; 

Sm, fanae, far, pass or opera, fare ; end, eve, term ; In, ice ; 5dd, tone, 6r 5 




aptitude ; faculty. — Dex'^terouB, -trous, -trus, a. 
Ready and expert; skillful in contrivance : quick at 
inventing expedients : done with dexterity : apt ; 
handy; versed. — Dex''terously, a(/i-. — Dex''terous- 

Dey, da, n. The European title for the governor of 
Alireria, before its conquest by the French. 

Diabetes, di-a-be'tez, n. singf. &j;Z. {Med.) A disease 
attended with a persistent, excessive discharge of 

Diablerie, Diabolic, etc. See under Devil. 

DiaconaJ. Diaconate. See under Deacox. 

Diacoustic, di-a-kows'tik or-koos'tik, a. Pert, to the 
science of refracted sounds. — Diacou8''tics, n. Sci- 
ence of the properties of sound retracted through 
different mediums. 

Diacritic, -ical, di-a-krif'ik-al, a. Separating; indica- 
ting something to be distinguished. 

Diadem, di'a-dem, n. A fillet, worn as a badge of 
royalty ; a crown ; sovereignty ; dignity. (Her.) 
An arch rising from the rim of a crown, and uniting 
with others over its center. _ « 

Diaeresis, Dieresis, di-Br-'e-sis, n. ; pi. -ses, -sez. ( Gram.) 
The separation of 1 syllable into 2 ; a mark [ " ] over 
the second of 2 adjacent vowels, to denote that they 
are to be pronounced separately, as, aerial. 

Diagnosis, di-ag-no'sis, n. (Med.) Determination of a 
disease by distinctive characteristics. Scientific de- 
termination of anv kind. 

Diagonal, di-ag-'o-na'l, a. ( Geom.) Joining 2 not ad- 
jacent angles of a quadrilateral 
or multilateral figure, and divid- 
ing it into 2 parts ; crossing at an 
angle with one of the sides. — 7i. 
A right line drawn from one an- 
gle to another, not adjacent, of a _. 
figure of 4 ormore sides.— Diag'- diagonal. 
onally, -It, adv. In a diagonal direction. 

Diagram, di'a-gram, n. (iSeom.) A figure to illus- 
trate a statement, or facilitate a demonstration. An 
illustrative outline or drawing. — Di'agrapli, -graf , 
n. An instrument used in perspective. 

Dial, di'al, ??. An instrument showing the time of 
day from the shadow of a stj'le on a graduated sur- 
face ; the graduated face of a time-piece on which 
the time is shown by pointers. 

Dialect, di'a-lekt, n. Means or mode of expressing 
thoughts : language ; tongue ; local form of a lan- 
guage » idiom ; phraseology. — Dialec'tics, n. sing. 
That branch of logic which teaches the rules of rea- i 
soning ; application of logical principles to discur- 
sive reasoning. — Di'alecti'cian, -tish^an, n. One 
versed in dialectics ; a logician ; reasoner. — Di'a- 
logue, -lo^, 71. A conversation between two or more, 
esp. in theatrical performances ; a composition in 
which persons are represented as conversing. 

Diamagnetic, di'a-mag-nefik, a. Pert, to, or exhibit- 
ing the phenomenaof, diamagnetism. — n. A sub- 
stance which, in a field of magnetic force, takes a 
position at right angles to that of the ordinary mag- 
net. — Di'amagnefically, udr. 

Diameter, di-am'e-ter, n. (Geom.) A right line 
through the center of a figure or body, 
terminated by the opposite boundaries. 
Length of astraiglit line through tlie cen- 
ter of an object from side to side; width; 
thickness. (Arch.) The distance through 
the lower part of the .shaft of a column, T^i^rrrTtl- 
used as a unit for measuring all the parts JJiameier. 
of an order. — Diamet'ric, -rical, a. Pert, to, etc. ; 
directly adverse. — Diametrically, adv. In a dia- 
metrical direction ; directly. 

Diamond, di'a-mund or di'mund, 7i. A mineral and 
gem remarkable for hardness ; crystallized 
carbon ; a geometrical figure otherwise 
called rhombus or lozenge ; one of a suit of 
playing cards, stamped with the figure of a 
diamond. (Print.) A small type, in size 
between pearl and brilliant. 
(®~ This liue is printed in the type called Diamond. 

Diapason, di-a-pa,''zbn, w. (Gr. Mas.) The oc- 
tave or interval which includes all the 
tones. Concord, as of notes an octave 
apart ; harmony ; entire compass of tones ; scale or 
pitch for giving a standard pitch ; one of certain 


stops in the organ, which extend through the scaler 
of the instrument. 

Diaper, di'a-per, n. Figured linen cloth for towels, 
napkins, etc. ; a towel or nankin ; infant's breech- 
cloth. (Arch.) Paneling filled up with arabesque 
gilding and painting, or with wrought work in low 
relief. — v. t. [diapeked (-perd), -perikg.] To 
variegate with figures, as clotli : to put a diaper on, 
as a child. — v. i. To draw fi^ires. 

Diaphanous, di-at'a-nus, a. Transmitting rays of 
light, as glass; transparent; clear. 

Diaphragm, di'a-frain, n. A dividing membrane or 
partition, commonly with an opening through it. 
(Anat.) The muscle separating the chest from the 
abdomen ; midriff. 

Diarrhea, -rhoea, di-ar-re'a, ?). (Med.) A morbidly 
frequent evacuation of the intestines. 

Diary, di'a-rT, «. A register of daily occurrences ; 
journal; blank-book dated for daily memoranda. 

Diastole, di-as'to-le, n. (Med.) A "dilatation of the 
heart. (Gram.) A figure by which a syllable nat- 
urally short is made^ong. 

Diathesis, di-ath'e-sis, h. (Med.) Bodily condition, 
esp. that which predisposes to a particular disease. 

Diatonic, di-a-ton'ik, a. (Mus.) Pert, to the scale of 
8 tones, the 8th of which is the octave of the first. 

Diatribe, di'a-trib, n. A continued discourse or dis- 
putation; an invective harangue; reviling; reproach. 

Dibber, dib-'ber. Dibble, dib'bl, n. A pointed hand 
instrument, to make holes for planting seeds, etc. 

— Dib'ble, i;. «. [dibbled (-bid), -blixg.] To plant 
with a dibble, make holes for planting seeds, etc. — 
V. i. To dip, as in angling. 

Dice, etc. See under Die, n. 

Dicker, dik'er, n. The number of 10, esp. 10 hides or 
skins ; a chaffering barter of small wares. — v. i. To 
negotiate a dicker; to barter. 

Dickey, Dicky, dik't, n. A seat behind a carriage, 
for servants, etc. ; a bosom to tie over the front of a 
shirt ; a shirt-collar. 

Dicotyledon, di'kot-T-le'don, n. (Bot.) A plant whose 
seeds divide into 2 lobes in germinating. — Di'coty- 
led'onous, -nus, a. Having 2 cotjiedons. 

Dictate, dik''tat, v. t. To deliver,' *tate, or utter, for 
another to reduce to writing ; to communicate with 
authority ; to deliver to a .subordinate, as a com- 
mand; to prescribe, enjoin, urge. — v. i. To deliver 
commands. — 7i. A statement delivered with author- 
ity ; authoritative rule or principle ; order ; direc- 
tion; impulse; admonition. — Dicta'tion, «. — Dic- 
ta''tor, -ter. 7i. One who, etc.; one invested with ab- 
solute authority, esp. in times of distress. — Dicta<- 
tc'rial, -rT-al, a. Pert, or suited to a dictator: ab- 
solute ; imperious ; overbearing. — Dictato'rially, 
adv. — Dicta'torship, n. Office or term of office of, 
etc. — Dicta'tress, -triz, n. A female who dictates. 

— Dicta' ture, -ta'chur, n. Dictatorship. 
Diction, dik''shun, »i. Choice of words ; selection of 

terms; style ; phraseology. — Dic'tum, n. ; pi. -ta, 
-ta. An authoritative saying or assertion. (Laiv.j 
A judicial opinion by judges on points not necessa- 
rily in the case. — Dic'tionary, -a-rl, n. A book in 
which words are alphabeticallj' arranged and ex- 
plained; a lexicon ; vocabulary ; a work containing 
information in any department of knowledge, ar- 
ranged alphabetically, under heads. 

Did. See Do. 

Didactic, -tical, di-dak''tik-al, a. Fitted or inclined 
to teach ; arranged in a form suitable for instruc- 
tion; preceptive. 

Didapper, did'ap-er, n. A diving bird; the black-chin 
grebe; dab-ehick. 

Diddle, did-'dl, v. i. To totter, as a child in walking. 

Dido, di'do, n. ; pi. -dos, -doz. A trick: antic; caper. 

Didst. Secondper. imp. of do. See Do. 

Die, di, v. i. [died (did), dying.] To cease to live, 
become dead, expire, becojne lost or extinct ; to 
sink, faint; languish, with weakness, discourage- 
ment, love, etc. ; become indiffer- 
ent; to recede and grow fainter, 
become imperceptible; to become 
vapid, flat, or spiritless, as liquor. 

Die, di, n. A small cube, marked 
on its faces with spots from 1 to (>, 
used in gaming, by being thrown 


sQn, cube, fijll ; moon, fd&t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, then, boNboN chair, get. 




from a box; any small cubical body. [PI., in this 
sense, Dice (dis) ; in the following senses, Dies 
(diz).] (Arch.) The cubical part of the pedestal, be- 
tween base and cornice. The piece of metal on which 
is cut a device to be stamped (on a coin, medal, etc.); 
one of two pieces of hardened steel forming together 
a female screw for cutting the threads of screws. — 
Dice, dIs, n. ; pi. of die. A game.— v. i. Tp play with 
dice. — Di'oer, n. One who, etc. — Die'sink'ing, n. 

■ Process of engraving dies. — stock, n. An imple- 
ment for holding dies while cutting threads on 

Dieresis. Same as Diuresis. 

Dies non, di'ez-non. {Law.) A day on which courts 
are not held. 

Diet, di'et, n. Habitual food ; victuals ; course of 
food selected with reference to a particular state of 
hetilth. — V. t. To feed, nourish, esp. sparingly, or 
by rule. — v. i. To eat, feed, esp. to eat sparingly. — 
Di'etary, -a-rf, a. Pert, to, etc. — «. Rule of diet; 
allowance of food. — Dietefic, -ical, a. Pert, to the 
rules of, etc. — Dietefics, n. That part of medicine 
or hygiene relating to, etc. — Diet'er, -a'rian, n. One 
who observes rules for, etc. 

Diet, di''et, n. A legislative or administrative assem- 
bly in some countries of Europe. 

Differ, differ, v. i. [-feeed (-ferd), -ferikg.] To 
be or stand apart, disagree, be unlike or discordant; 
to have a difference or quarrel. — v. t. To cause to 
be different or unlike.— Difference, -ens, n. Act of, 
or state of being, etc.; disagreement; cause of dis- 
sension ; occasion of quarrel; that by which one 
thing differs from another ; characteristic quality. 
(Logic.) Quality or attribute added to those of the 
genus to constitute a species ; differentia. (Math.) 
The quantity by which one quantity differs from 
another. — v. t. [DiFFERE>fCED (-enst), -EXCI^fG.] 
To cause to differ, make different, distinguish. — 
Different, a. Distinct; of various or contrary na- 
ture, form, or quality; unlike ; dissimilar. — Dif'- 
ferently, adv.— Differen'tiate, -sht-at, v. t. (Math.) 
To obtain the differential, or differential coefficient 
of. (Logic.) To distinguish or describe, by giving 
the differentia, or specific difference of a thing; to 
define exactly, specialize. — v. i. To constitute, 
mark, or show a difference; to discriminate. — Dif'- 
feren'tia'tion, -sht-a'shun, n. (Logic.) Act of dis- 
tinguishing a thing, by giving its differentia, or spe- 
cific difference. (Math.) Act or process of differen- 
tiating. (Physiol.) Production of a diversity of 
parts by a process of evolution or development. 
(Metaph.) Tendency in being, organic or inorganic, 
to assume more complex structure or functions. — 
Differen'tia, -shi-a, n. (Logic.) The distinguish- 
ing part of the essence of a species; specific differ- 
ence. — Differen'tial, -shal, a. Creating a difference; 
discriminating; special. (Math.) Pert, to a differen- 
tial. (Mech.) Differing in amount or in producing 
force, — said of motions or effects; intended to pro- 
duce difference of jnotion or effect, — said of ma- 
chinery, etc. — n. (Math.) An increment, usually an 
indefinitely small one, given to a variable quantity. 

Difficulty, dif-'ft-kul-tT, n. State of being hard to ac- 
complish, or to deal with; a thing hard to accom- 
fjlish ; a controversy ; variance or disagreement ; 
obstacle; perplexity; distress; objection. — Difficult, 
<i. Hard to make, do, or perform; beset with difii- 
-culty ; not easily wrought upon ; not compliant ; 
painful; austere; rigid. — Difficultly, adv. 

Diffident, dif'^ft-dent, a. Wanting confidence in 
others, or in one's self; distrustful; timid; bashful; 
reserved. — Diffidently, adv. — Diffidence, -dens, n. 
State of being, etc. 

Diffuse, dif-fuz'', v. t. [-fused (-fuzd'), -fusing.] To 
pour out and spread, as a fluid; to send out, or ex- 
tend, in all directions ; to expand, disseminate, 
spend, publish, proclaim. — Diffus'^er, n. — Dlffus''- 
edly, adv. In a diffused manner; dispersedly. — 
Diffus''edness, w. — DifEu''sible, -zt-bl, a. Capable of 
being, etc.— DifEu'sibil''ity, ^i.- Diffu'sion, -zhun, n. 
Act of, or state of being, etc.; dissemination; spread; 
propagation; dispersion. — Diffuse', -fus'', a. Poured 
out; widely spread; not restrained, esp. as to style; 
copious; prolix. 

Dig, dig, V. t. [DUG or (obs.) digged (digd), dig- 

ging.] To turn and throw up, as the earth ; to 
loosen or remove with a spade, etc.; to delve; to 
hollow out, as a well; form, as a ditch; excavate. — 
V. i. To work -with a spade, etc., do servile work, 

Digamma, di-ganf ma, n. A letter (F) of the Greek 
alphabet, which early feU. into disuse, pron., prob., 
like E. w. 

Digest, di-iesf, v. t. To arrange methodically; work 
over and classify ; to prepare in the stomach for 
conversion into blood, turn into chyme, — said of 
food; to think over, reflect upon. (Chem.) To soften 
by heat and moisture. (Med.) To suppurate. — v. i. 
To undergo digestion; be prepared by heat, suppu- 
rate. — Di'gest, n. Thing digested; esp. that which 
is worked over, classified, and arranged; compen- 
dium; abridgment; pandect; a collection of Roman 
laws. — Diges'tion, -chun, n. Act of digesting; class- 
ification; conversion of food into chyme; prepara- 
tion by heat and moisture; gradual solution; pro- 
duction of pus. — Digesfive, -iv, a. Causing, used 
for, or pert, to digestion. 

Digit, dij^it, n. A finger; a finger's breadth, or .3-4ths 
of an inch. (Arith.) One of the ten figures, 0, 1, 2^- 
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, by which numbers are expressed. 
(Astron.) A 12th part of the diameter of the sun or 
moon. — Dig 'ital, a. Pert, 
to the fingers, or to digits. 

— Dig ''it ate, -tated, a. 
(Bat.) Having leaflets ar- 
ranged, like fingers, at 
the extremity of a stem, 
or petiole. 

Dignify, dig'nt-fi, v. t. 

[-FIED C-fld), -FYIXG.] To 

invest with dignity or 
honor, give distinction to. 

— Dig'^nity, -tt, n. State -* 
of being worthy or hon- 
orable ; elevation of mind Tfcr'f f T f 
or of rank; quality inspir- uigitate J_.ear. 

ing respect ; loftiness and elegance : one holding 
high rank. — Dig'nitary, -ta-rT, n. One who pos- 
sesses exalted rank, esp. ecclesiastical rank. 

Digraph, di^'graf, n. A combination of 2 written 
characters to express one sound. 

Digress, dt-gres', v. i. [-gressed C-gresf), -geess- 
ING.] To turn aside; esp. in writing or speaking, 
to turn aside from the main subject of attention or 
course of argument; to turn aside from the right 
path, deviate, amplify, transgress. — Digres''sion, 
-gresh'un, n. Act of, etc.; part of a discourse devi- 
ating from its main design; transgression; offense. 

— Digres'sional, a. Pert, to, or consisting in, etc. — 
Digres'sive, -iv, a. Departing from the main sub- 
ject. — Digress'ively, adv. 

Dike, dik, n. A ditch; channel for water made by 
digging ; bank thrown up to exclude water" from 
low lands. (Geol.) A wall-like mass of mineral 
matter, filling up iissures in the original strata. — v. 
t. [DIKED (dikt), DiKiXG.] To surround, protect, 
or drain by dikes. 

Dilapidate, dT-lap'T-dat, v. t. To suffer to fall into 
decay or partial ruin; to diminish by waste and 
abuse, squander. — v. i. To get out of repair, be- 
come decayed, go to ruin. — Dilap-'ida'tion, n. Act 
of, or state of being^etc; ecclesiastical waste. 

Dilate, dT-laf or di-iaf, v. t. To enlarge or extend 
in all directions, expand, distend, spread out, am- 
plify, expatiate. — v. i. To expand, swell; to speak 
largely and copiously, expatiate, descant. — Dila''- 
tion, n. Act of, or state of being, etc. ; expansion. 

— Dil'ata'tion, n. Same as dilation. — Dila 'table, a. 

— Dila'tabU^ity, n. — Dila'tive, a. Causing dilata^ 
tion. — Dilat'or, m. That which expands; a muscle 
that dilates any part. — Dil'atory, -to-rT, a. Inclined 
to put off what ought to be done at once; given to, 
or marked with procrastination; intended to make 
delay, or to gain time and defer action; sluggish; 
backward; tardy. — Dil^atorily, adv. 

Dilemma, dt-lem'ma or di-lem'ma, n. (Logic.) An 
argument which affords an antagonist alternatives, 
but is conclusive against him, whichever alterna- 
tive he chooses. A perplexing state ; difficult or 
doubtful choice. 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; end, eve, term ; tn, Tee ; Sdd, tone, 6r ; 




Dilettant, dil-et-tant', -tante, -tan'^ta, n. ; pi. -tanti, 
-te. An admirer of the line arts : an amateur ; esp. 
one who follows an art desultorily, without serious 
purpose, or for amusement. 

Diligent, dil'I-jent, a. Interestedly and perseveringly 
attentive ; steady in application to business : prose- 
cuted with care and constant effort ; assiduous ; 
sedulous; industrious; careful. — Dil^igence, -jens,?i. 
Quality of bein^, etc.; assiduit}-; industry. 

Diligence, de-le-zhaxs'', n. A French stage-coach. [F.] 

Dill, dil, n. A plant bearing pungent and aromatic 

Dilly-dally,_diKnf-dal1t, v. i. To loiter or trifle. 

Dilute, di-lut', v. t. To make thinner or more liquid 
by admixture with something ; to diminish, hy mix- 
ing, the strength, flavor, color, etc., of ; to reduce, 
esp. by addition of water. — v.i. To become thin. 

— a. Thin; attenuated; reduced in strength, as 
spirit or color. — Dilufer, n. — Dilu'tion, n. Act of, 
or state of being, etc. — Dil'^nent, -u-ent, a. Diluting. 

— n. That whicli, etc.; esp. what weakens the blood, 
by mixture with it. — Dilu'vial, -vl-al, a. Pert, to, 
or produced by, a deluge, esp. the deluge in Noah's 
days. — Dilu'vian, a. Pert, to a deluge. 

Dim, dim, a. Xot bright or distinct; of obscure luster, 
sound, or vision; dull of apprehension; dark; mys- 
terious, sullied, tarnished. — v. t. [dimmed (dimd), 
DIMMING.] To render obscure, darken, dull ; to de- 
prive of distinct vision, darken the senses or under- 
standing of. — Dim'ly, adv. — Dim'ness, n. 

Dime, dim, «. A silver coin of the United States, 
worth 10 cents; the tenth of a dollar. 

Dimension, dl-men'shun, n. Measurement in length, 
breadth, and thickness ; extent ; size ; application; 
importance. (^Alg.) A literal factor, as numbered in 
characterizing a term. 

DiminiBh, dl-min-'ish, v. t. [-ished (-isht), -ishing.] 
To make smaller ; to lessen the authority or dignity 
of. (3Ius.) To make smaller by a semitone. To 
take away, subtract, abate, reduce, impair. — v. i. 
To become or appear less or smaller ; to lessen. — 
Dumn''i8lier, n. — Diminu''tion, -nu''shun, n. Act 
of, or state of being, etc. ; reduction in size, quan- 
tity, degree, dignity, or consideration. {Law.) Omis- 
sion, inaccuracy, or defect in a record. — Dimin^u- 
tive, -tiv, a. Of small size; minute; little. — n. Some- 
thing of small size or value ; insignificant thing. 
(Gram.) A derivative from a noun, denoting a small 

• or young object of the kind denoted ~ ~- ___^ =_ 
by the primitive. —Dimin'utively, — - — ', 
adv.— Dimin'utivenesB, n. — Dimin'- Diminuendo. 
uen^do, adv. (Mus.) In a gradually diminishing 
manner, — a direction, written on the staff or indi- 
cated as in the margin. 

Dimity, dim'T-tY, n. A kind of stout, white, cotton 
cloth, ribbed or figured. 

Dimple, dim 'pi, n. A slight natural depression on 
the surface of the body, esp. on the cheek or chin ; 
indentation on any surface. — v. i. [dimpled (-pld), 
-PLING.] To form dimples, sink into depressions. — 
V. t. To mark with, etc. 

Din, din, n. Loud, stunning noise ; racket ; clamor. — 
V. t. [dinned (dind), -king.] To strike with con- 
tinued or confused sound; to stun with noise. 

Dine, din, v. i. [dined (dind), dining.] To partake 
of the noon meal, or principal meal of the day ; to 
take dinner. — v. t. To give a dinner to or at. — Din''- 
ner, n. The principal meal ; entertainment ; feast. 

Ding, ding, v. i. [dinged (dingd), dinging.] To talk 
with vehemence, importunity, or reiteration ; to 
•bluster; to sound, as a bell, rin^, tinkle. —w. A 
thump or stroke, esp. of a bell. — Ding'-dong, n. The 
sound of bells; a repeated and monotonous sound. 

Dingle, din''gl, n. A narrow dale or valley between 

Dingy, din'^jY, a. [-gier. -giest.] Soiled; sullied; of 
dark color; dun. — Din'giness, n. 

Dinner. See under Dine. 

Dint, dint, v. t. To make a small cavity on, by a blow 
or pressure. 

Diocese, di'o-ses, n. The district in which a bishop 
exercises ecclesiastical authority. — Diocesan, di-os''- 
e-san or di'o-se'san, a. Pert, to, etc. — n. A bishop. 

Dip, dip, V. t. [dipped (dipt) or dipt, dipping.] To 
immerse in a fluid and withdraw again; to plunge. 

as into diflSculty, engage ; to take out by immersing 
and removing again some receptacle, as a ladle, pail, 
etc. — V. i. To immerse one's self ; to remove some- 
thing, by immersing and withdrawing a receptacle; 
to thrust in and partake ; to enter sUglitly or curso- 
rily; to incline downward. — n. Action of dipping, 
or of plunging for a moment into a Liquid ; inclina- 
tion downward ; slope ; pitch ; sauce to be dipped 
out with a spoon ; a dipped candle. — Dip'per, 7i. 
One who, or that which, etc. ; a vessel for dipping 
liquids. {Omith.) A small diving bird, resembling 
the blackbird; the dabchick, a N. Amer. grebe; also, 
tlie spirit-duck, of N. Amer. {Astron.) The 7 prin- 
cipal stars in the constellation of the Great Bear, — 
arranged in the form of a dipper. 

Diphtheria, dif- or dip-thc'rlt-a, n. {Med.) A virulent 
zymotic disease, in which the mucous membrane, 
esp. of the throat and air passages, becomes coated 
with a false membrane. — Diphtheric, -ther'ik, -the- 
rit'ic, a. Pert, to, etc. 

Diphthong, dif'- or diphthong, n. {Orthoepy.) A 
union of 2 vowel sounds pronounced in one sylla- 
ble, as, ou in out, — called a,j}roper diphthong ; union 
of two vowels in the same syllable, only one of them 
being sounded, as, ai in rain, — called' an improper 
diphthong. —Bi'phthongal, -thon'gal, a. Pert, to, or 
consisting of, etc. 

Diploma, dl-plo-'ma, n. ; pi. -mas, -maz. Grig, a state 
letter of recommendation, — consisting of 2 leaves ; 
a writing conferring. some authority, privilege, hon- 
or, etc.; esp. a record of a literary degree. — Diplo'- 
macy, -st, -matism, -tizm, n. Art of conducting ne- 
gotiations between nations, esp. in securing treaties; 
dexterity in securing advantages. — Dip'lomat, 
-mate, -mat, -mafic, Diplo'matist, n. One em- 
ployed or skilled in, etc. — Diplomatic, -ical, a. — 
Diplomatically, adv. — Diplomat'ics, n. Science 
of diplomas, or art of reading ancient writings, 
public documents, etc.; paleography. 

Dipper. See under Dip. 

Dipsomania, dip-so-ma'nY-a, n. Inordinate desire for 
alcoholic liquors; oenomania. 

Dipteral, dip'ter-al, a. {Entom.) Having 2 wings 
only. {Anc. Arch.) Having 
a double row of columns 
on each flank, as well as in 
front and rear. — Dip'ter- 
ous, -us, a. Having 2 wings, 
as among insects, or wing- 
like processes, as in plants. 

Dire, dir, a. Evil in a great 
degree; dreadful; horrible; 
terrible. — Dire'ness, n. — 
Dire'ful, -iul, a. Same as 
Dire. — Dire'fully, adv. 

Direct, dT-rekf, a. Straight; 
not crooked, oblique, or cir- 
cuitous ; straightforward 
not swerving from truth 
and openness; sincere; immediate; unambiguous; 
absolute ; in the line of descent ; not collateral. 
(Astron.) In the direction of the general planetary 
rnotion, or from west to east. — v. t. To give direc- 
tion or bearing to ; to determine the course of; to 
point out the proper course to, put upon the right 
track ; to instruct as a superior ; to put a direction 
or address upon, superscribe. — v.i. To give direc- 
tion, act as guide. — Direct'ly, adr. In a direct, im- 
mediate, express, or absolute manner; straightway; 
immediately. — Direcfness, n. — Direct'er, n. — 
Direc'tion, n. Act of directing, or of aiming, regu- 
lating, guiding, or ordering; authoritative instruc- 
tion ; address of a person written upon a thing 
sent; superscription; course upon which anything 
is moving or aimed to move ; line or point of tend- 
ency ; body of persons charged with the manage- 
ment of a matter ; administration ; managemept ; 
government. — Direcfive, -iv, a. Having power, or 
tending, to direct. — Direcfor, -er, n. One who, or 
that which, etc. ; esp. one of a body of persons ap- 

" pointed to manage the affairs of a company ; part 
of a machine which directs its motion or action. — 
Directorate, -rat, n. A body of directors, or the 
office of director. — Directo'rial, -rt-al, a. Having 
the quality of, or pert, to a director or directory. — 

Dipterous Insect. 

a, a, balancers or poisers. 

siin, cube, full ; moon, fdbt ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, then, boNboN, chair, get. 




Direct'orshlp, n. Office of, etc. — Direct'ory, -rt, 
a. Containing directions ; directorial. — n. A col- 
lection of directions, rules, or ordinances ; esp. a 
book of directions for the conduct of worship ; a 
book containing the names and residences of the in- 
habitants of any place ; a body of directors ; esp. 
a committee which held executive po\ver in France 
under the first republic. 

Direption, dl-rep'shun, n. Act of plundering or de- 

Dirge, derj, n. A piece of mournful music, to accom- 
pany funeral rites. 

Dirk, derk, n. A kind of dagger or poniard. — v. t. To 
stab with, etc. 

Dirt, dert, n. Any filthy substance, as excrement, 
earth, mud, dnst, etc.— v. t. To make foul or filthy; 
to soil, dirty. —Birfy, -T, a. [diktiek, dirtiest.] 
JDefiled with dirt; nasty; filthy; foul; serving to de- 
file; sordid; base; groveling. — !-. <. [dirtied (-tid), 
DIRTYING.] To make filthy, soil ; to tarnish, scan- 
dalize. — Dirfily, adv. — Dirt'iness, n. 

Diruption, dl-rup'shun, »i. A bursting or rending 

Disable, dis-a^'bl, v. t. [-abled (-a'bld), -ABLING.] To 
render unable or incapable, make unfit for service, 
disqualify, incapacitate. (Laiv.) To deprive of legal 
right or qualification. — Disabil-'ity, -l-tt.n. State 
of being disabled ; want of competent physical or 
intellectual power, opportunity, etc., or of legal 

Disabuse, dis-a-buz'', v. t. [-bused (-biizd''), -busing.] 
To free from mistake, undeceive, set right. 

Disadvantage, dis-ad-van'^tej, n. JDeprivation of ad- 
vantage; unfavorable or prejudicial g^uality, condi- 
tion, circumstance, etc.; prejudice to interest, fame, 
credit, profit, etc.; loss ; damage. — Disad'vanta''- 
geous, -ta'jus, a. Attended with, etc. ; inconven- 
ient; detrimental. — Disad''vaiita''geously, adv. 

Disaflect, dis-af-fekt', v. t. To alienate the affection 
of, fill with discontent and unfriendliness; to dis- 
turb the functions of, disorder. — Disaffec^'tion, ?i. 
State of being, etc.; disgust; ill-will; disloyalty; hos- 

Disagree, dis-a-gre', v. i. [-greed (-gred''), -geee- 
IXG.] To fail to accord or agree; to lack harmony, 
be at variance ; to differ in opinion, be unsuited, 
have unfitness. — Disagree-'able, -a^bl, a. Not agree- 
able, conformable, or congruous; exciting repug- 
nance; offensive; displeasing. — Disagree'ableness, 
n. — Disagree''ably, adv. — Disagree'ment, n. Act 
of, or state of being, etc.; difference of opinion; un- 
suitableness; a falling out or controversy; discrep- 
ancj'; variance; jar; wrangle; discord. 

Disannul, dis-an-nuK, v. t. To annul, render void. 

Disappear, dis-ap-per'', v.i. [-feared (-perd''), -pear- 
IXG.] To vanish from sight, become invisible, cease 
to appear or to be perceived; to cease to be or exist, 
become merged in something else. — Disappear'^ance, 
-ans, «. Act of, etc. 

Disappoint, dis-ap-point', v. t. To defeat of expecta- 
tion or hope, hinder of result, tantalize, balk, de- 
feat. — Disappoint ''ment, n. Act of, or state of being, 
etc.; that which, etcj miscarriage; frustration^ 

Disapprove, dis-ap-proov', v. t. [-proved (-proovd''), 
-PROVING.] To pass unfavorable judgment upon; 
to regard as wrong or inexpedient; to censure; to re- 
fuse official approDation, decline to sanction, disal- 
low.— Disapprov^ingly, arfw. — Disapprov'al, Dis- 
approba'tion, -pro-ba'^hun, n. Act of disapproving. 
^ Disap'probatory, -to-rl, a. Containing disappro- 
bation; tending to disapprove. 

Disarm, diz- or dis-arm'', v. t. To deprive of arms or 
of means of attack or defense; to deprive of means 
or disposition to harm. — Disann'ament, n. 

Disarrange, dis-ar-ranj'', v. t. To unsettle or disturb 
the order or due arrangement of. — Disarrange'- 
ment, n. Act of, or state of being, etc. ; confusion. 

Disarray, dis-ar-ra'', v. t. To throw into disorder, 
break the array of ; to undress, unrobe. — n. Want 
of array or regular order; disorder; confusion: state 
of being imperfectly attired; undress; dishabille. 

Disaster, diz-as'ter, n. Orig. a baleful aspect of a 
planet or star. An unfortunate event; esp. a sudden 
misfortune ; calamity ; mischance. — Disas'trous, 
-trus, a. Attended with, etc. — Disas'trously, adv. 

Disavow, dis-a-vow'', v. t. To refuse to acknowledge, 
deny responsibility for, approbation of, etc. ; to dis- 
prove, disown, disallow. — Disavow'al, n. Act of, 
etc.; disclaimer. — Disavow'er, n. 

Disband, dis-band', v. t. To loose the bands or banded 
existence of ; to disperse; esp. to break up the mili- 
tary organization of. — v. i. To become separated or 
scattered; esp. to quit military service by breaking 
up organization. — Disband'msnt, n. Act of, etc. 

Disbar, dis-bar'', v. t. To expel (barristers) from the bar. 

Disbark, dis-bark'^ ■(;,*. To put on shore, disembark. 

Disbelieve, dis-be-lev', v. t. Not to believe; to hold 
not to be true or actual;_to refuse credit to. — Disbe- 
liev'er, w. — Disbelief, -lef'', >?. Act of, etc.; refusal 
ol credence; unbelief; system of error. 

Disburden, dis-ber''dn, v. t. To rid of a burden, lay 
off as oppressive, become relieved of, unload, disen- 
cumber, free. — v.i. To ease the mind. 

Disburse, dis-bers'', r. t. [-bursed (-berstQ, -bursino.] 
To pay out, expend. —Disburse''ment, n. Act of, 
etc.; what is paid out. 

Disburthen, dis-ber''t±in, v. t. To disburden. 

Disc. See Disk. 

Discard, dis-kard'', v. t. To throw out of the hand as 
useless, — said of cards; to cast off or dismiss; put or 
thrust awaj', discharge, cashier, reject. 

Discern, diz-zern'', v. t. [-cerned (-zemd'), -cern- 
iXG.] To behold as separate, note the distinctive 
character of, make out and distinguish by the eye, 
recognize, perceive with the mind, apprehend, pen- 
etrate, discriminate, descry. — v.i. To see the dif- 
ference, make distinction. — Discem'^ible, -T-bl, a. 
Capable of being discerned ; perceptible ; visible ; 
evident; manifest. — Discern'' ibleness, n. — Discem''- 
ibly, arfw.— Discern'ment, n. Act of discerning; 
faculty of the mind by which it distinguishes one 
thing from another; judgment; discrimination; pen- 
etration; sagacit3'. 

Discharge, dis-charj'', v. t. To relieve of a charge, 
load, or burden, unload; to let go the charge of, as a 
gun; to relieve from a state of tension, as a Leyden 
jar; to relieve of something weighing upon one, as a 
debt, claim, accusation, etc.; to relieve of an office or 
employment, take out or remove, as a charge, bur- 
den, contents, etc.; to let fly, as a missile, shoot; to 
relieve one's self of, by fulfilling conditions, per- 
forming duty, etc.; to perform or execute, as an of- 
fice, or part; to give forth, emit or send out, give 
rent to, utter. — r. i. To throw off or deliver a load, 
charge, or burden. — n. Act of, or state of being, etc. ; 
thing difchaiged. 
Disciple, . dis-si-'pl, n. One who receives instruction 
from, or accepts the doctrines of, another; pupil; 
follower ; adherent ; supporter. — Dis''cipline, -sT- 
plin, n. The treatment suited to a disciple or 
learner; development of the faculties by instruction 
and exercise; training to act in accordance with 
rules; subjection to rule; punishment byway of cor- 
rection and training. iEccl.) Reformatorj' or penal 
action toward a church member. Subject-matter of 
instruction. — v. t. [-plined (-plind), -plining.J 
To educate, develop by instruction and exercise; 
to accustom to regular action, bring under control, 
drill; to improve by corrective methods; to inflict 
ecclesiastical censures and penalties upon. — Dis''- 
ciplinary, -a-rl, a. Pert, to, or intended for, etc. — 
Dis'cipluia''rian, -rT-an, «. Pert, to, etc. — n. One 
who, etc.; esp. one who enforces rigid discfpline. 

Disclaim, dis-klam'', v. t. To reject all claim to; to 
deny ownership of, or responsibility for; to refuse 
to acknowledge, disown, disavow, renounce, reject. 
{Law.) To decline accepting, as an estate, interest, 
or office. — Disclaim'er, n. One who, etc. {Law.) 
A denial, disavowal, or renunciation, as of a title, 
claim, interest, estate, or trust. A public disavowal, 
as of pretensions, opinions, etc. 

Disclose, dis-kloz', v. t. To unclose, open; to remove 
a cover or envelope from; to bring to light; to make 
known, as that which has been kept secret, divulge, 
tell, utter. — V.I. To burst open, gape; to make a 
disclosure or revelation. 

Discoid. See under Disk. , ,, , j, . ■ 

Discolor, dis-kuKer, v. t. To alter the color of, stain, 
tinge; to alter the true complexion or appearance of. 

Discomfit, dis-kum'fit, v. i. To scatter in fight, break 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; 6nd, eve, term ; In, Ice ; 5dd, tone, 6r ; 




■up the plans of, throw into perplexity and dejec- 
tion, disconcert, rout. —n. Rout; overthrow; dis- 
comfiture. —Diacom'fiture, -fl-chur, n. Act of, or 
state of being-, etc.: defeat; frustration. 

DlBcomfort, dis-kum'tert, n. Want of comfort; in- 
quietude. — V. t. To destroy or disturb the comfort, 
peace, or happiness of. 

Discompose, dis-koin-poz', r. t. To disarrange, inter- 
fere with, break up; to throw into disorder, destroy 
the composure of; to put out of place or service, de- 
range, agitate, ruffle, fret, displace.— Discompo''8ure, 
-po'/.hur, n. State of being, etc. 

Disconcert, dis-kon-sgrf, v. t. To break up the har- 
monious progress of, throw into disorder, discom- 
pose, abash, confuse, frustrate. — Disconcer'tion, n. 

Disconnect, dis-kon-nekt', v. t. To dissolve the union 
or connection of, sever. — Disconnec'tion, n. 

Disconsolate, dis-kon'so-lat, a. Destitute of comfort 
or consolation; deeply dejected; melancholy; inspir- 
ing; dejection: saddening; cheerless. 

Discontent, dis-kon-tent', n. Want of content; un- 
easiness and inquietude of mind; dissatisfaction. — 
V. t. To deprive of content, make imeasy, dissat- 
isfy. — Discontentedly, adv. — Discontent'edness, 
-ment, n. State of being, etc.; inquietude. 

Discontinue, dis-kon-tia-'u, v. t. To interrupt the con- 
tinuance of ; to intermit, as a practice or habit, put 
an end to; to cease attention to, or entertainment or 
reception of; to break the continuity of, disunite. — 
V. i. To lose continuity or cohesion of parts;, to be 
separated or severed: to part. — Discontin'^tier, n. — 
Discontin'uance, -nns, n. Act of, or state of being, 
etc.; want of continuitj' of parts. {Law.) A break- 
ing off or interruption of an estate; termination of 
an action in practice by the voluntary act of the 
plaintiff; entry on the record that the plaintiff dis- 
continues action; teclinicalintfiruption of the pro- 
ceedings in pleading, when a defendant does not 
answer the whole of the pliintilf's declaration, and 
the plaintiff omits to take judgment for the part un- 
answered. — Dis'contin'ua'tion, n. Breach of con- 
tinuity; discontinuance; disruption. — Discon'tinu'- 
ity, -nu't-tt, 71. Want of continuity or cohesion. — 
Discontin''uous, -u-us, a. Not continuous. 

Discord, dis'kord, n. Want of concord or agreement; 
variance leading to contention and strife; dissension; 
clashing. (Mm.) Union of musical sounds which 
strikes the ear disagreeably, owing to the incommen- 
surability of the vibrations which they produce. 
^ Discord'ant, a. At variance; clashing; jarring; 
opposing. (Mtts.) Not in harmony or concord. — 
Discord'antly, adv. — Discord^antnsss, n. — Dis- 
cord'' ance, -ancy, -an-sT, «. State or quality of be- 
ing, etc.; inconsistency. 

Discount, dis''kownt, n. An allowance made upon an 
account, debt, price asked, etc.; deduction for in- 
terest, in advancing money upon a bill or note not 
due; act of discounting. — Discount, dis'kownt or 
dis-kownt', v. t. To deduct an account, etc.; 
to loan money upon, deducting the allowance for 
interest. — v. t. To lend mouev, abating the dis- 
count: to anticipate and m.tke allowance for.— DiS'''- 
counter, n. — Discounfable, a. 

Discountenance, di-s-kown'te-nans, v. t. To put out 
of countenance, put to shame, abash; to refuse to 
countenance or give approval to, discourage. — n. 
Unfriendly regard; cold treatment; disapprobation. 

Discourage, dis-kur'ej, v. t. To extinguish the cour- 
age of, deprive of confidence; to deter one from, 
dishearten one with respect to, dissuade, discoun- 
tenance. — Discour'ageable, a. — Discour^'agement, 
n. Act of, or state of being, etc.; that which, etc. — 
Discour'^ager, n. One who, etc. , 

Discourse, dis-kors', n. Orig., power to run over, to 
compare and judge; oral exposition of a subject; 
talk; conversation; dissertation or treatise; sermon. 

— v.i. [-COURSED (-korsf), -COURSING.] To exer- 
cise reason; to talk or treat of in writing, in a formal 
manner. — v. t. To utter or give forth. — Discours''- 
er, n. — Discours'ive, -iv, a. Reasoning ; containing 
dialogue or conversation. — Discur'sive, -ker'siv, 
-Bory, -ser-T. a. Discoursive; rambling; digressive. 

— Discur'sively, ndr. — Discur'sion, -shun, n. Ex- 
patiation; desulto-y talk: act of discoursing. 

Discourteous, dis-kerfyus o/'-ker'te-us, a. uncivil; 

rude. — Discour'teotisly, a/lv. — Biscour'tesy, -te-sT, 
n. Rudeness of behavior or language. 

Discous. See under Disx. 

Discover, dis-kuv'er, r. t. To remove the covering or 
envelope from, expose to view, make known; to ob- 
tain for the iirst time sight or knowledge of, as of a 
thing not known; to find out, disclose, reveal, im- 
part, detect, invent. — Discov'erable, a — Discov'- 
erer, n. One who discovers; one who first finds out 
an unknown country, or a new princii»le, truth, or 
fact; an explorer. — Discov'ery, -Sr-I, n. Act of, 
etc.: thing discovered. 

Discredit, dis-kred'it, n. Want of credit; act of dis- 
crediting, or state of being discredited; disa^race; re- 
proach. — V. t. To refuse to credit, disbelieve, de- 
prive of credibility or of credit, bring reproach upon. 
— Discred'itable/d. Tending to injure credit; dis- 
graceful: disreputable. 

Discreet, dis-kret', a. Possessed of discernment or 
discretion; wise in avoiding evil, and in adapting 
means to ends; wary. — Discre'tion, -kresh'un, n. 
Quality of being disccfect; sagacity; freedom to act 
according to one's own judgment. — At (tisrretion. 
Without conditions or stipulations. — Discre'tional, 
-ary, -er-T, n. Left to discretion; unrestrained ex- 
cept by judgment. — Discre'tionally, -arily,_ adv. 
At or according to discretion. — Discrete, -kref, a. 
Separate; distinct; disjunctive; containing a dis- 
junctive clause, — opp. of coTicvete. — Di8cre''tive, 
-tiv, a. Disjunctive; separating. 

Discrepant, dis-krep'^ant, a. Discordant; at variance; 
disagreeing; different. — Discrep''ance, -ancy, -an-sT, 
n. State or quahtj' of being, etc. 

Discriminate, dis-krim'^t-nat, v. t. To separate, dis- 
tinguish; to mark as different, distinguish by a pe- 
culiar note or sign. — v. i. To make a difference; to 
distinguish accurately. — a. Distinguished; having 
the difference marked. — Discrim'inateness, n. — 
Discrim'uia''tion, 71. Act of , or state of being, etc.; 
faculty of nicely distinguishing; that which dis- 
criminates; iiiiirk of distinction. »-Discrim''inative, 
-tiv, a. Marking a difference; characteristic; observ- 
ing distinctions; discriminating. 

Discrown, dis-krown', v. t. To of a crown. 

Discursion, Discursory, etc. See under Discourse. 

Discus, dis'kus, n:; Discuses ; L. pi. Disci, -si. 
A quoit ; a disk. See Disk. 

Discuss, dis-kus', v.t. [-cussed (-kusf), -cussixg.] 
To break up, disperse; to examine orcon.sider by 
disputation. (Law.) To exhaust a remedy against, 
as against a debtor before proceeding against the 
surety. — Discus''sion, -kush'un, n. Act or process of 
discussing; examination by argument; debate; dis- 
putation. — Discuss'ive, -iv, a. Able or tending to 
discuss. — Discu'tient, -shent, n. Serving to dis- 
perse morbid matter. — ii. A medicine to disperse a 
tumor or any coagula_ted fluid in the body. 

Disdain, dis- or diz-dan', v. t. [-dained (-dand'), 
-DAINIXG.] To reject as not deserving notice ; to 
look with scorn upon, contemn, despise. — v.i. To 
be filled with contemptuous anger. — n. A feeling 
of contempt and aversion ; haughtiness ; scorn ; 
arrogance. — Disdain 'ful, -ful, a. Full of, or express- 
ing, disdain ; contemptuous ; haughty. 

Disease, diz-ez', M. Orig., lack of ease; uneasiness; a 
morbid condition of body; sickness; disorder; dis- 
temper; malad}'. — v. t. To afflict with sickness. 

Disembody, dis-em-bod'f , v. i. To divest of the body, 
free from the flesh, discharge from military organi- 

Disembogue, dis-em-bog'', v. t. [-bogued (-bogd'), 
-BOGUI.XG.] To dischtirge at the mouth, as a stream; 
to_vent — Disembogae'ment, -em'bouchure', -aN'- 
boo-shoor', n. Discliaige of the waters of a river, etc. 

Disembowel, dis-em-bow'el, v. t. To take out the 
bowels of, eviscerate, gut. 

Disengage, dis-en-gaj', v. t. To release from some 
previous connection or engagement ; to liberate, 
free, extricate, disentangle, wean. — v. i. To re- 
lease one's self, set one's self free, become de- 
tached. — Disenga'^gedness, -ga'jed-nes, n. State of 
being, etc. — Disengage-'ment, -gaj'ment, n. Act of, 
or state of being, etc.; freedom from engrossing 
occupation; leisure. 

Disestablish, dis-es-tab'lish, v. t. To unsettle or 

Blin, cube, full ; moon, f66t ; cow, oil ; iiager or ink, then, boNbou, chair, get. 




break up what has been established. — Disestab'- 
lishment, n. Act^or process of, etc. 

Disesteem, dis-es-tem'', n. "Want of esteem; low re- 
gard ; disfavor. — v. t. To feel an absence of es- 
teem for, regard with disapproval; to slight. — Dis- 
es'tiina''tion, n. Disesteem ; disfavor. 

Disfavor, dis-fa-'ver, n. Want of favor ; disesteem; 
state of not being in favor; an unkindiiess; dis- 
obliging act. — V. t. To withhold or withdraw favor 
from, regard with disesteem. — Disfa'vorer, n. 

Disfigure, dis-fig'^Qr, v. t. To mar the figure or appear- 
ance of; to render less complete or beautiful, de- 
face, injure. — Disfig'uremeut, -ura'tion, n. Act of, 
or state of being, etc.; that which disfigures. 

Disfranchise, dis-fran''chiz, v. t. [-chised (-chizd), 
-CHisiNG.] To deprive of a franchise or chartered 
right; to dispossess of the rights oi a citizen, or of 
a particular right, as of voting, holding office, etc. 

— Diufran^'chisement, n. 

Disgorge, dis-gorj', v. t. [-gorged (-gSrjd'), -gor- 
GiXG.] To eject from the stomach, throat or mouth; 
to vomit ; to pour forth violently, as if from a 
mouth; to give up, make restitution of. — 1\ i. To 
vomit forth what anything contains, m^ke restitu- 
tion. — Disgorge''inent, n. Act of disgorging ; thing 

Disgrace, dis-gras', n. Lack or loss of favor, support, 
or countenance ; ignominy : infamj' ; that which 
brings dishonor; cause of'shame; oppro_brium; re- 
proach; dishonor.— r. t. [disgr.^ced (-grasf), -gra- 
CiXG.] To deprive of favor, dismiss with dishonor, 
bring reproach or shame upon, degrade, defame, 
debase. — T)iEgrace''ful, -ful, a. Bringing disgrace 
or dishonor; shameful; ignominious. — Disgrace'- 
fuJljr, adv. — Disgrace'fulnesB, n. — Disgra'cer, n. 

— Disgra'cious, -shus, a. Ungracious ; unpleasing. 
Disgruntle, dis-grun'tl, v. t. To disappoint, dis- 
please, disconcert. 

Disguise, dis-giz'', v. t. [-guised (-gizd'), -guising.] 
To change the guise or appearance of; esp. to con- 
ceal by an unusual dress, hid.^ by a counterfeit ap- 
pearance; to affect or change by liquor; to intoxi- 
cate. — n. A dress or exterior put on to deceive; 
artificial language or manner assumed for decep- 
tion; change of manner by drink; slight intoxica- 

Disgust, dis-gust'', n. Repugnance to what is oflEen- 
sive ; aversion; distaste; dislike. — v. t. To pro- 
voke disgust in, offend the taste of, displease. 

Dish, dish, n. A vessel used for serving up food; any 
particular kind of food; state of being concave or 
like a dish. — w. i. [dished (disht), dishing.] To 
put in a disii, for serving ai table; to make like a 
dish; to frustrate or disappoint. 

Dishabille, dis-a-biK, n. Same as Deshabille. 

Dishearten, dis-harfn, v. t. [-heartened (-harfnd), 
-ENING.] To deprive of heart, courage, or hope; to 
dispirit, depress, deject. 

Dishevel, dT-shev'l, v. t. [-eled (-Id), -eling.] To dis- 
arrange or cause (the hair) to nang loose. 

Dishonest, diz- or dis-on''est, a. Wanting in honesty; 
fraudulent; disposed to deceive ; characterized by 
fraud. — Dishon''est]y, arfy. — Dishon''esty,w. Want 
of honesty, probity, or integntj' ; violation of trust; 
dishonor; unchastity: incontinence. 

Dishonor, dis- or diz-on'er, n. Want of hohor; dis- 
grace; ignominv; shame; reproach. — v. t. To de- 
prive of nonor, bring reproach or shame on; to vio- 
late the chastity of, debauch, ravish ; to refuse to 
accept or pay, — said of a draft or acceptance which 
is due and is presented. — Dishon'orable, a. Bring- 
ing or deserving dishonor; snameful; base; want- 
ing in honor; diso:raced. — Dishon^'orableness, n. 

Disincline, dis-in-klin''. r. t. To excite the dislike or 
aversion of. — Disin''clina''tion, n. State of being 
disinclined; unwillingness; aversion ; repugnance. 

Disinfect, dis-in-fekf, v. t. To cleanse from infec- 

- tion. — Disinfectant, n. That which, etc. — Disin- 
fec'tion, n. Act of, etc. 

Disingenuous, dis-in-jen'u-us, a. Not noble: mean; 
unworthy ; wanting in candor or frankness. — Dis- 
ingen-'uously, adv. — Disingen^uousness, n. 

Disinherit, dis-in-hgr^'it. v. t. To cut of: from hered- 
itary right, deprive of an inheritance. — Disinher'- 
itance, -ison, -t-zn, n. Act of, or state of being, etc. 

Disintegrate, dis-in'te-grat, v. t. To separate into 
integrant parts. — Disin'tegrable, a. — DiBin'tegra'- 
tion, n. Act of, or state of being, etc. (Geol.) 
Wearing away of strata by atmospheric action. 

Disinter, dis-in-ter'', v. t. To taKe out of the grave; 
to bring out, as from hiding. — Disinter'ment, n. 

Disinterested, dis-in'ter-est-ed, a. Not influenced by 
regard to peisonal advantage; free from self-inter- 
e"st ; unbiased; impartial; indifferent. — Disin'ter- 
estedly, adv. — Disin'^terestedness, ti. 

Disinthrall, dis-iii-thrawK, v. t. To release from 
thraldom, emancipate. — DisintliraU''ment, n. 

Disjoin, dis-ioin', v. t. To part, disunite, separate. — 
V. i. To "become separated, part. — Di^oinf, r. t. 
To put out of joint, dislocate ; to separate at junc- 
tures, break in pieces; to break the natural order 
and relations of. — v. i. To fall or break in pieces. 

— Disjoint'ly, adv. In a disjointed state. — Dis- 
junct', -junkt', a. Disjoined ; separated. — Dis- 
junc'tion, n. Act of disjoining ; disunion ; a dis- 
junctive proposition. — Diqjunct''ive, -iv, a. Tend- 
ing to disjoin; separating; disjoiniug. — n. (Gram.} 
A disjunctive conjunction or proposition. 

Disk, Disc, disk, m. A flat, circular plate; a discus; 
quoit. CAsti-on.) The face of a celestial body. 
(Bot.) The whole surface of a leaf; central part of 
a radiate compound flov/er; a part of the receptacle 
expanded under or around the 
pistil. — Disc'ous, -us, -oid, -oid'- 
al, a. Disklike ; circular, wide, 
and flat. — Discoid floweis. (Bot.) ' 
Compound flowers, consisting of 
tubular florets onlj', as the tansy. 

Dislike, dis-lik'', n. Positive arid 
usually permanent aversion; an- 
tipathy; repugnance. — v. t. To 
have an aversion_to. 

Dislocate, dis'lo-kat, v. t. To dis- 
place, disjoint, put out of joint. 

— o. Dislocated.— Disloca'' tion, 
n. Act of, or state of being, etc. 
{Geol.) Displacemfent of rocks or 
portions of strata from their 
iSu7'g.) A disjointing; luxation. 

Dislodge, dis-loj', v. t. To drive from a lodge or place 
of rest or repose, or of hiding or defense. — v. i. To 
go from a place of rest. — Dislodg'ment, n. Act or 
process of dislodging or state of being dislodged. 

Disloyal, dis-loi^al, a. Not loyal; false to allegiance; 
faithless; treacherous; perfidious; false in love; in- 
constant. —DiBloy''aliy, adv. — Disloy'alty, n. 

Dismal, diz'mal, a. Gloomy to the eye or ear; sor- 
rowful and depressing to the feelings; dreary; dole- 
ful; sorrowful; melancholy. 

Dismantle, dis-man''tl, v. t. To deprive of dress, 
strip, deprive of apparatus, furniture, equipments, 
defenses, or fortifications. 

Dismast, dis-masf, v. t. To deprive of masts. 

Dismay, dis-ma', v. t. [-mated (-mad'), -mayixg.1 
To disable with alarm or apprehension ; to fill with 
distressing fear, daunt, appall. — n. Loss of firm- 
ness and energy through tear; discouragement; ter- 
ror ; horror ; consternation. 

Dismember, dis-mem^ber, v. t. [-bered (-herd), -Ber- 
ing.] To divide limb from limb, strip of essential 
parts, mutilate, sever. — Dismem'bermeat, n. Act 
of, or state of being, etc.; mutilation ; division. 

Dismiss, dis-mis', v. t. [-missed (-misf), -missing.} 
To send awaj', cause or permit to go; to remove from 
office, service, ov employment ; to lay aside or re- 
ject, as a petition or motion in court. — Di8miss''al, 
-mis'sion, -mish'un, w. Act of dismissintr ; leave to 
depart; removal from employment; discharge; a 
setiing aside as trivial or invalid. — DiBmiss''ive, -iv, 
a. Giving dismission, or leave to depart. — Dim^iss- 
ory, -er-I, a. Dismissive ; dismissing to another ju- 

Dismount, dis-mownt', v. i. To come down, descend, 
alight from a horse, —r. t. To throw or bring down 
from an elevation, place of honor and autliority, 
etc. ; to throw or remove from a horse, or from, a 
gun cari'iage ; to break the carriages of (pieces of 

Disobey, "dis-o-ba', v. t. To neglect or refuse to obey; 
i to break the commands of .— i'. i. To refuse obe- 

Discoid Flowers, 
original position. 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; end, evCj term ; In, ice ; Sdd, tone, 6r ; 




dience. — DiBobe'dience, -dl-ens, n. Neglect or re- 
fusal, etc. — Disobe'dient. a. Neglecting or refus- 
ing, etc. — Disobe'diently, adv. 

Disoblige, dis-o-blTj'', r. t. To offend by an act of un- 
Rindness or incivility ; to be unaccommodating to. 

Disorder, dis-Sr'der, n. Want of order ; neglect of 
system; breach of public order ; disturbance of the 
peace of society ; disturbance of the functions of 
the animal economy or of the mind ; malady; dis- 
temper. — V. t. To disturb the order of, throw into 
confusion ; to make sick ; to disturb the regular 
operations of, derange, discompose. — Disor''derly, 
-It, a. In a state of disorder. — Disor'^derllness, n. 

Dlsorgamze. dis-fir'gan-iz, v. t. To break or destroj' 
the organic structure or connected system of ; to 
throw into Titter disorder. 

Disown, diz- cr dl'^-on', v. t. To refuse to own or ac- 
knowledge ; to disavow, disclaim, renounce. 

Disparage, dis-par'ej, v. t. [-aged (-ejd), -agixo.] 
To dishonor by comparison with what is inferior, 
injure by depreciating comparisons, decry, under- 
value, detract friiin, degrade. — Disi)ax''a|gement, ?i. 
Injurious comparison with an inferior; indignity ; 
derogation : disgrace. — Dispar'ager, n. 

Disparate, dis'pa-rat. a. Unequal ; unlike ; dissim- 
ilar. \Lo(jic.) Pert, to 2 coordinate species or di- 
visions. — Dis'^parates, n. pi. Things so unlike that 
they cannot be compared with each other. — Dis- 
par'ity. -pS,r''T-tT, n. Difference in age, rank, con- 
Qitioii, or excellence ; dissimilitude ; disproportion. 

Dispassion, dis-pash'un, n. Freedom from passion. — 
Dispas'^sionate, o. Free from, or not dictated by, 
passion ; cool ; temperate ; impartial ; unruffled. 

Dispatch, dis-pach', Despatch', v. t. [-patched 
(-pachf), -PATCH IXG.] To send off on a special er- 
rand, usually in liaste; to get rid of by sending off ; 
put out of the way; esp. to put to deatn, kill; to dis- 
pose of, as business. — v. i. To make haste. — n. 
The sending of a messenger in haste ; any sending 
away ; rapid performance, as of business ; prompt- 
ness; speed; a message sent off, esp. from one public 
officer to another. 

Dispel, dis-pel', v. t. [-felled (-peld'), -felling.] 
To drive away, banish, dissipate. 

Dispense, dis-pens', r. t. [-pensed (-pensf), -pen- 
sing.] To deal or divide out in portions; to apply, 
as laws, to particular cases ; to administer, carry 
out. — v.t. To permit neglect or omission, suspend 
operation, followed by with. — Dispen''sable, a. 
Capable of being dispensed or administered, of be- 
ing dispensed with. — Dispen^'sary, -sa-rT, n. A 
place in which medicines and medical advice are 
given gratis to the poor ; sliop in which medicines 
are prepared. — Dispensa'tion, ?i. Act of dispen- 
sing or dealing out ; thing dispensed ; esp. (TheoL), 
a system of principles, promises, and rules ordained 
and administered. The granting of a license, or the li- 
cense itself, to do what is forbidden. 

Disperse, dis-pgrs', v. t. [-peksed (-pSrsf), -fees- 
ing.] To scatter here and f here ; to spread, as knowl- 
edge, light, etc., diffuse, d'sseininate ; to cause to 
vanish or separate. — ?•. i. To separate, be dispelled. 
— Disper'sion, n. Actof,or stateof being, etc. (Opt.) 
Separation of light into its different colored rays. 

Dispirit, dis-pir'it, i\ t. To depress the spirits of ; 
dishearten, dejiress, daunt, frij;hten. 

Displace, dis-plas', v. t. To cliange the place of, re- 
move, put out of place ; to discharge, depose, dis- 
miss, discard. — Displace'able, a. — 'Displace'ment, 
n. Act of, or state of being, etc.; quantity of water 
displaced by a floating body, as by a ship. 

Display, dis-pla', v. t. [-played (-plad''),] 
Uo unfold, spread wide; to exhibit, set in view os- 
tentatiously, parade, expand. — n. An unfolding; 
exhibition ; manifestation ; parade. 

Displease, dis-plez', r. t. [-pleased (-plezd''),-PLEAS- 
i.NCi.] Not to please ; to excite a feeling of disap- 
probation or dislike in, make angry, offend, disgust, 
vex, affront. — Displeas'ure, -plezh''er, n. The 
feeling of one displeased; slight anger or irritation ; 
that which displeases. 

Disport, dis-port', n. Plav; pastime; diversion. — v. i. 
To play, sport. — v. t. ')lo divert or amuse. 

Dispose, dis-poz', v. t. [-posed (-pozd';, -posing.] 
To distribute and put in place, set in order, regulate; 

to assign to a service or use, bestow for an object or 
purpose ; to give a tendency or inclination ; esp. to in- 
cline the mind of .—Disposed', -pozd', p. a. Inclined; 
minded. — DiBpos'er, /i. — Dispos'able, a. Subject 
to disposal ; liable to be made use of. — Dispos'sl, 
-sure, -zhur, n. Act or power of, etc.; direction: dis- 
tribution.'— Disposi'tion, -zisli-'un, n. Act of, or 
state, or manner of being, etc. ; arrangement ; or- 
der; tendency to an}' action or state resulting from 
natural constitution ; natural aptitude of mind or 
acquired aptitude or character ; moral character. 

Dispossess, dis-pos-ses' or -poz-zes', r. t. To put out 
of possession, eject. — Dlsposses'sion, -sesh'un or 
-zesh'un, n. Act of, or state of being, etc. (Law.) 
An injury to real property which consists of a dep- 
rivation of possession. 

Disproportion, dis-pro-por'shun, n. Want of propor- 
tion or symmetry, of suitableness or adequacy. — 
?■. t. To make unsuitable, mismatch. — Dispropor'- 
tionable, -tional, -tionate, a. Unsuitable; inade^ 
quate. — Dispropor'tionably, -ally, -ately, adv. 

Disprove, dis-proov', v. i^ To prove to be false or er- 
roneous; to confute, refute. — Disprov'er, n. — Dis- 
prov'able, a. — Disproof, n. Act of, etc. ; convic- 
tion of error ; refutation. 

Dispute, dis-put', v. i. To contend in argument, argue 
a question for and against, discuss, debate ; to 
strive in opposition to a competitor. — v. t. To 
argue for and against, discuss ; to struggle for the 
possession of ; to oppose by argument, call in ques- 
tion, controvert, doubt, argue, impugn. — n. Con- 
trovers}''; debate; struggle; altercation. — Dispufer, 
Dis'putant, n. One who, etc.— Dis'putable, a. Ca- 
pable gif being, etc. ; controvertible. — Dis'putable- 
ness, n. — Disputa'tion, n. Act of, etc. ; argumenta- 
tion. — Disputa'tious, -shus, Dispufative, -put'a-tiv, 
a. Inclined to dispute ; apt to cavil or controvert. 

Disqualify, dis-kwoKl-fi, v. t. To render unfit, inca- 
pacitate ; to deprive of legal capacity, power, or 
right. — DisquaFiflca'tion, n. Act of, or state of 
being, etc.; disability; esp. legal disability; depriva- 
tion of legal right or capacity; want of qualification; 
that which disqualifles. 

Disquiet, dis-kwi'et, n. Want of quiet or tranquillitj'; 
uneasiness; restlessness; anxiety. — 1\ t. To render 
unquiet, make uneasy, disturb. — Disqui^eter, n. — 
Disqui^etness, -etude, -tud, n. Want of peace or 
tranquillity; disturbance: agitation; anxiety. 

Disquisition, dis-kwT-zish'un, 71. A systematic in- 
quiry intOv or discussion of, any subject; elaborate 
argumentative essay; dissertation; an immethodical 

Disregard, dis-re-gard', v. t. Not to regard; to pay no 
heed to, neglect, slight. — w. Act of, or state of 
being, etc.; omission to notice. — Disregard'er, n. 

Disrepute, dis-re-put", -rep'ttta'tion, n. Loss or want 
of reputation or credit; disesteem; dishonor; dis- 
grace. —Disrep'utable, «. Not reputable; tending 
to bring into discredit; low; mean; shameful. 

Disrespect, dis-re-spekf, n. Want of respect or rev- 
erence; incivility; irreverence. — v. t. To show dis- 
respect to. — Disrespecfful, -f ul, a. Wanting in re- 
spect; uncivil. — Disrespecf fully, adv. 

Disrupt, dis-rupf, a. Rent asunder; broken. [L. dis 
and rinnpere, -riq^tum, to break, burst.] — Disrup'- 
tion, -ture, -chur, n. Act of, or state of bein^, etc. — 
Disruptive, -iv, a. Causing, or accompanied oy, etc. 

Dissatisfy, dis-safis-fi, v. t. To render unsatisfied or 
discontented; to displease. — Dissat'isfac'tion, n. 
State or condition of being dissatisfied or discon- 
tented; displeasure; disappi'obation; dislike. — Dis- 
safisfac'tory, -to-rtj «. Causing dissatisfaction. 

Dissect, dis-sekf, v. t. To cut in pieces, as an animal 
or vegetable, to examine the structure and use of 
its parts; to anatomize; to analyze into its constit- 
uent parts, for purposes of science or criticism. — 
Dissec'tion, n. Act of dissecting, or of separating 
into constituent parts for critical examiuation. ^ 
Dissecfor, -^r, n. 

Disseize, dis-sez', v. t. (iaw.) To deprive of actual 
seizin or possession ; to dispossess wrongfull}'. 

Dissemble, dis-sem'bl, v. t. [-sembled (-brd), -bling.] 
To hide under a false semblance, put an untrue ap- 
pearance upon, disguise, mask; to make pretense 
of, feign, dissimulate, cloak, cover. — v. i. To con- 

siin, cube, full ,• moon, idbt ; cow, oil; linger or ink, tiien, boNboN, chaii, get. 




eeal the real fact, motives, intention, or sentiments, 
under some pretense. 

Disseminate, dis-sein''T-nat, v. t. To sow, as seed; to 
scatter lor growth and propagation; to spread or ex- 
tend by dispersion, diffuse, circulate, disperse. — 
Dissem'ina'tion, n. Act of, or state of being, etc.; 
diffusion ; dispersion. — Dissem'inative, -tiv, a. 
Tending to, etc. — Dissem'inator, n. 

Dissent, dis-sent'', v. i. i'o differ in opinfon, disagree. 
{Eccl.) To differ from the established church. To 
be ot a contrarj' nature. — n. Act of dissenting; dif- 
ference of opinion; disagreement. {Eccl.) Separa- 
tion from an established church, esp. that of Eng- 
land. — Dissenfer, n. One who dissents; esp. a 
Protestant who dissents from the churcli of England. 

— Dissen'sion, -shun, n. Violent disagreement in 
opinion; breach of friendship and union ; strife. 

-Dissertation, dis-ser-ta'shun, n. A formal or elabo- 
rate discourse, disquisition, essay. 

Disserve, dis-serv', v. t. To infure, hurt, hariu. — 
Disserv'ice, -is, n. Injury ; mischief. 

Dissever, dis-sev'er, v. t. To part in two, di%'ide asun- 
der, sever. 

Dissident, dis'st-dent, a. Not agreeing; dissenting. — 
n. {Eccl.) One who separates from the established 
religion ; a dissenter. — Dis'^sidence, n. Disagree- 
ment; dissent. 

Dissimilar, dis-sim'T-ler, a. Unlike; heterogeneous. 
— Dissim'ilar''ity, -lar'T-tT, w. Want of resemblance; 
Tinlikeness; dissimilitude. — Dissim'ilarly, -ler-lT, 
adv. — Dis'simil^itude, -tud, n. Want of similitude; 
unlikeness ; dissimilarity. {Rhet.) A comparison 
by contrast. — Dissim^'ulate, -lat, v. i. To dissemble, 
feign. — Dissim'tUa'tion, n. Act of, etc. 

Dissipate, dis'sT-pat, v. t. To drive asunder; to de- 
stroy by wasteful extravagance, scatter, spend, 
squander, consume, lavish. — i'. i. To separate and 
disappear, waste away, vanish; to be extravagant, 
wasteful, or dissolute in the pursuit of pleasure. — 
Dissipa''tion, n. Act of dissipating or dispersing ; 
state of dispersion ; a dissolute course of life ; pro- 
fuseness in vicious indulgences ; a trifle distracting 
attention; state of distracted attention. 

Dissociate, dis-so'^shl-at, v. t. To separate, disunite. 

— Disso'cia'tion, -shl-a''shun, n. Act of dissocia- 
ting; state of separation; disunion. (C/iem.) Decom- 
position of chemical bodies etfected by heat or me- 
chanical force, without intervention of chemical at- 

Dissolve, diz-zolv'', v. t. [-solved (-zolvd'), -solv- 
ing.] To separate into component parts; to break 
the continuitj' of, disconnect; to convert into a liq- 
uid, melt, liquefy; to destroy the power of; to ter- 
minate, cause to disappear. "(Laiv.) To annul, re- 
scind. — V. i. To waste away, be dissipated; to be- 
come fluid, be melted ; to 'fade away, vanish. — 
Dissolv'able, a. — DissoWent, a. HaAang power to 
melt or dissolve. — n. That which has, etc.; a men- 

i Etruum; solvent. — Dissolv'er, w.— Dissoluble, dis'- 
60-lu-bl, a. Capable of being dissolved, liquefied, 
or disunited. — Dis'^solute, -lut, a. Abandoned to 
vicious pleasures; wanton; vicious: licentious; lewd; 
debauched. — Dis'solutely, ody.— Dis'soluteness, n. 

— Dissolu''tion, n. Act of dissolving, sundering, or 
separating into component parts ; change from a 
solid to a fluid state; change of form by chemical 
agency; dispersion of an assembly by terminating 
its sessions; breaking up of a partnership; extinc- 
tion of life ; state of Deing dissolved ; destruction. 

Dissonant, dis'so-nant, a. Discordant; unharmonious; 
disagreeing ; incongruous. — Dis'^sonance, -nancy, 
-si, n. A mingling of discordant sounds ; jargon ; 
incongruity; inconsistencv. 

Dissuade, dis-swad'', v. t. To ad%'ise or 
exhort against. — Dissua'sion, -zhun, 
n. Act of dissuading ; exhortation 
against a thing ; a dissuasive. — Dis- 
sua'sive, -siv, a. Tending to dis- 
suade. — n. An argument, or coun- 
sel, employed to deter one from a 

Dissyllable, dis-sil'la-bl, n. A word of 
2 syllables only. — Dissyllab'ic, a. 
Consisting of, etc. -ni-^tifF 

Distaff, dis'taf, n. ; pi. Distaffs. The -L'lstan:, 

staff for holding the flax, tow, or wool, from ■which 
thread is drawn in spinning by hand; the holder of 
a distaff ; a woman. 

Distain, dis-tan', v. t. [-taixed (-tand'), -taining.] 
To stain, sully, disgrace. 

Distant, dis-'taiit, a. Separate; far separated; remott, 
— in place, time, consanguinity, etc. ; reserved in 
manners; cold; faint, obscure,-^ as from distance. — 
Dis'^tance, -tans, n. Space between two objects ; re- 
moteness of place ; interval of time ; respect ; cere- 
moniousness. — v. t. [distaxced (-tanst), -taxcixg.] 
To place at, or cause to appear as if at, a distance; 
to leave behind in a race, surpass, excel. 

Distaste, dis-tast' 

Aversion of the taste; dislike 

of food or drink; disrelish; disgust; alienation of af- 
fection; displeasure; dissatisfaction. — v. t. Not to 
have relish for; to dislike the taste of, loathe. — Dis- 
taste''ful, -ful, a. Unpleasant to the taste; displeas- 
ing to the feeUuM; nauseous; offensive; repulsive; 
manifesting dislike. — Distaste 'fully, adv. 

Distemper, dis-tem''per, n. A morbid state of the 
animal system, — esp. of brutes; ill humor, or bad 
temper. {Paint.) A preparation of opaque or body 
colors, with size instead of oil ; destemper. — v. t. 
[distempered (-perd), -PERixG.] To derange the 
functions of, whether bodily or mental, bring dis- 
ease upon; to disturb, make' ill-humored. (Paint.} 
To make into distemper. — Distem'perature, -chur, 
71. Commixture of contrarieties; confusion; dis- 
turbance,- slight illness; mental uneasiness. 

Distend, dis-tend', r. t. To lengthen out, stretch or 
spread in all directions, dilate, expand, swell. — v. i. 
To become expanded or inflated. — Disten'sible, -sY- 
bl, a.— Disten'tion. n. Act of, or state of being, etc.; 
space occupied by the thing distended. 

Distich, dis'tik, n. {Pro}.) A couple of verses mak- 
ing complete sense; a couplet of 2 lines, of different 
kinds of verse, repeated in the same order. 

Distill, dis-tiK, v. i. [-tilled (-liW), -tillixg.] To 
fall in drops, flow gently; to use a still, practice dis- 
tillation. — v.t. To let fall in drops; to subject to, 
or obtain by, distillation ; to rectify, purify. — Dis- 
till 'er. n. — Distill ''able, a — Distilla'tion, n. Act 
of falling in drops ; operation of extracting spirit 
from a substance by evaporation and condensation; 
rectification; substance extracted by distilling. — 
DistiU'ery, -er-f, n. Works where distilling is car- 
ried on. 

Distinguish, dis-tin'gwish, v. t. [-gltshed (-gwisht), 
-GUISHIXG.] To separate or recognize by Adsible 
marks; to separate by definition of terms or logical 
division of a subject; to recognize by characteristic 
qualities; to make to differ, discriminate; to make em- 
inent or known, honor. — v. i. To make distinctions, 
exercise discrimination. —Distin''guished, -gwisht, 
p. a. Having distinction; eminent; noted; illustrious. 
— Distin'guishing, jj. a. Constituting difference, or 
distinction from everything else ; jieculiar ; char- 
acteristic. — Distinct, dis-tinkt'. a. Having the dif- 
ference marked ; distinguished ; spotted ; varie- 
gated; separate in place; not united by growth or 
otherwise ; different ; individual ; not" to be con- 
founded with any other thing; definite: clear; ob- 
vious. — Distinctly, adv. — Distinct'^ness, n. — Dis- 
tinc'tion, n. Marking off by visible signs ; divis- 
ion ; discrimination ; distinguishing quality ; esti- 
mation of difference: conspicuous station: superi- 
ority; rank: note; eminence. — Distinctive, -iv, a. 
Marking or expressing distinction. — Distincfively, 
adv. With distinction : plainly. 

Distort, dis-tQrf, v. t. To twist but of natural shape, 
force out of the true posture or direction, wrest 
from the true meaning, deform, pervert, bend. — 
Distor''tion, n. Act of, or state of being, etc. ; visi- 
ble deformity. — Distorfive, -iv, a. Causing or 
ha^ang distortions. 

Distract, dis-trakt', v. t. To perplex, confuse ; to 
agitate by conflicting passions: to render insane, 
craze, — used in the p.p. — Distrac'tion, n. Con- 
fusion of attention, or of affairs ; perturbation of 
mind; a state of disordered reason. — Distract'^ive, 
-iv, a. C'"asing perplexity. ^Distraught', -trawt'', 
a. Disti^cted. 

Distrain, dis-tran', v. t. [-tratxed (-trand'), -traix- 
IXG.] {Laiv.) To seize for debt, without legal pro- 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; end, eve, term ; Tn, Ice ; 6dd, tone, 6r ; 




eess. — Distrain ''or, -er, ?!. — Dis'trict, n. A defined 
portion of a state or city for legislative, elective, or 
other purposes; portion of territory' of undefined ex- 
tent; quarter; tract; region; countrv. — v. t. To di- 
vide into districts. — Distress'', n. Extreme suffer- 
ing, of body or mind ; that whicli occasions suffer- 
ing ; state of danger or necessity. {Law.) The act 
of distraining ; thing taken by "distraining. — v. t. 
[DISTRESSED (-trest'), -TRESSIXG.] To cause pain 
or anguisli to. (Law.) To seize for debt, distrain. 

— Distress'ful, -ful, a. Inflicting, indicating, or pro- 
ceeding from, distress. 

Distribute, dis-trib'ut, v. t. To divide among sev- 
eral ; to dispense, administer, apportion, allot, as- 
sign; to divide or separate, as into classes, orders, 
etc. — V. i. To make distribution. — Distribu'tion, n. 
Act of distributing or dispensing; almsgiving; sepa- 
ration into parts or classes; classification; arrange- 
ment of topics in a discourse. (Print.) The sepa- 
ration of type, and placing each letter in its proper 
box. — Distrib'utive, -tiv, a. Tending to distribute ; 
dealing to each his share. 

District. See under Distrain'. 

Distnist, dis-trust', r. t. Not to confide in or rely 
upon: to mistrust, disbelieve. — n. Doubt of re- 
ality or sincerity; suspicion of evil designs. — Dis- 
trasffol, -ful, a. Apt to distrust ; suspicious. 

Disturb, dis-tgrb', v. t. [-turbed (-terbd''), -turb- 
IXG.] To throw into confusion; to interfere with, 
terminate abruptly; to agitate the mind of, render 
uneasy, discompose, perplex, trouble. — Disturb'- 
ance, -ans, a. Derangement of the regular course of 
things; confusion of the mind; public commotion; 
brawl; disorder. 

Disunite, dis-u-nif, v. t. To destroy the continuity 
or union of; to break the concord of, divide, sever, 
sunder, separate. — v- i. To part, become separate. 

— Disu'nity, -uT-tl, n. State of separation. — Dis- 
union, -un'^yun, n. Termination of union; a breach 
of concord and its effect; in U. S., severance by any 
State of connection with the Federal government. 

— Disun^'ionist, n. An advocate of disunion. 
Disuse, dis-tis'', n. Cessation of use, practice, or ex- 
ercise; cessation of custom ; desuetude. — Disuse, 
-uz', V. t. [-USED (-uzd'), -usiXG.] To cease to use 
or practice, desist from employing; to disaccustom. 

— Di3U''sage, -zej, n. Gradual' cessation of use, etc. 
Ditch, dich, n. A trench in the earth, esp. one for 

draining wet land, for fencing inclosures, etc.; a 

fosse or moat. See Ravelin. — r. t. [ditched 

(dicht). DiTCHiXG.] To dig a ditch in. — v. i. To 

make a ditch. 
Dittany, dit'ta-nY, n. (Bot.) An aromatic perennial 

plant, whose leaves smell like lemon-thyme, and 

yield an essential oil. 
Ditto, dit'to, contr. Do., n. That which has been 

said; the aforesaid thing; same thing. — adv. As 

before; in the same manner; also. 
Ditty, diftT, n. A song; esp. a little poem to be sung. 
Diuresis, di-u-re'sis, n. {Med.) Excretion of urine. 

— Diuret'ic, a. Exciting the secretion and discharge 
of urine. — n. A medicine which, etc. 

Diurnal, di-Sr'nal, a. Pert, to the daytime; daily; 
recurring every day; performed in a 
da}'; constituting the measure of a 
day. (Bot.) Opening during the day, 
and closing at night. — n. A book of 
the daily service of the Rom. Cath. 
Church for the " little hours." — 
Diur'nally, adv. Daily ; every day. 

Diutumal, di-u-tgr''nal, a. Of long 

Divan, dl-van'', n. A book; collection 
of poems; account-book ; a council; 
the Turkish council of state ; royal 
court; court of justice; office for cus- 
toms; the council chamber: audience 
chamber ; saloon for company ; a 
kind of cushioned seat. 

Divaricate, di-var'T-kat, v. i. To part into 2 branches; 
to open, fork, diverge from. — v. t. To divide into 
2 branches. — a. (Bot.) Widely divergent. 

Dive, div, v. i [dived (divd), diving.] To descend 
or plunge into water head first; to plunge thorough- 
ly into any business or condition; to sink, penetrate. 


— Di'^ver, n. One who dives, or who goes deeply into 
a business. (Ornith.) A bird of certain genera, 
given to diving. — Di'ving-bell, n. A hollow vessel, 
orig. bell-shaped, air-tight, except at the bottom, in 
which one may go into deep water. — Dive'dapper, 
?). (Ornith.) The didapper, q. v. 

Diverge, dT-verj', v. i. [-verged (-verjd''), -vee- 
t;iN(;.] To tend from a common point indifferent 
directions; to deviate gradually from a given line; 
to vary from a type, or a normal state, or from the 
truth. — Diverge'ment, Diver'gence, -gency, -sT, n. 
A receding from each other in radiating lines. — Di- 
ver'gent, «. Deviating gradually, etc. 

Divert, dl-verf, v. t. 1\) turn oft from any course, 
direction, or intended application ; to turn from 
business or study; to please, amuse. — Divers, di'- 
verz. a. Several; sundry; more than one, but not 
many. — Di'verse, -vers, a. Different in kind; un- 
like; dissimilar. — adr. In different directions. — 
Di'versely, adt\ In different wavs, or directions. — 
Diver'sity, -tT, n. A state of aifference ; unlike- 
ncss; multiplicity of difference; variety. — Diver'- 
sion, -shun, n. Act of -turning aside, from any oc- 
cupation, object, etc.; that which diverts from care 
or amuses: solace: recreation; sport. (J/i7.) Act 
of drawing the attention and force of an enemy 
from the principal point of attack. — Diverfive, -iv, 
a. Tending to divert ; amusing. — Diver'sify, -ii, 
V. t. [-FIED (-fid), -FYiNG.] To make diverse or 
various in form or qualities. 

Divest, dT-vesf, v. t. To strip, as of clothes, arms, or 
equipage; to deprive. — Divest'iture, -t-chur, n. Act 
of, or state of being, etc. 

Divide, dt-vid'', v.t. To sever into parts; to cause to 
be separate; to make partition of among a number, 
apportion ; to make discordant or hostile ; to separate 
into 2 parts, for ascertaining opinions for and 
against a measure. (Logic.) To separate into 
species, —v. i. To part, open; to vote by separating 
a legislative house into 2 parts. — Div'iaend, n. The 
share of interest or profit of stock in trade, etc., be- 
longing to each proprietor. (Arith.) A number or 
quantity to be divided. — Divid'er, n. One who, or 
that which, divides ; esp. 0^^) an instrument for 
dividing lines, describing circles, etc.; compasses. — 
Divis'ible, -viz^I-bl, a. Capable of being, etc. — 
Divis'ibil'ity, n. Quality of being divisible. — Di- 
vis'ion, -vizn'^un, n. Act of, or state of being, etc.; 
that which divides; portion separated by the divid- 
ing of a mass; difference in opinion or feeling; dif- 
ference of condition; separation of the members of 
a deliberative body to ascertain the vote. (Arith.) 
Process of finding how many times one number or 
quantity is contained in another; rule by which the 
operation is performed. (Mil.) A section of an 
army or fleet, complete in itself, and commanded by 
a general officer. — Divis^ional, a. Marking, express- 
ing, or making division; pert, to a division or dis- 
trict. — Divi^'sive, -siv, a. Forming division or dis- 
tribution; creating division or discord. — Divi'sor, 
-zer, n. (AvM.) The number by which the div- 
idend is divmed. — Common divisor. Any number 
dividing 2 or more numbers without a remainder. 

Divine, dt-vin', a. Pert, to, proceeding from, or ap- 
propriated to God, or celebrating his praise; above 
what is human ; superhuman; godlike ; holy; sa- 
cred; pert, to divinity or theology. — n. A priest; 
clergyman; one skilled in divinity; theologian. — 
V. t. [divined (-vind'), -vining.] To foresee or 
foreknow, foretell, presage, prognosticate. — v. i. 
To practice divination, impart presages of the fu- 
ture, have presages or forebodings, conjecture.^ — 
Divin'or, n. One who practices divination. — Div- 
ina'tion, n. Act or art of divining or foretelling 
future events: augury; omen. — Divine'^Iy, adv. In 
a godlike manner; by the agency of God. — Divin'- 
ing-rod, n. A forked rod, commonly of hazel, used 
by seekers for water or metals under ground. — 
Divin'ity, -vin'T-tT, 71. State of being divine; god- 
head; the Deity; God; a false god; a celestial being, 
inferior to Goa, but superior to man ; supernatural 
power or virtue; awe-inspiring character; supreme 
dignity; science of divine things; theology. 
Divisible, Division, etc. See under Divide. 
Divorce, dt-vors', n. (Law.) A legal dissolution of 

siin, cQbe, full ; moon, fd6t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, tiien, boNboK, eli«ir, get. 




the marriage contract; separation of a married wom- 
an from the bed and board of her husband ; separa- 
tion of things closelj' united ; the sentence or writ- 
ing dissolving marriage.— v. t. [divoeced (-vorst'), 
-VORCING.] To separate by divorce^ disunite, sun- 

Divulge, dT-vuli', r. t. [-vulged (-vuljd'), -vulging.] 
To make public, disclose, impart. 

Dizen, diz-'n or di'zn, v. t. [dizexed (-znd), dizen- 
1X6.] To dress gaudily, deck, overdress. 

Dizzy, diz'I, a. Having a sensation of vertigo; giddy; 
contused ; indistinct ; causing giddiness ; unreflect- 
ing; heedless. — r. t. To make giddy, confuse. 

Djinn, jin, n. See Jinxee. 

Do, do, n. {Mus.) A syllable attached to the 1st tone 
of the major diatonic scale for solraization. 

Do, doo, V. t. or aiuriliary. limjy. did ; p. p. done 
(dun) ; DOING.] To perform, execute, make ; to 
produce, as an effect or result ; to perform com- 
pletely, finish, accomplish ; to cook completely ; to 
translate or transform into, as a written text; to de- 
ceive, play a trick upon, hoax, humbug. (Stock 
Exchange.) To cash or advance money for, as a 
bill or note. — v. i. To act or behave ; to fare ; to 
be in a state with regard to health. 

Do, doo, V. i. To be worth, be fit, avail, manage, ac- 
complish a purpose, — as, this ivill do. 

Do., vron. difto. See Ditto. 

Docile, dos''il, a. Teachable ; ready to learn ; tract- 
able. — Docil'lty, -tt, n. Teachableness. — Doc'ible, 
a. Docile. — Doc'lbleness, -iblFitjr, n. 

Dock, dok, n. A plant, some species of which are 
weeds, having a long tap-root. 

Dock, dok, V. t. [docked (dokt), docking.] To cut 
off, as the end of a thing, curtail, clip ; to deduct 
from ; to destroy or defeat, bar. — n. The stump of 
a tail, or part left after clipping ; case to cover a 
horse's clipped tail. — Dock''et, n. A summary or 
digest ; a label tied to goods. {Law.) An abridged 
entry of proceedings in an action, or list of such en- 
tries; list of causes ready for hearing or trial. A list 
of matters to be acted on in any assembly. — v. t. To 
make an abstract of the heads of; to enter in a dock- 
et, mark the contents of on the back, as of papers. 

Dock, dok, n. An inclosure or basin to receive vessels; 
space between 2 piers for ships; place where the ac- 
cused stands in court. — v. t. To place in a dock. 

Doctor, dok-'ter, n. One qualified to teach; a learned 
man ; one who has received the highest degree in a 
faculty; one licensed to practice medicine ; a physi- 
cian ; a mechanical contrivance to remedy a diffi- 
culty. —v. i. [DOCTORED (-terd), -TOEING.] To at- 
tend or treat as a physician ; to make a doctor; to 
alter for the better ; to adulterate, tamper with, fal- 
sify.— v. i. To practice physic— Doc'toral, a. Pert, 
to the degree or practice of a doctor. — Doc'torate, 
-at, -ship, 71. The degree of a doctor. — Doc'toress, 
Doc'tress, n. A female doctor. — Doc'trine, -trin, n. 
Act of teaching ; instruction ; thing taught; body of 
principles in any branch of knowledge ; dogma ; 
tenet.— Doc'trinal, a. Pert, to, or containing, etc.— 
Doc'trinaire', -tre-nar''. n. One who rigidly ap- 
plies to practical concerns the abstract doctrines of 
his own philosophical system ; a political theorist ; 
propounder of new opinions. — a. Pert, to, etc. — 
Doc'ument, n. An original or oflHcial paper, relied 
upon as the basis or support of anything else. — t'. t. 
To furnish with documents. — Document^al, a. Pert, 
to, consisting in, or derived from, etc. — Document''- 
ary, -rT, a. Pert, to written evidence ; consisting in 

Dodecagon, do-dek''a-gon, w. (Geom.) A regular poly- 
gon, bounded by 12 equal ' 
sides, and containing 12 
equal angles. — Dodec'a- 
he'dron, n. A regular 
solid contained under 12 
equal and regular penta- 
gons ; a solid having 12 
equal faces. 

Dodge, doj, v. i. [dodged 
(dojd), dodging.] To 
start suddenly aside, be 
evasive, quibble. — v. t. 
To evade by starting aside 


71. Act of evading by 

some skilKul movement ; a dexterous device or 

Dodo, do'do, n.; pi. Do'does, -doz. A large bird 
of Mauritius, now extinct. 

Doe, do, 71. A she-deer ; esp. the female of the fallow- 
deer. — Doe'skin, >i. Skin of the doe ; compact, 
twilled woolen cloth. 

Doff, dof, V. i. [doffed (doft), doffing.] To put off 
(dress) ; to rid one's self of, defer. 

Dog, dog, n. A quadruped of the genus Canis; a 
mean, worthless fellow ; a fellow, — used humor- 
ously. (Astron.) One of the 2 constellations in the 
soutliern hemisphere. An andiron. {Ifech.) A 
grappling iron ; an iron with fangs to secure a log 
to be sawed; a catch or clutch, esp. the carrier of a 
lathe, and an adjustable stop to change the motion 
of a machine tool. — v. t. [dogged (dogd), dog- 
ging.] To follow insidiously or persistently ; to 
worry ; hunt. — Dog'ged, a. Surly ; obstinate. — 
Dog-^edly, adv. — Dog-'gedness, «. — Dog'gisli, a. 
Churlish ; snappish. — Bog's-ear, dogz'er, ?i. The 
corner of the leaf of a book turiied down. — v. t. To 
turn down, etc. — Dog-'-eared, -erd, a. Having the 
corners, etc. — Dog^'gerel, -ger-el, a. Low in style 
and irregular in measure, — said of poetry. — «. 
Mean^ undignified verse. 

Doge, doj, n. The chief magistrate in the republics of 
Venice and Genoa. 

Dogma, dog^ma, n. ; E. pi. -mas, -maz ; Z. pi. -mata, 
-ma-ta. That which is held as an opinion ; an es- 
tablished tenet ; peremptory opinion, a principle of 
doctrine asserted without sufficient evidence. — Dog- 
mafic, -ical, a. Pert, to a dogma; disposed to assert 
authoritatively; magisterial; positive. — Dogmatic- 
ally, adr. Arrogantly; positively. — Dogmat'ics, n. 
ging. Science of Christian doctruies ; doctrinal the- 
ology. — Dog''matism, -tizm, n. Arrogance or posi- 
tive'riess in opinion. — Dog'^matize, v. i. [-xized 
(-tizd), -TiziXG.] To assert positively ; teach with 
bold and undue confidence. — Dog'^matist, -tiz'er, ?;. 

Doily, doi'lT, n. A small napkin, generally colored, 
used with fruit and wine. 

Dole, dol, n. Act of dividing and distributing ; thing 
distributed; alms; gratuity. — v.t. [doled (dold), 
doling.] To deal out in small portions ; distribute. 

Doleful, doKful, a. Full of grief; piteous; rueful; wo- 
lul; dismal.— Dolc'some, -sum, a. Doleful; sorrow- 
ful. — Do''lor, n. Pain ; grief ; distress ; anguish. — 
Dol'^orous, -us, a. Full of, or occasioning grief ; 
painful ; distressing. 

DoU, dol, w. A puppet or image of a baby for a child. 

Dollar, doKler, n. A silver coin of the if. S., equal to 
100 cents ; a coin of similar value, current in Mex- 
ico, S. Amer., Spain, etc.; the value of a dollar. 

Dolman, doKman, n. A lady's cloak. 

Dolphin, doKfin, n. (Ichth.) A cetaceous mammal, the 
true dolphin ; also a fish of about 5 feet in length, 
celebrated for its changes of color when dying. 
(Entom.) A species of apnis infesting beans. (Jyaut.') 
A rope or strap wound round a mast to support 
the puddening when the lower yards rest in the 
slings ; a spar secured to an anchor to which cables 
may be bent; a mooring-post. 

Dolt, dolt, 71. A heavy, stupid feUow, blockhead, ig- 
noramus, dmice, simpleton. 

Domain, do-man'', n. Dominion; authority; territory 
over which dominion is exerted; landed property; 
estate; esp. land about the mansion-house of a lord, 
and in his immediate occupancy. (Zaiv.) Owner- 
ship of land, estate, or patrimony, in one's own 

Dome, dom, n. A building; house. (A7-cJi.) A struc- 
ture above the roof, usually hemispherical in form; 
cupola; an erection resembling a cupola. 

Domestic, do-mes'tik, a. Pert, to the house or home, 
to one's place of residence and famih', also to a na^ 
tion considered as a family, or to one's own coun- 
try ; intestine; remaining much at home; devoted to 
home duties or pleasures; living near the habitations 
of man; tame; made in one's own house, nation, or 
country. — 7i. One who lives in the family of an- 
other, as hired assistant: pi. articles of home manu- 
facture, esp. cotton goods. — Domes^ticate, -kat, v.t. 
To make domestic, conduct as if at home, accustom 
to live near the habitations of man, tame.— Domes''- 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; gnd, eve, term ; in, Ice ; 6dd, tone. Or ; 





• • 





• • 4 

» • • • 


IJJIilkli I 

luiii nil 



tlca'^tion, re. Act of domesticating. — Domestic'ity, 

-tis'I-tl, n. State of bein^ domestic; a liousuliold 
act or life. — Dom'icile, -sil, n. An abode or man- 
sion; place of i)eniiaiient residence. (.Law.) Resi- 
dence at a particular place accompanied witli proof 
of an intention to remain there. — v. t. [dujiicilku 
(-sild), -CILIXG.] To establish in a fixed residence. 
— Domicil'iary, -sil't-a-rl or -siKya-rT, a. Pert, to 
domicile, or the _residence of a person or family. — 
Domicil''iate, -T-at, v. t. To domicile. 

Dominate, dom't-nat, v. t. To predominate over, rule, 
govern. — v. i. To predominate.— Dom''inance,-iian- 
cjr, -sT, n. Ascendency; authority. — Dom^inant, a. 
Kuling; prevailing; predominant" — n. (Mas.) The 
6th tone of the scale. —Domina'tion, n. Act of dom- 
inating: exercise of power in ruling; government; 
authority; the 4th of the supposed orders of angeli- 
cal beings. — Dom^inative, -tiv, a. Ruling; imperi- 
ous. — Dom''iiiator, -ter, n. A ruler or ruling power; 
predominant influence. — Domineer', r. i. [-xeered 
(-nerd'';, -SEERiN'G.j To rule with insolence or ar- 
bitrary sway. — Domin'ion, -j'un, n. Supreme au- 
thoritj'; predominance; territoryoverwliich author- 
ity is exercised. — Domin'^ical, a. Pert, to, or given 

• by, our Lord; indicating Sunday. 

Dominie. dom'T-nl, n. In Scot., a schoolmaster, par- 
son. — Dom'ino, n. ; 7;/. -nos or -noes, -uoz. A cape 
with a hood, formerly worn 
by priests over liead and face; 
a hood worn by canons of a 
cathedral church; a woman's 
mourning veil, or half-mask; 
a loose cloak, with a hood, 
used as a disguise; one wear- 
ing a domino, pi. A game 
^ayed with 28 pieces of ivory, 
indented with spots from a 1 to double 6. One of the 
pieces of the game. — Don, n. Sir; Mr. ; Signor, — a 
title of courtesy in Spain; a grand personage, or one 
affecting conseq^uence. pi. The heads of colleges 
and fellows of i,ngiish universities. — Dona, don'ya, 
n. Lady ; Mistress ; Madam, — a Spanish title of 
courtesy for women. — Don''na, -na, n. The title of 
a lady in Italy. — Duenna, doo-en'na, ?i. ,• pi. -na.s, 
-naz. The chief lady in waiting on the Queen of 
Spain; an elderly lady in charge of young ladies in 
Spain or Portugal; a governess. 

Don, don, v. t. [doxned (dond), doxxing.] To put 
on, invest one s self with, — opp. to do_ff'. 

Donate, do''nat, v. t. To give, esp. for "a specific ob- 
ject. — Dona'tion, n. Act of giving; thing given or 
Destowed, gift, grant.- {Law.) Act by wliich one 
transfers to anotlier the title to a thing of which he 
is owner, without any consideration. — Do'nor, -ner, 
n. A giver; benefactor. (Law.) One who confers a 
power. — Donee', -ne', n. One to whom a gift is 
made. (Laiv.) Party executing a power; appointor. 

Done. See Do. 

Done, dun, p. p. Given out; issued; made public, — 
used in the dating clause of an official public docu- 

Doi^on, dun'jun, n. A tower in ancient castles, the 
strongest part of the fortifications; the keep. See 
C.VSTLE. [Same as dungeon, q. v.] 

Donkey, don'kT, n. : pi. -keys, -kiz. An ass, or mule; 
a stupid or •bstinate fellow. — Don'key-en'gine, «. 
•A small assistant engine in steam-vessels. 

Donna. See under Domixie. 

Donor. Se^e under Do.vate. 

Doodle, doo'dl, n. A trifler, simpleton. 

Doom, doom, v. t. [doomed (dcjomd), doomixg.] To 
pronounce sentence or judgment on, condemn; to 
ordain as penalty; to mulct or fine; to assess a tax 
upon; to destine, fate. — n. Judicial sentence; penal 
decree; that to which one is sentenced; panalty; un- 
happy fate. 

Door, dor, ?i. An opening in the wall of a house for 
.going in and out at; frame by which such an open- 
ing IS closed; means of access; entrance-way, and 
the apartment to which it leads. 

Dor, Dorr, dSr, Dor'-beetle, Dor'-bug, n. A large, 
destructive tree-beetle; the cockchafer; May-bug; — 
the imago of the voracious white grub-worm. 

Doree, do-re' or do'rt, Do'ry, -rl, John'-dory, n. 
An acanthopterygious fish, of a golden yellow color. 


Dorian, do'rt-an, Doric, dor'ik, a. Pert, to Doris, or 
tlie Dorian race, in ancient Greece. {Ardi.) Pert, 
to, or resembling, the 2d order of columns, between 
the Tuscan and Ionic. See Capital. 

Dormant, dSr'inant, a. Sleeping; not in action; qui- 
escent; not disclosed, asserted, or insisted on. (Her.) 
In a sleeping posture. — n. {Ardi.) The large beam 
lying across a room; a joist; sleeper. — Dor'mancy, 
-si, n. State of being dormant. 

— Dor'mer, D.-win'dow, n. 
(Ardi.) A vertical window on 
the inclined roof of a house. — 
Dor'mitive, -tiv, n. {Med.) A 
medicine to piomote sleep; an 
opiate, narcotic, soporific. — a. 
Causing sleep.— Dor'mitory, -ri, 
n. A room or set of rooms for 
sleeping in; bed-room. 

Dormouse, dSr'muws, n. ; pi. -mice, 
-mis. A small rodent manunal which feeds on 
acorns, nuts, etc., like the squirrel, and is torpid in 
winter. " 

Dorsal, dor'sal, a. Pert, to the back. 

Dory, do'rl, n. A fish. See Dokee. — A canoe or 
small boat. 

Dose, dos, n. Quantity of medicine given at one time; 
as much as one can take, or as falls to one to receive; 
anything nauseous that one musf take. — v. t. 
[dosed (dost), DosiXG.] To form into doses, give 
in doses, give medicine to, give potions to constantly 
and without need, give anything nauseous to. 

Dost, dust. Second pers. pr. of do. 

Dot, dot, n. A small spot, made with a pen or point. 

— V. t. To mark with dots or specks, diversify with 
small detached objects. — v. i. To make dots or 
specks. — Dot'ted, 7J. a. Marked with dots; diver- 
sified with small, detached objects. — Dotted note. 
{Mas.) A note followed by a dot to indicate an in- 
crease of length equal to i of its simple value. — D. 
rest. A rest lengthened by a dot. [Notes and rests 
are sometimes loLlowed by 2 dots, to indicate an in- 
crease of length equal to % of their simple value.] 






Dotted Notes and Rests. 

Dot, a dowry, Dotal, Dotation. See under Dowek. 

Dote, dot, V. i. To have the intellect impaired, esp. 
by age, so that the mind wavers; to be excessively or 
foolislily fond. — Do'ter, -tard, ?i. One who, etc.— 
Do'tage, -tej, n. Childishness; imbecility; senility; 
excessive fondness; weak and foolish affection. — 
Dot'tard, n. A decayed tree.— Dot 'terel, -ter-el, 
-trel, n. A wading bird, like the plover, easily taken 
by stratagem; a silly fellow; dupe. 

rouble, dub'l, a. Twofold ; multiplied by 2 ; in- 
creased by its equivalent; in pairs; presenting 2 of 
a set together ; coupled ; divided into 2 ; vacilla- 
ting; deceitful. {Bot.) Having several rows of pet- 
als formed by cultivation from stamens and car- 
pels. — adv. Twice ; twofold. — v. t. [doubled 
(-Id), -HXG.] To multiply by 2, make twice as 
great, duplicate; to fold one part upon another part 
of; to contain or be worth twice as much as; to pass 
around or by. {Mil.) To unite, as ranks or files, so 
as to form one. — v. i. To increase or grow to twice 
as much; to return upon one's track. (Print.) To 
set up a word or phrase a second time by mistake. — 
n. Twice as mucli; that which is doubfed together; 
a plait; fold; a turn in running to escape pursuers; 
a trick : shift ; artifice ; a counterpart; a roofing 
slate of the smallest size used. — Doub'ler, n. — 
Doub'ly, -II, adr. In twice the quantity.— Doub'- 
lenesB, ». — Double-entendre, doo'bl-oN-tox'dr, n. 
An expression admitting of a double interpretation, 
one of which is often indelicate. — Doub'let, n. Two 
of the same kind; a pair; couple. {Piint.) A word 
or phrase unintentionally doubled. Inner garment 
of a man; waistcoat. {Lapidary Work.) A counter- 
feit stone, composed of 2 pieces of crystal, with color 
between them. (Opt.) An arrangement of two 
lenses for a microscope, to correct spherical aberra- 
tion and chromatic dispersion, pi. Two dice, hav- 

sttn, cube, full ; moon, fdSt ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, ttien, box box, chair, get. 





ing each the same number of spots on the upper 
face. — Doubloon'', -loan'', n. A Spanish and Portu- 
guese coin, double the value of the pistole, worth 
nearly |1G. 
Doubt, dowt, V. i. To be in uncertainty respecting 
anything ; to be undetermined, waver, fluctuate, 
hesitate; to fear, be apprehensive, scruple, suspect. 

— v.t. To question or hold questionable, hesitate 
to believe; to fear, apprehend, suspect, believe. - 
n. Uncertainty of mind or of condition; fear; dif- 
ficultv expl-essed or urged for solution ; objection.— 
Doubt -^ ful, -ful, ce. Not settled in opinion; admit- 
ting of doubt'; not clear or certain; not easy to be 
defined, classed, or named; ambiguous; equivocal; 
of uncertain issue; affected by fear. — Doutoffully, 
adv. — Doubt 'fulness, n. — Doubt'less, adv. With- 
out doubt or question; unquestionably. — Du''bious, 
-bT-us, a. _Doubtf ul. — Du'biously, adv. 

Douceur, doo-ser', n. A present; gift; bribe. 

Douche, doosh, n. A jet of water or vapor directed 
upon part of the body, to benefit it medicinally. 

Dough., do, n. A mass of flour or meal moistened and 
kneaded, but not yet baked. 

Doughty, doWtl, a. Characterized by Dravery; val- 
iant; redoubtable. 

Douse, dows, r. t. [doused (dowst), dousing.] To 
thrust or plunM into water ; to dip. [Not the same 
as dowse, q. v.] 

Dove, duv, n. A bird of the pigeon family, some spe- 
cies of which are domesticated; a pigeon; esp. tame 
pigeon. — Dove'-cot, -cote,-kot, n. A 
building or box for doves. — Dove''- 
tail, n. {Carp.) A joint or tenon 
made by letting one piece, in the 
form of a dove's tail spread, into a 
corresponding cavity in another, so 
that it cannot be drawn out. —v. t. 
[-TAILED (-tald), -TAILING.] To Unite 
b_v, etc.; to fit ingeniously. 

Dover's Powder, do'verz-pow'der. 
{Med.) A compound of ipecacuaaha, opium, and 
sugar of milk, a sedative and sudorific. 

Dowable, Dowager. See under Dower. 

Dowdy, dow^'dl, a. Awkward; vulgar-looking. — n. 
An awkward, ill-dressed woman. — Dow'diness, n. 

Dowel, dow'el, v.<. [-eled (-eld), -elixg.] To fasten 
together by dowels. — n. A dowel-pin ; a piece of 
wood driven into a wall, so that other pieces ma^' be 
nailed to it. — Dow'el-pin, n. A pin of wood or metal 
used for joining two pieces, as of wood, stones, etc. 

Dower, dow'er, n. Endowment; gift; property with 
which a woman is endowed, esp. that which a 
wonian brings to a husband in marriage, or that 
portion of a man's real estate which his widow en- 
joys during her life, or to which a woman is enti- 
tled after the death of her husband. — Dow'ry, -rT, n. 
A gift; the estate which a woman brings to her hus- 
band in marriage; portion given with a wife; dower. 

— Dot, dot, n. In France arid in Louisiana, a dowry. 

— Do'tal, a. Pert, to, constituting, or comprised 
in, etc. — Dota'tion, n. Act of bestowing a dowry 
on a woman, or of establishing funds for the sup- 
port of (an institution, charity, etc.). — Bow''able, 
a. Capable of being endowed; entitled to dower. 

— Dow'ager, -jer, n. (Eng. Lavj.) A widow en- 
dowed, or having a jointure. A title given in Eng. 
to a widow, to distinguish her from the wife of her 
husband's heir bearing the same name. 

Down, down, n. Fine, soft, hairv outgrowth from the 
skin or surface of animals or plants. — Down'y, -T, a. 
Covered with, made of, or like, down; soft; qui6t. 

Down, down, n. A hillock of sand tlirown up by the 
wind near the shore; a tract of sandy, level, and 
barren land. 

Down, down, prep. In a descending direction alon^; 
toward the mouth of a river. — adv. In a descend- 
ing direction : tending to a lower place or condition ; 
from a remoter or higher antiquity; to a less bulk; 
in a low position or condition; on the ground; in 
humilitv, dejection, misery, etc. — a. Downcast ; 
dejected ; downright ; plain ; absolute ; positive; 
downward; proceeding from the chief terminus. — A state of depression; abasement; failure, — 
as, ups and downs. — Down ''cast, a. Cast downward; 
directed to the ground ; flowing or circulating down- 

ward. —w. {Mining.) The ventilating shatc down 
which air passes to a mine. 

Dowry. See under Doweu. 

Dowse, dows, v. t. [dowsed (dowst), dowsing.] To 
strike in the face. (Nuuf.) To strike or lower in 
haste, slacken suddenly. To extinguish. 

Doxology, doks-oKo-jT, w. A short liymn of praise to 
God. — Doxolog'ical, a. Pert, to, etc. 

Doze, doz, V. i. [dozed (dozd),] To slum- 
ber, sleep lightly, be drowsj' or half asleep. — v.t, 
To pass or spend in drowsiness. — n. Alight sleep i 
drowse; slumber. 

Dozen, duz'n, n. ; pi. Dozen (before another noun) 
or Dozens, -nz. A collection of 12 individuals ; a 
set of 1'2; an indefinite number. 

Drab, drab, n. A woman of vile character ; a strum- 
pet ; prostitute. A thick, woolen cloth of a dun 
color; a dull brownish-yellow or gray color. — a. Of 
a dun color. 

Drabble, drab'bl, v. t. [-bled (-bid), -bling.] To 
draggle; to wet and befoul. — v. i. To fish for bar- 
bels with a long line and rod. — DraS, draf, n. Ref- 
use; lees; dregs; hog-wash; grains given to cows. 

Drachma, drak''ma, n. ; E-jA. -mas, -maz, L. pi. -m.e, 
-me. A Greek silver coin ; a Greek weight of about 
2 dwt. 7 gr. Troy. — Dram, Drachm, dram, n. In 
apothecaries' weight, 1-Sth ounce, or 60 grains: in 
avoirdupois weight, l-16th ounce; a minute quan- 
tity, mite ; as much liquor as is drunk at once ; ha^ 
bifual intemperance. 

Draconian, dra-ko^'nt-an, o. Pert, to Draco, an Athe- 
nian lawgiver, who punished aU crimes with death; 
rigorous ; CMiel. 

Draft, draft, n. Act of drawing, esp. of loads by 
beasts. {Mil.) A selection of rnen from a military 
band, also from any collection of persons. An*or- 
der directing the paj'ment of money ; bill of ex- 
change; deduction from the gross weight of goods ; 
a figure described on paper ; s Ketch ; outline ; depth 
of water necessary to float a ship ; a current of air. 

— V. t. To draw the outline of, delineate ; to com- 
pose and write : to draw from a military band or 
post, or from any company; to detach. — Drafts'- 
man, n. Same as Deaugu'tsman. —Drafts, n. A 
game. [See Draughts, under Draw.] 

Drag, drag, r. t. [dragged (dragd), dragging.] To 
draw along by main force, pull, haul ; to pulverize 
(land) by drawing a drag or harrow over it; to pass 
through (water) with a drag ; to draw along labori- 
ously, as something burdensome ; to pass in pain or 
with difficulty. — v. i. To be drawn along on the 
ground ; to move heavily or slowly onward ; to fish 
with a drag. — n. A net, to be drawn along the bot- 
tom under water, to raise sunken bodies; a sledge for 
heavy bodies ; a carriage; a heavy harrow, for break- 
ing up clods ; a burglar's implement for forcing 
safes ; something to retard the progress of a mov- 
ing body ; a clog ; a heavy motion, as if dragged 
along. (Founding.) The bottom part of a flask. 

— Draggle, drag'gl, v. t. [-gled (-gld), -gling.) 
To dirty by drawing on the ground or on wet grass; 
to drabble. — v. i. To become wet or dirty by, etc. 

Dragoman, drag''o-man, w. ; pi. -mans. An inter- 
preter, in the Levant and the East. 

Dragon, drag'un, n. {Mi/th.) A monstrous winged 
serpent or liz- 
z a r d , with 
. crested head 
and claws. A 
fierce, violent 
person. {As- 
tron.) A north- 
ern constella- 
tion figured as I 
a dragon. A 
luminous ex- 
halation from 
grounds, mov- 
ing like a 
winged ser- 
pent ; a short 
musket hooked 
to a swivel at- 
tached to a soldier's belt, decorated with a Axag,- 


am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; end, eve, term ; In, ice ; Odd, tone, 6r : 




ob's head at the muzzle. {Zo'61.) A genus of E. 
Indian reptiles, havin<r an extension of the ribs, 
covered with a fringe-like arrangement of the skin, 
which enables it to glide through the air for short 
distances. [In Scripture the term dragon is applied 
to marine fishes or serpents, to venomous land ser- 
pents, and to Satan.] — Drag''onet, n. A little drag- 
on. {Ichth.) A fish of the goby family. — Dragoon', 
-goon'', n. (Jlil.) A cavalry soldier, — formerly 
trained to serve also on foot. — r. t. [dragooned 
(-gt)ond'), -GOONiXG.] To reduce to subjection or 
persecute, by soldiers; to harass, force, persecute. 
Drain, dran, v. t. [drained (drand), draining.] To 
draw off by degrees ; to empty or exhaust of ; to 
make gradually dry or empty; to exhaust of wealth, 
resources, etc. ; to filter. — v.i. To flow off gradu- 
ally; to be emptied of liquor by flowing or dropping. 

— n. Act of draining, or of emptying by drawing 
off ; that by which anything is drained, a channel, 
trench, water-course, s'eSver. — Drain'^age, -ej, n. A 
draining ; mode in whicli the waters of a country 
pass otf by its streams. {Engin.) System of drains 
removing water from towns, etc. 

Drake, drak. n. The male of the duck kind; the drake- 
fly ; a small piece of artillery. 

Dram. See under Drachma. 

Drama, dra'ma, or dra'ma, n. A composition, to be 
acted, representing phases of human life ; a real 
series of events invested with dramatic unity. — 
Dramafic, -ical, a. — Dram'atist, n. Author of 
a dramatic composition ; writer of plays. — Dram'a- 
tize, -tiz, V. t. [-TIZED (-tizd), -tizing.] To com- 
pose in the form of the drama, represent in, etc. — 
Dram'^atis Perso'^nae, -ne. The characters repre- 
sented in a play; interlocutors in a drama. 

Drape, drap, v. i. [draped (drapt), draping.] To 
make cloth. — v. t. To cover or adorn with drapery. 

— Dra''per, n. One who sells cloths. — Dra-'pery, 
-per-I, n. Occupation of a draper ; cloth, or woolen 
stuffs in general; garments with which anything is 
draped; hangings of any kind, esp. clothing of the 
human figure in sculpture and in painting. 

Drastic, dras''tik, a. {Med.) Acting with violence ; 

Draught, etc. See under DRA\y. _ 

Draw, draw, v. t. [i»!p. drew (droo) ; p. p. deawn ; 
drawing.] To bring toward or after one by force ; 
to pull along, drag ; to attract, entice, bring forth, 
as, to pull from a receptacle, extract, deduce from 
premises, receive from a lottery, win; to remove the 
contents of, as, to drain b}' emptying, extract the 
bowels of; to inhale, utter or produce by inhalation; 
to extend in length, stretch ; to extend, or produce, 
as a line on any surface, form by marking, produce, 
as a sketch or picture ; to form a figure or picture 
of, delineate, depict ; to write in due form, prepare 
a draught of ; to require a depth of (water) for 
floating, — said of a vessel ; to sink in water. — v. i. 
To pull, exert strength in drawing ; have force to 
drag along ; to exert an attractive force. {Med.) 
To act as a sinapism, — said of a blister, poultice, etc. 
To furnish transmission to smoke, gases, etc.; to un- 
sheathe ; to sketch, paint, etc. ; to become con- 
tracted, shrink ; to move, come, or go, lit., to draw 
one's self, — with prepositions and adverbs; to make 
a written demand for money deposited or due. — n. 
Act of drawing, draught ; a lot or chance drawn ; 
part of a bridge raised or drawn aside. — Draw'er, 
n. One who, or that which, etc. One who draws 
liquor ; one who delineates, a draughtsman ; one 
who draws a bill of exchange or order for payment ; 
thing drawn ; a sliding box in a case ; pi. an under- 
garment for the legs. — Drawee', n. Person to whom 
an order or bill of exchange is addressed, or on 
whom it is drawn. — Draw'back, n. A discourage- 
ment or hindrance. {Com.) Money paid back ; 
esp. duties paid back by the government, on ex- 
portation of commodities on which they were levied. 

— Draught, draft, n. Act of drawing ; as, of moving 
loads, of drawing a net, of drinking, {Mil.) of draw- 
ing men from a military band or from any company, 
of delineating; representation; thing drawn, as, that 
taken by sweeping with a net; quantity drawn in at 
once in drinking; a potion or potation ; {Mil.) forces 
drawn, a detachment ; a sketch, outline, or repre- 

sentation ; {Com.) an order for payment of money, 
bill of exchange, draft; a current of air ; that which 
draws, as, a sink or drain ; jd. {Med.) a mild vesi- 
catory, a sinapism. Capacity of being drawn. 
{Naut.) Depth of water necessary to float a ship, 
esp. when laden. {Com.) Allowance on goods, to 
insure full weight, pi. A game played on a check- 
ered board; checkers. The bevel given to the pat- 
tern for a casting, that it may be drawn from the 
sand without injury to the mold. — a. Used for 
drawing; drawn directly fi-om the barrel, etc. — v.t. 
To draw out, call forth. — Draught '-board, n. Board 
on which draughts are played. — Draughts'man, n.; 
pi. -MEN. One who draws writings or designs. 

Drawl, drawl, v. i. and t. [drawled (drawld), drawl- 
ing.] To utter in a slow, lengthened tone. — n. A 
lengthened utterance of the voice. 

Dray, dra, n. A low cart for heavy burdens drawn by 
a norse; a drag; a squirrel's nest. — Dray 'age, -ej, 
n. Use of a dray, or charge therefor. 

Dread, dred, n. Overwhelming apprehension of dan- 
ger; reverential fear; awe; terror; dismay; an object 
of fear. — a. Exciting fear; terrible; fri^tful; ven- 
erable in the highest degree. — v. t. lo fear in a 
great degree; to regard with terrific apprehension. — 
V. i. To be in great fear.— Dread'fol, -ful, a. In- 
spiring dread, awe, or reverence ; terrible ; shock- 

Dream, drem,w. A series of thoughts in sleep; a sleep- 
ing vision; an idle fancy _or suspicion; revery; va- 
gary. — V. i. [dreamed (dremd) or dreamt (dremt), 
DREAMING.] To have images in the mind, during 
slumber; to let the mind run on in revery; to antici- 
pate as a coming reality ; to imagine. — v. t. To im- 
agine, think of, or believe in a dream, or in an anal- 
ogous state. — Dream'er, n. — Dream'y, -T, a. 
[DREAMIER; DREAMIEST.] P'ull of dreams; appro- 
priate to dreams.— Dream'less, a. Free from, etc. 

Drear, Dreary, drer'I, a. [drearier ; -iest.] Ex- 
citing cheerless sensations or associations; comfort- 
less; dismal; gloom3'. 

Dredge, drej, n. An instrument to take by dragging, 
esp. a machine for taking up mud, etc., from the bed 
of a stream. — ?;. i. [dredged (drejd), dredging.] 
To catch, gather, or deepen with a dredge. 

Dredge, drej, v. t. To sprinkle flour on (meat, etc.). — 
n. A mixture of oats and barley sown together. 

Dregs, dregz, n. pi. Corrupt or defiling matter con- 
tained in a liquid, or precipitated from it: feculence; 
lees; sediment; the vilest part of anything. 

Drench, drench, v. t. [drenched (drencht), drench- 
ing.] To cause to drink; esp. to put a potion down 
the throat of , as of ahorse; to purge violently; to 
wet thoroughly, soak, saturate with liquid. — n. A 
drink; draught; esp. a potion of medicine forced 
down the throat; one that causes purging. 

Dress, dres, v. t. [dressed (drest) or drest, dress- 
ing.] To make straight. {Mil.) To arrange as sol- 
diers in a straight line, align. To adjust, put in good 
order; to treat with remedies, as a sore; to prepare 
for use, get ready. {Mach.) To cut to proper di- 
mensions; to smooth or finish work. To put clothes 
upon, attire, array, adorn; to break and train for 
use, as a horse. — v.i. {Mil.) To arrange one's self 
in a line of soldiers. To clothe one's self. — n. 
Clothes; garments: a lady's gown; attention to ap- 
parel, or skill in adjusting it. — Dress'ing, n. Dress; 
raiment; an application to a sore or wound; manure 
spread over land. {Cookery.) Stuflfing ; forcemeat. 
Gum, starch, etc., used in preparing silk, linen, 
etc. (Arch.) An ornamental molding around doors, 
windows, etc. — Dress'y, -i, a. Attentive to, or 
showy in, dress. 

Dribble, Driblet. See under Drop. 

Drier. See under Dry. 

Drift, etc. See under Drive. 

Drill, dril, v. t. [drilled (drUd), drilling.] To 
pierce or bore with a drill; to train in the military 
art, instruct in the rudiments of any branch of 
knowledge. — v. i. To muster for military or other 
exercise. — n. A pointed instrument for boring 
holes in metals and other hard substances: see Bit, 
under Bite; a drill-press; training of soldiers in the 
military art; instruction in any business. — Drill'- 
ing, n. Act of piercing with a drill. — Drill'-presB, 

siin, cQbe, fijU ; moon, f66t ; cow, oil ; linger or ink, then, boNboN, chair, get. 




n. A machine-tool for boring in metal. — sergeant, 
-sar'jent, n. A non- 
commissioned officer 
who drills soldiers. 

Drill, dril, V. t. and i. To 
sow (seeds) in rows, 
drills, or channels. — n. 
An implement for 
making holes for sow- 
ing seed; a furrow to 
put seed into. — Dril''- 
Ung, n. Act of plant- 
ing with a drill. — 
Drill' -plow, -plough, n. 
A plow for sowing 
grain in drills. 

DriUing, driKling, n. A 
coarse linen or cotton 
cloth, for trowsers, etc. 

Drink, drink, 
V. i. [imp. 

D E A N K , 

form erly 
DRUNK ; p. 

». DRUNK or 



DRINKING.! Drill-nress 

To swallow urui-press. 

anything liquid; to partake of intoxicating liquors 
in merriment, feasting, etc., or to excess. — v. i. To 
swallow (liquids), imbibe, absorb; to take in through 
the senses, hear, see. — n. Liquor to be swallowed. 
— Drink'^er, n. One who, etc.; esp. who uses spirit- 
uous liquors to excess.— Drink'' able, a. — Drunk, a. 
Overcome by drinking ; intoxicated ; inebriated. — 
Drank'' en, -n, a. Drunk; given to excessive drink- 
ing ; pert, to or proceeding from intoxication. — 
Drunk ''enness, n. State of being, etc. ; inebriety; 
disorder of the faculties as if from intoxication. — 
Drunk''ard, n. One who habitually drinks to excess; 
a toper, inebriate. 

Drip, etc. See under Drop. 

Drive, driv, v. t. [imp. drove (drov); p. p. deiten 
(driv'n); driving.] To push forward, compel to 
move on; to chase, hunt; to urge on and guide, as 
beasts drawing a vehicle; to take in a carriage. (Min- 
ing.) To dig horizontally. To urge, impel, hurry tor- 
ward, force, constrain; to carry on, prosecute. — v. 
i. To rush and press with violence; to be impelled; 
to proceed by urging on a vehicle or the animals 
drawing it; to aim or tend to a point. -^w. An ex- 
cursion in a carriage, — disting. fr. a ride, which is 
taken on horseback; a road for driving ; a direct 
blow given to a cricket ball. — Driv'er, n. One 
who or that which, etc. ; esp. one who drives horses, 
runs a locomotive, oversees slaves, etc. (3Iach.) That 
which communicates motion to something else. 
(JVaict.) The after-sail in a ship, etc.; spanker: see 
Sail. — Drift, n. That which is driven; a mass of 
matter forced into its present position; a drove or 
flock, as of cattle, birds, etc.; act or motion of drift- 
ing, force which impels; course along which any- 
thing is driven; tendency of an act, argument, etc.; 
object aimed at; import of words. (Arch.) The hor- 
izontal force which an arch exerts. (Geol.) A col- 
lection of earth and rocks distributed ov3r portions 
of the earth's surface. (Mech.) A conical hand- 
tool for shaping a hole in metal. (Mil.) A tool for 
driving down the composition in a firework. (Min- 
ing.) A passage under ground. (Naut.) Direction 
of a current; distance to which a vessel is drawn off 
from her desired course ; a piece in the sheer-draught, 
where the rail is cut off. — v. i. To be driven along 
by a current of water; to be driven into heaps. (3fin- 
ing.) To follow a vein, prospect. — v. t. To drive 
into heaps. — Drove, drov, n. A collection of cattle, 
etc., for driving or in motion; a moving, crowd of 
people. (Agr.) A drain or channel for irrigating 
land. — Drov^'er, n. A driver of sheep, cattle, etc. 

Drivel, driv'l, w. i. [-eled (-Id), -eling.] To let spit- 
tle tlowfrom the mouth, like a child or dotard; to be 
weak or foolish; to dote. — n. Slaver; saliva flowing 
from the mouth; unmeaning utterance; nonsense; 


a fool ; idiot. — Driveler, driv'l-5r, n. A slabbercr • 
idiot ; fool. 

Drizzle, driz'zl, v. i. [-zled (-zld), -zling.1 To rain 
gently, fall in very small drops. — v. t. To shed in 
minute^ops. — n. Fine rain or mist; mizzle. 

Droll, drol, o. Fitted to provoke laughter; queer; 
funny; comical. — n. One who raises mirth by odd 
tricks; jester; builoon; antic; something exhibited 
for sport; a farce. — Droll-'ery, -er-T, n. Quality of 
being droll; archness; fun. 

Dromedary, drum''e-d^r-T, n. A species of camel hav- 
ing one bunch on the back, — 
disting. fr. the Bactrian 
Camel, which has two. 

Drone, dron, n. The male of 
the honey-bee, which makes 
no honey, but after living a 
few weeks, is killed or driven ( 
from the hive; a lazy fellow; i 
sluggard. — v. i. [droned 
(drond), DRONING.] To live in 
idleness. — n. A humming, 
low sound; that which gives out a monotonous tone, 
as, the largest tube of the bagpipe. — v.i. To give a 
low, heavy, dull sound. — v. t. To read or recite in a 
dull, monotonous tone. 

Drool, drool, v. i. To drop saliva. _ 

Droop, droop, v. i. [drooped (droopt), drooping.] 
To sink or hang down, as an animal, plant, etc., 
from weakness; to grow faint, be dispirited, flag. 

Drop, drop, n. The quantity of fluid which falls in 
one small spherical mass; globule about to fall; 
smallest easily measured portion of a fluid; what- 
ever is arranged to drop, hang, or fall from an ele- 
vated position, as, a door or platform opening down- 
ward, trapdoor, machine for lowering weights to a 
ship's deck, contrivance for lowering a gas jet, cur- 
tain which drops in front of a stage, etc. ; a drop- 
press. (MacJi.) Distance of a shaft below the base 
of a hanger, pi. Any medicine measured by drops. 
(NoMt.) Depth of a sail, from head to foot, amid- 
ships. — V. t. [dropped (dropt), -ping.] To pour 
or let fall in drops, distiU; to cause to descend sud- 
denly, let fall; to let go, dismiss, set aside; to com- 
municate in an indirect, cautious, or gentle manner; 
to lower, as a curtain, the muzzle of a gun, etc.; to 
send by dropping into the post-office box, as a letter; 
to cover with drops, speckle, bedrop; to give birth 
to, — said of sheep, cattle, etc. — v. i. To distill, 
fall in globules, let drops fall; to descend suddenlj', 
abruptly, or spontaneously; to die suddenly, come 
to an end, cease ; to come unexpectedly ; to fall ; to 
lower. — Drip, v. i. and t. [dripped (dript), drip- 
ping.] To let fall in drops. — n. A falling in drops; 
that which falls in drops. (Arch.) Edge of a roof ; 
eaves; cornice. — Drip''ping, n. What falls in drops, 
as fat from roasting meat. — Drib''ble, -bl, v. i. 
[-bled (-bid), -BLING.] To fall in drops, or in a quick 
succession of drops; to slaver, as a child or idiot. — 
i\t. To throw down in drops. — Drib''let, -let, w. A 
very small drop; small quantity or sum. 

Dropsy, drop''sT, n. (Med.) An unnatural collection 
of serous fluid in any part of the body. (Bot.) A 
disease of plants, occasioned by excess of water. — 
Drop''sical, a. Diseased with, like, or pert, to, 
dropsy. — Drop''sicalness, n. 

Drosky, dros-'kl, n. A 4-wheeled Russian carriage ; a 
kind of victoria used in German cities. 

Dross, dros, n. The scum or extraneous matter of 
metals, thrown off in melting; rust; crust of metals; 
impure matter; refuse. 

Drought, drowt, n. Dryness of the weather, prevent- 
ing growth of plants. — Drought''y, -1, a. Char- 
acterized by drought ; thirsty. — Drouglit''iness, n. 
— Drouth, n. Same as Drought. 

Drove, Drover. See under Drive. 

Drown, drown, r. t. [drowned (drownd), drown- 
ing.] To overwhelm in water, submerge, deluge: 
to deprive of life by immersion, sink under water 
till dead ; to overpower, overcome. — v. i. To be 
suffocated in water or other fluid. 

Drowse, drowz, v. i. [drowsed (drowzd), drows- 
ing.] To sleep unsoundly, slumber. — v. t. To make 
heavy with sleepiness. — n. A slight or imperfect 
sleep; a doze. — Drow'sy, -z\, a. [-sier, -siest.} 

am, fame, far, pass or opera, fare ; end, eve, term ; Tn, Ice ; Odd, tone,. &r ; 




Inclined to doze; heav}' with sleepiness; disposing 
to sleep ; stupid ; soporific. — Drow'sily, adv. — 
D-ow'sinesB, n. 

Drab, drub, v. t. [drubbed (drubd), drubbixo.J To 
beat with a stick, thrash, pommel. — n. A blow with 
a stick or cudgel; a thump. 

Drudge, druj, v. i. [drudged (drujd), drudging.] 
To work hard, labor in mean offices with toil. — n. 
One who drudges. — Dradg'ery, -er-T, n. Act of 
drudging; hard labor; ignoble toil. 

Drag, drug, n. Any substance used in the composi- 
tion of medicine, or in dveing or in chemical opera- 
tions; any commodity that lies on hand, or is not 
salable. — v.i. [drugged (drugd), -gixg.] To ad- 
minister drugs. — i?. <. To sea.son with drugs; tinc- 
ture with something offensive or injurious; dose to 
excess.— Drug'gist, n. One who deals in drugs, 
esp. one who buys and sells, without compounding 
them. — Drug'get, n. A coarse woolen cloth, to 
protect carpets. 

Draid, droo'id, n. A priest among the ancient Celts 
in Gaul, Britain, and Germany. — Dra'idesB, n. A 
female Druid ; enchantress. — Druid'ic, -leal, a. 
Pert, to, or like Druids or their religion. — Dru'id- 
ism, n. System of religion, philosophy, etc., of, etc. 

Dram, drum, n. {Mus.) A hollow cylinder or hemi- 
sphere, upon which vellum is stretched, to be 
beaten with a stick. {Mil.) A drummer. Anj-thing 
drum-shaped, as a sheet-iron radiator, receiving 
heat from a stove-pipe ; a cylindrical box in which 
figs, etc., are packed. {AnatA The tympanum or 
barrel of the ear. {Arch.) The upright part of a 
cupola; also the bell-formed part of the Corinthian 
and composite capitals. (J/ecA.) A cylinder revolv- 
ing on an axis, for turning wheels by means of 
straps around it. {Ichth.) A fish which makes a 
drumming or grunting sound under water. — v. i. 
[DRUMJiED (drumd), drumming.] To beat on a 
arum, beat with the fingers, as with drum-sticks; 
to beat, as the heart, throb; to go about to gather 
recruits, secure partisans, customers, etc. — v. t. To 
execute on a drum, as a tune; with out, to expel 
with beat of drum; with up, to assemble by beat of 
drum; without up, to solicit the custom of.— Dram'- 
mer, n. One who beats, etc.; a traveling salesman. 
— Druin''ming, w. Act of beating (a drum); act of 
striking repeatedly with the ends of the fingers, etc.; 
noise made by a partridge hy beating liis wings upon 
his sides. — Droni'^stick, n. Stick for beating a 
drum; upper joint of a fowl's leg, shaped like, etc. 

Drunk, Dnmkard, etc. See under Drink. 

Drupe, droop, n. (Bot.) A pulpy, coriaceous or 
fibrous pericarp or fruit, without valves, containing 
a nut or stone with a kernel. See Pericarp. 

Dry, dri, a. [drier, driest.] Free from moisture, 
as (said of the weather) free from rain or mist, (of 
vegetable matter) from juices or sap, (of animals) 
not giving milk, (of persons) thirsty, needing drink, 
("of the eyes) not shedding tears; destitute of that 
■which interests or amuses ; unembellished ; plain ; 
characterized by shrewdness, or sarcasm; sharp. 
(Fine Arts.) Exhibiting a sharp, frigid preciseness 
of execution. — r. t. [dried (drid), drying.] To 
free from moisture. — v.i. To srow dry, lose mois- 
ture; to evaporate wholly, be exhaled. 

Duad, Dual, Duarchy, etc. See under Duo. 

Dualin. See Nitro-glycerine. 

Dub, dub, V. t. [dubbed (dubd), -bing.J To strike 
with a sword and make a knight; to invest with any 
dignity, entitle; to prepare (a game cock) for fight- 
ing, by trimming the 
hackles and cutting off 
the comb and gills. 

Dubious, Dubitation, etc. 
See under Doubt. 

Ducal, Ducat, Duchy, etc. 
See under Duke. 

Duck, duk, n. A kind of 
coarse cloth or light 
canvas, for tents, small 
sails, bed-sacking, etc. 

Duck, duk, n. A water 
fowl; a dip of the head. 
— V. t. [ducked (dukt), 
DUCKtNG.J To plunge 

Duck (A. boschas). 

into water and suddenly withdraw; to immerse: to 

§ lunge the head of in water, immediately with- 
rawing it ; to bow, stoop, or nod. — v. i. To 
plunge the head in water ; to drop the head or per- 
son suddenly. — Duck''ling, n. A young duck. 
Duct, dukt, n. Any tube by which a fluid or other 
substance is conducted *'o its destination. — Duc''- 
tile, -til, a. Easily led or drawn out; tractable; flex- 
ible; pliable; obsequious; capable of being drawn 
out into wire or threads. — Duc'tileness, -til''ity, 

-t-tT, 71. 

Dudgeon, duj'un, re. A small dagger; hilt of a dagger; 
anger; resentment; malice; ill-will; discord. 

Duds, dudz, n.])l. ()ld clothes ; tattered garments; 
effects in general. 

Due, du, a. Owed; proper to be paid or done to an- 
other ; required by the circumstances ; suitable ; 
enforced by conscience ; becoming ; appropriate; 
fit ; appointed ; exact ; liable to come at any mo- 
ment ; owing ; occasioned. — adv. Directly ; ex- 
acth'; duly. — n. Thai which is owed, or which 
custom, station, or law requires to be paid; a fee; 
emolument; right; just title or claim. — Duty, -tT, 
n. What is due Iroin one to another; esp. what one 
is bound, by any obligation, to do, or refrain from 
doing; service rendered; respectful obedience, — 
said esp. of military service ; reverence ; regard. 
{Com.) Tax, toll, impost, or customs; excise.— 
Du'teous, -te-us, a. Performing what is due; or 
what law, justice, or propriety requires. — Du'teous- 
ly, ac/i. — Du'teousness, H. — Du'tiable, -tT-a-bl, a. 
Subject to the payment of a duty. — Du'tiful, -ful, a. 
Performing obligations required by law, justice, or 
propriety ; submissive to superiors ; controlled by, 
or proceeding from, a sense of dutv ; obedient ; 
respectful. — Du'tifully, adv. — Du'tifulness, n. 

Duel, du'el, w. A combat between 2 persons; esp. a 
premeditated fight between 2 persons to decide a 
difference. — v.i. To fight in single combat. — v.t. 
To attack or fight singly. — Du'eUst, n. One who, 
etc. — DueKlo, n. A duel; practice of dueling; code 
of laws regulating it. 

Buenna. See under Dominie. 

Duet. See under Duo. 

Dug, dug, n. A teat, or nipple, esp. of a beast. 

Dug. See Dig. 

Duke, duk, n. Orig. a leader; chief; in Eng. one of 
the highest order of nobility next below the Prince 
of Wales; in some European countries, a sovereign 
prince without the title of king. -r-Duke'dom, -dum, 
n. Seigniory or possessions, title or quality, of a 
duke. — Duch''ess, w. The consort of a duke; a lady 
having the sovereignty of a duchy in her own right. 
— Du'cal, a. Pert, to, etc. — JDu'cally, adv. — 
Duch'y, -T, n. Dukedom. — Duc'at, n. A coin of 
several countries in Europe, struck in the domin- 
ions of a duke. 

Dulcet, duKset, a. Sweet to the taste, the ear, or the 
mind; luscious ; melodious ; 
harmonious. — Dul''cimer, 
«. A stringed instrument, 
played on with little sticks 
or metallic rods. 

Dull, dul, a. Slow of under- 
standing ; slow in action, 
motion,"perception, sensibil- 
ity, etc.; lacking sharpness; 
blunt ; not bright or clear 
to the eye ; heavy ; gross ; 
insensible ; furnishing lit- 


tie delight or variety; inanimate; sluggish; tar- 
nished; obtuse. —r. «. [dulled (duld), -LING.] To 
make dull, stupid, or sluggish ; stupefy ; to make 
blunt ; to dim or obscure ; to deprive of activity. 
— v.i. To become dull. 

Duly. See under Due. 

Dumb, dum, a. Without power of speech ; not will- 
ing to speak; mute; silent. — 
Dumb''-bells, n. Two spheres of iron | 
connected by a bar, for swinging 
in the hands. — show, ?«. Gesture 
without words; pantomime. — 
-wait'er, ;;. A movable frame to 
carry dishes, etc., frcmi one story to 
another. — Dumbfound, -founder. 


sun, cube, full ; moon, f(56t ; cow, oil ; lijjger w ink, tiien, boifboi^, chair, get. 




i;. t. To strike dumb, eonfuse. — Dtun^'my, -mX, n. 
One who is dumb; a dumb-waiter; a sham package 
in a shop ; figure on which clothing is exhibited; a 
locomotive with condensing engines, and without 
the noise of escaping steam; the exposed hand when 
3 persons play at cards ; a clumsy, awkward, or 
thick-witted fellow; one who plays a merely nom- 
inal part in any action; a thing which ts not what it 
pretends to be. — a. Silent; mute; sham. 

Dump, dump, n. A gloomy state of the mind ; melan- 

. choly; despondencj', — usually in pi. 

Oomp,*' dump, n. i. [dumped (dumpt), dumping.] To 
unload from a cart by tilting it. 

Dumpy, dump''!, a. Short and thick. — Dump'ling, 
n. A thick pudding or mass of paste in cookery. 

Dun, dun, a. Of a dark color ; partaking of brown 
and black; swarthy; dark: gloomy; obscure. — v.t. 
To cure, as codfish, so as to give them a dun color. 

Dun, dun, V. t. [DUNNED (dund), -ning.] To beset, or 
ask with importunity, as a debtor, for payment. — 
n. One who duns; an urgent demand of payment. 

Dunce, duns, n. A person of weak intellect ; a dul- 
lard; dolt; thickskuU; simpleton^ 

Dunderhead, dun^der-hed, -pate, -pat, n. A dunce. 

Dune, doon, n. A low hill of sand on a sea-coast. 

Dung, dung, n. The excrement of an animal. — v. t. 
[DUNGED (dungd), DUNGING.] To manure with dung. 

Dungeon, dun'jun, n. A donjon, q. v., and see Cas- 
tle; a secure prison; esp. adark, subterranean place 

. of confinement. 

Dunker, dunk'er, n. Same as Tunker. 

Duo, du'o, n. (Mm.) A duet. — Duet, du-et', ?i. -A 
musical composition for two performers. — DU'^al, 
a. Expressing or consisting of the number 2; pert, 
to 2. — Du''alism, -izm, n. The di^dding into 2 ; 
anj'thing divided into 2 ; a twofold division : a sys- 
tem which assumes, or is founded on a double prin- 
ciple. — Du'^alist, n. One who believes in dualism. 

— Dualist 'ic, a. Consisting of 2; pert, to dualism 
or duality. — Dual'ity, -t-tT, n. That which expresses 
2 in number; division; separation; state or qualitj' 
of being 2. — Du'ad, n. Union of 2 ; duality. — 
Du'archy, -ar-kl, n. Government by 2 persons. 

— Du'ple, -pi, a. Double. — Du'plex, a. Double; 
twofold. — Du'^plicate, -kat, a. Double; twofold.— 
n. That which exactly resembles something else ; 
a copy ; transcript ; counterpart ; that which is of 
the same kind as some other thing, but not neces- 
sarily resembling it in other respects. {Law.) A 
document essentially the same as another, and dif- 
fering from a mere copy in having all the validity 
of an original. — v. t. To double; to make a copy 
of. (Physiol.) To divide into 2 by natural growth 
or spontaneous action. — Ihiplicate proxiortion or 
ratio. (Math.) The proportion or ratio of squares. 

— Duplica''tion, n. Act of duplicating. (Physiol.) 
Act or process of dividing by natural growth or 
spontaneous action. — Du''plicative, -tiv, a. Having 
the quality of doubling. — Du'plicature, -chur, n. 
A doubling ; a fold, as of a membrane or vessel. — 
Duplic^ity, -plis''I-tT, n. Doubleness of heart, 
speech, or dealing; dissimulation; deceit; guile; 
deception. (Law.) The use of two or more distinct 

, allegations or answers, where one is sufficient. — 
' Duumvir, du-um'ver, n.;p2. -viri, -vT-rl. One of 
2 otficers or magistratQs in ancient Rome united 
in the same public functions.— Duuni'virate, -rat, 
n. Union of 2 men in one office; office, dignity, or 
rule of, etc. 
Duodecimal, du-o-des't-mal, a. Proceeding in com- 
putation by twelves. — Duodec'imals, (Arith.) 
A kind of multiplication in which the denomina- 
tions proceed by twelves, as of feet and inches. — 
Duodec'lmo, a. Formed of sheets folded so as to 
make 12 leaves. — n. ; pi. -MOS. A book in which a 
sheet is folded into 12 leaves ; the size of a book 
thus composed, — usually indicated thus: 12mo, or 
12°. — Duode^num, n. (Anat.) The first of the small 
intestines, about 12 fingers' breadth in length. 
Dupe, dup, 11. One who is misled ; a gull. — v. t. 

[DUPED (dupt), DUPING.] To deceive, trick, mis- 
lead by imposing on one's credulity. 

Duple, Duplicate, Duplicity, etc. See under Duo. 

Dure, dur, v. i. [dured (durd), during.] To endure, 
last, continue. — Du'rable, a. Able to endure or 
continue in a particular condition; not perishable 
or changeable; permanent; firm; stable: constant. 
— Du'rableness, -bil^ity, -tl, >!. — Du'rably, adv.— 
Dur''ance, -ans, w. Continuance; duration; impris- 
onment; duress. — Dura'tion, n. Quality of endur- 
ing ; continuance in time ; prolonged existence ; 
portion of time during which anything exists. — 
Dur^ing, prep. In the time of ; as long as the ac- 
tion or existence of. 

Durst. See Dare. 

Dusk, dusk, a. Tending to darl^ness or blackness ; 
darkish. — n. Imperfect obscurity : twilight ; a 
color partially black or dark.— Dusk-'y, -T, a. Par- 
tially dark or obscure; dark-colored; gloomy; sad ; 
intellectually clouded. 

Dust, dust, n. Very fine, dry particles of earth, etc. ; 
powder ; fine sand ; the earth as the resting-place 
of the dead; the grave; a low condition : gold-dust ; 
money; specie. — f. t. To free from dust, sprink- 
lewith dust, reduce to powder. — Dusfer, n. One 
who, or that which, etc. ; an overgarment to protect 
the clothes from dust. — Dust'y.-T, a. [-ier, -iest.j 
Filled, covered, sprinkled with, or like, etc. — Dust'- 
iness, n. 

Dutch, duch, a. Pert, to Holland, to its inhabitants, 
or their language, — used also, incorrectly, of Ger- 
mans. — V. t. To render clear and hard by (lipping 
into hot oil, sand, etc., — as goose-quills. 

Duumvir. See under Duo. 

Dwarf, dwawrf, n. An animal or plant much below 
ordinary size ; esp., a diminutive man. — v. t. 
[dwarfed (dwawrlt), dwarfing.] To hinder from 
growing to the natural size : to stunt. 

Dwell, dwel, v. i. [dwelled (dweld) usually dwelt, 
DAVELLiNG.] To abide as a permanent resident ; to 
inhabit for a time ; to be domiciled, reside, stay, 
remain. — Dwell'lng, 7i. Habitation; abode; domi- 
cile.— Dwell'ing-house, n. A house intended for 
residence, disting. f r. a store, officcj etc. — place, n. 
Place of residence, abode. 

Dwindle, dwin''dl, r. i. [-deed (-did), -dling.] To 
diminish, waste away. — v. t. To make less, bring 
low; to break, disperse.'— m. Process of dwindling ; 

Dye, di, v. t. [dyed (did), dying.] To stain, color, 
give a new and permanent color to. — Dy'er, n. — 
Dye''-house, n. Place where dyeing is carried on. — 
-stuff, n. Material used in dyeing. 

Dying. See Die. 

Dyke. See Dike. 

Dynamic, di-nam''ik, -ical, a. Pert, to strength or 
power, or to dynamics. — Dynam^ics, n.